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Galileu Barbosa Costa, Amy Gilbert, Benjamin Monroe, Jesse Blanton, Sali Ngam Ngam, Sergio Recuenco, Ryan Wallace
BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by lyssaviruses, with most human cases worldwide resulting from rabid dog bites. Although effective animal and human vaccines have been available for over 100 years, control efforts have not been adequately implemented on the global scale and rabies remains one of the greatest global zoonotic threats to human health. We conducted a knowledge, attitudes and practices survey in Northern Cameroon to describe dog ownership characteristics, rates of dog bites, and post-bite healthcare seeking behaviors...
2018: PloS One
Maheer M Masood, Massimiliano Di Giosia, Trevor G Hackman
BACKGROUND: First bite syndrome is a well-recognized complication of parapharyngeal space surgery. There are no reported cases of protracted first bite syndrome and subsequent diagnosis of a primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the parotid. METHODS: We present the case of a 73-year-old man with no surgical history and 9 years of first bite syndrome who was ultimately diagnosed with a primary SCC of the parotid. Diagnostic workup, including MRI and biopsy, along with oncologic treatment, were performed...
June 21, 2018: Head & Neck
D Rex Mitchell, Emma Sherratt, Justin A Ledogar, Stephen Wroe
Increasing body size is accompanied by facial elongation across a number of mammalian taxa. This trend forms the basis of a proposed evolutionary rule, cranial evolutionary allometry (CREA). However, facial length has also been widely associated with the varying mechanical resistance of foods. Here, we combine geometric morphometrics and computational biomechanical analyses to determine whether evolutionary allometry or feeding ecology have been dominant influences on facial elongation across 16 species of kangaroos and relatives (Macropodiformes)...
June 27, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Christopher J Lehiy, Lindsey M Reister-Hendricks, Mark G Ruder, D Scott McVey, Barbara S Drolet
BACKGROUND: Hematophagous Culicoides spp. biting midges are of great agricultural importance as livestock, equine, and wildlife pests and as vectors of the orbiviruses bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease and African horse sickness. To obtain a blood meal, midges deposit saliva containing allergens, proteases, and anti-hemostatic factors, into the dermis to facilitate feeding. Infected midges deposit virus along with the myriad of salivary proteins during feeding. The extreme efficiency with which midges are able to transmit orbiviruses is not clearly understood, as much is still unknown about the physiological trauma of the bite and immune responses to saliva deposited during feeding...
June 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Bhargab Kalita, Sudeepa Singh, Aparup Patra, Ashis K Mukherjee
The proteome composition of Russell's viper venom (RVV) from southern India (SI) was investigated by 1D-SDS-PAGE of venom followed by tandem mass spectrometry analysis of protein bands. A total of 66 proteins belonging to 14 snake venom protein families were identified by LC-MS/MS analysis against Viperidae (taxid 8689) protein entries from the non-redundant NCBI database. Phospholipase A2 (43.25%) and snaclec (14.57%) represented the most abundant enzymatic and non-enzymatic proteins, respectively. SI RVV was characterized as containing a higher quantity of PLA2 and a lower amount of Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors, in comparison to RVV from other regions of the Indian subcontinent...
June 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Daniel Slunge, Anders Boman
The purpose of this study is to analyse the role of risk perceptions and exposure for protective behaviour against tick bites and the related diseases Lyme borreliosis (LB) and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), both of which are growing health concerns. We use data from a national survey in Sweden with respondents in geographical areas with substantial differences in both abundance of ticks and incidence of LB and TBE. We find that the share of respondents who frequently use protective clothing (64%), perform tick checks (63%) or avoid tall grass while in areas with ticks (48%) is relatively high...
2018: PloS One
Young Gi Min, Seung Ho Ham, Yoon Seok Jung, Sangchun Choi
In recent years, various kinds of non-indigenous snakes have become popular as domestic pets globally. If the snake is highly venomous, this would be a potentially life-threatening emergency for breeders. In such a case, the specific antidote should be administered immediately for saving the life. "Salmusa" genus (e.g. Gloydius genus) is a representative indigenous venomous snake in South Korea. Therefore, only one antidote for the "Salmusa" genus is commercially available in South Korea...
June 2018: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
F Zeroual, H Leulmi, I Bitam, A Benakhla
Using molecular assays, Rickettsia slovaca, the agent of a spotted fever group rickettsiosis resulting in scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy after tick bite, was assessed in 92 spleens recovered from 117 wild boars hunted in the far northeast of Algeria. Rickettsia slovaca was detected in 5.4% of tested wild boar spleens. The presence of R. slovaca DNA in boar spleens questions the relationship that may exist between this bacterium and Sus scrofa algira, and its role in human infections.
July 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
Jacob R Greenmyer, Robert A Gaultney, Catherine A Brissette, John A Watt
The Lyme disease causing bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi has an affinity for the central nervous system (CNS) and has been isolated from human cerebral spinal fluid by 18 days following Ixodes scapularis tick bite. Signaling from resident immune cells of the CNS could enhance CNS penetration by B. burgdorferi and activated immune cells through the blood brain barrier resulting in multiple neurological complications, collectively termed neuroborreliosis. The ensuing symptoms of neurological impairment likely arise from a glial-driven, host inflammatory response to B...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
E Akdesir, F C Origgi, J Wimmershoff, J Frey, C F Frey, M-P Ryser-Degiorgis
BACKGROUND: Although mustelids occur worldwide and include a wide range of species, little is known about the diseases affecting them. Mustelids have regularly been submitted for post mortem investigation in the framework of the program for general wildlife health surveillance in Switzerland, which has been in place for nearly 60 years. We performed a retrospective analysis of the necropsy reports on mustelids submitted to the diagnostic service of the University of Bern. The aims of this study were to present an overview of the causes of mortality and morbidity observed in these carnivores, to assess differences among species, to assess changes in disease detection over the study period, and to describe the pathology of selected diseases...
June 19, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Fangfang Zeng, Pingxi Xu, Kaiming Tan, Paulo H G Zarbin, Walter S Leal
Insect repellents are widely used to fend off nuisance mosquitoes and, more importantly, to reduce or eliminate mosquito bites in areas where viruses and other vector-borne diseases are circulating. Synthesized more than six decades ago, DEET is the most widely used insect repellent. Plant-derived compounds are used in a plethora of commercial formulations and natural recipes to repel mosquitoes. They are also used as fragrances. We analysed Bombshell® to identify the constituent(s) eliciting a previously reported "off- label" repellence activity...
2018: PloS One
Lokesh D Kori, Neena Valecha, Anupkumar R Anvikar
Even though malaria is preventable and curable, it has become a serious threat to mankind. In 2016, there were an estimated 216 million cases of malaria across the world. The biology of its causative agent, i.e. Plasmodium parasite is full of complex mechanisms. There are five Plasmodium species responsible for malaria in humans, viz. Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, P. ovale and recently identified P. knowlesi that normally infect apes. In humans, malaria is spread by the injection of Plasmodium sporozoites through the bite of infectious Anopheles' female mosquito during their blood meal...
January 2018: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Nature
Sigridur Jonsdottir, Sara Bjork Stefansdottir, Sæmundur Bjarni Kristinarson, Vilhjalmur Svansson, Jon Mar Bjornsson, Arna Runarsdottir, Bettina Wagner, Eliane Marti, Sigurbjorg Torsteinsdottir
Insect bite hypersensitivity is an allergic dermatitis of horses caused by bites of Culicoides midges. Sufficient amount of pure, endotoxin-free allergens is a prerequisite for development and monitoring of preventive and therapeutic allergen immunotherapy. Aims of the study were to compare the Culicoides nubeculosus (Cul n) allergens Cul n 3 and Cul n 4, produced in transgenic barley grains with the corresponding E. coli or insect cells expressed proteins for measuring antibody and cytokine responses. Allergen-specific IgG responses were measured by ELISA in sera from twelve horses not exposed to Culicoides, before and after vaccination with E...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Ting Jia, Xi Huang, Gediminas Valkiūnas, Minghai Yang, Changming Zheng, Tianchun Pu, Yanyun Zhang, Lu Dong, Xun Suo, Chenglin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Malaria parasites and related haemosporidian parasites are widespread and may cause severe diseases in birds. These pathogens should be considered in projects aiming breeding of birds for purposes of sustained ex situ conservation. Cranes are the 'flagship species' for health assessment of wetland ecosystems, and the majority of species are endangered. Malaria parasites and other haemosporidians have been reported in cranes, but the host-parasite relationships remain insufficiently understood...
June 18, 2018: Malaria Journal
Biting Lei, Pengxing Yi, Yahui Li, Jiayun Xiang
Pulsed eddy current (PEC) technology is another important non-contact nondestructive testing technology for defect detection. However, the temperature drift of the exciting coil has a considerable influence on the precision of PEC testing. The objective of this study is to investigate the temperature drift effect and reduce its impact. The temperature drift effect is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. The temperature drift effect on the peak-to-peak values of the output signal is investigated, and a temperature compensation method is proposed to reduce the effect of temperature variation...
June 15, 2018: Sensors
Piotr Wranicz, Bente Brokstad Herlofson, Jan F Evensen, Ulf E Kongsgaard
Introduction Trismus, or limited mouth opening, is a well-known complication of head and neck cancer and its treatment. It may be caused by tumour infiltration into the masticatory muscles or by treatment like surgery and radiotherapy. A limited mouth opening may have a negative effect on nutrition, phonation, dental hygiene and treatment, and quality of life. The severity of this complication depends on the location of the tumour, the type of reconstruction, the total radiation dose, fractionation, and treatment techniques...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
A Shimada, L Baad-Hansen, P Svensson
Background/aims Muscular pain often impairs masticatory function in Temporomandibular disorder patients. The specific aim of this study was to investigate how the bite force during mastication is influenced by experimental muscle pain caused by infusion of glutamate into the masseter muscle. Methods 12 healthy adults participated, after providing informed consent. Customized metal frames of the intraoral bite force sensor were manufactured for all subjects, and placed on their preferred chewing side. To induce experimental pain, a sterile solution of glutamate (0...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
D A Sandercock, A Monteiro, E M Scott, A M Nolan
Background/aims Tail docking neonatal piglets remains a controversial animal welfare issue. Although banned in the UK, it is widely practiced in many countries as a safeguard against tail biting among pigs reared in intensive systems. Concerns exist whether tail docking can induce chronic pain in later life. This preliminary study examined the effects of partial tail amputation on activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a marker of peripheral nerve injury and regeneration and NMDA-glutamate receptor NR2B subunit which participates in the mediation of chronic pain...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Joshua Brice, Eric Lindvall, Nathan Hoekzema, Lisa Husak
OBJECTIVES: To identify the incidence of orthopaedic injuries secondary to dog bites, determine the responsible breeds and assess the severity of injury by dog breed. DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTING: Single Level 1 trauma center. PATIENTS: Ninety-five patients treated for a dog bite that resulted in an orthopaedic injury between January 2010 and July 2016. INTERVENTION: Patients were treated according to their specific orthopaedic injury...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
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