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Obesity and gut microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792248/metataxonomic-analysis-of-individuals-at-bmi-extremes-and-monozygotic-twins-discordant-for-bmi
#1
Casey T Finnicum, Stieneke Doornweerd, Conor V Dolan, Justin M Luningham, Jeffrey J Beck, Gonneke Willemsen, Erik A Ehli, Dorret I Boomsma, Richard G Ijzerman, Gareth E Davies, Eco J C de Geus
OBJECTIVE: The human gut microbiota has been demonstrated to be associated with a number of host phenotypes, including obesity and a number of obesity-associated phenotypes. This study is aimed at further understanding and describing the relationship between the gut microbiota and obesity-associated measurements obtained from human participants. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Here, we utilize genetically informative study designs, including a four-corners design (extremes of genetic risk for BMI and of observed BMI; N = 50) and the BMI monozygotic (MZ) discordant twin pair design (N = 30), in order to help delineate the role of host genetics and the gut microbiota in the development of obesity...
June 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790949/fecal-microbiota-composition-changes-after-a-body-weight-loss-diet-in-beagle-dogs
#2
A Salas, I Jeusette, I Castillo, C L Manuelian, C Lionnet, N Iraculis, N Sanchez, S Fernández, L L Vilaseca, C Torre
In developed countries, dogs and cats frequently suffer from obesity. Recently, gut microbiota composition in humans has been related to obesity and metabolic diseases. This study aimed to evaluate changes in body composition, and gut microbiota composition in obese Beagle dogs after a 17-week body weight (BW) loss program. A total of six neutered adult Beagle dogs with an average initial BW of 16.34 ± 1.52 kg and BCS of 7.8 ± 0.1 points (9-point scale) were restrictedly fed with a hypocaloric, low-fat and high-fiber dry-type diet...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789365/structural-alteration-of-gut-microbiota-during-the-amelioration-of-human-type-2-diabetes-with-hyperlipidemia-by-metformin-and-a-traditional-chinese-herbal-formula-a-multicenter-randomized-open-label-clinical-trial
#3
Xiaolin Tong, Jia Xu, Fengmei Lian, Xiaotong Yu, Yufeng Zhao, Lipeng Xu, Menghui Zhang, Xiyan Zhao, Jian Shen, Shengping Wu, Xiaoyan Pang, Jiaxing Tian, Chenhong Zhang, Qiang Zhou, Linhua Wang, Bing Pang, Feng Chen, Zhiping Peng, Jing Wang, Zhong Zhen, Chao Fang, Min Li, Limei Chen, Liping Zhao
Accumulating evidence implicates gut microbiota as promising targets for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). With a randomized clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis that alteration of gut microbiota may be involved in the alleviation of T2DM with hyperlipidemia by metformin and a specifically designed herbal formula (AMC). Four hundred fifty patients with T2DM and hyperlipidemia were randomly assigned to either the metformin- or AMC-treated group. After 12 weeks of treatment, 100 patients were randomly selected from each group and assessed for clinical improvement...
May 22, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789023/iron-supplementation-has-minor-effects-on-gut-microbiota-composition-in-overweight-and-obese-women-in-early-pregnancy
#4
Marloes Dekker Nitert, Luisa F Gomez-Arango, Helen L Barrett, H David McIntyre, Gregory J Anderson, David M Frazer, Leonie K Callaway
Fe is an essential nutrient for many bacteria, and Fe supplementation has been reported to affect the composition of the gut microbiota in both Fe-deficient and Fe-replete individuals outside pregnancy. This study examined whether the dose of Fe in pregnancy multivitamin supplements affects the overall composition of the gut microbiota in overweight and obese pregnant women in early pregnancy. Women participating in the SPRING study with a faecal sample obtained at 16 weeks' gestation were included in this substudy...
May 23, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788027/the-neonatal-microbiome-and-its-partial-role-in-mediating-the-association-between-birth-by-cesarean-section-and-adverse-pediatric-outcomes
#5
Diana Montoya-Williams, Dominick J Lemas, Lisa Spiryda, Keval Patel, O'neshia Olivia Carney, Josef Neu, Tiffany L Carson
BACKGROUND: Cesarean sections (CS) are among the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the world. Epidemiologic data has associated delivery by CS with an increased risk of certain adverse health outcomes in children, such as asthma and obesity. OBJECTIVE: To explore what is known about the effect of mode of delivery on the development of the infant microbiome and discuss the potentially mediating role of CS-related microbial dysbiosis in the development of adverse pediatric health outcomes...
May 22, 2018: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787870/oral-hydroxysafflor-yellow-a-reduces-obesity-in-mice-by-modulating-the-gut-microbiota-and-serum-metabolism
#6
Juan Liu, Shijun Yue, Zhirui Yan, Wuwen Feng, Xintong Meng, Aiting Wang, Cheng Peng, Changyun Wang, Dan Yan
Given the high and increasing prevalence of obesity, the safe and effective treatment of obesity would be beneficial. Here, we examined whether oral hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), an active compound from the dried florets of Carthamus tinctorius L., can reduce high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 J mice. Our results showed that the average body weight of HF group treated by HSYA was significantly lower than that of the HF group (P < 0.01). HSYA also reduced fat accumulation, ameliorated insulin resistance, restored glucose homeostasis, reduced inflammation, enhanced intestinal integrity, and increased short-chain fatty acids ((SCFAs)) production in HF diet-fed mice...
May 19, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785173/phytochemicals-that-influence-gut-microbiota-as-prophylactics-and-for-the-treatment-of-obesity-and-inflammatory-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Lucrecia Carrera-Quintanar, Rocío I López Roa, Saray Quintero-Fabián, Marina A Sánchez-Sánchez, Barbara Vizmanos, Daniel Ortuño-Sahagún
Gut microbiota (GM) plays several crucial roles in host physiology and influences several relevant functions. In more than one respect, it can be said that you "feed your microbiota and are fed by it." GM diversity is affected by diet and influences metabolic and immune functions of the host's physiology. Consequently, an imbalance of GM, or dysbiosis, may be the cause or at least may lead to the progression of various pathologies such as infectious diseases, gastrointestinal cancers, inflammatory bowel disease, and even obesity and diabetes...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779170/histological-improvement-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-with-a-prebiotic-a-pilot-clinical-trial
#8
Marc R Bomhof, Jill A Parnell, Hena R Ramay, Pam Crotty, Kevin P Rioux, Chris S Probert, Saumya Jayakumar, Maitreyi Raman, Raylene A Reimer
PURPOSE: In obesity and diabetes the liver is highly susceptible to abnormal uptake and storage of fat. In certain individuals hepatic steatosis predisposes to the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a disease marked by hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Although the precise pathophysiology of NASH is unknown, it is believed that the gut microbiota-liver axis influences the development of this disease. With few treatment strategies available for NASH, exploration of gut microbiota-targeted interventions is warranted...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777704/dietary-mung-bean-protein-reduces-high-fat-diet-induced-weight-gain-by-modulating-host-bile-acid-metabolism-in-a-gut-microbiota-dependent-manner
#9
Akiho Nakatani, Xuan Li, Junki Miyamoto, Miki Igarashi, Hitoshi Watanabe, Asuka Sutou, Keita Watanabe, Takayasu Motoyama, Nobuhiko Tachibana, Mitsutaka Kohno, Hiroshi Inoue, Ikuo Kimura
The 8-globulin-rich mung bean protein (MPI) suppresses hepatic lipogenesis in rodent models and reduces fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels in obese adults. However, its effects on mitigating high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and the mechanism underlying these effects remain to be elucidated. Herein, we examined the metabolic phenotype, intestinal bile acid (BA) pool, and gut microbiota of conventionally raised (CONV-R) male C57BL/6 mice and germ-free (GF) mice that were randomized to receive either regular HFD or HFD containing mung bean protein isolate (MPI) instead of the dairy protein present in regular HFD...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772522/bariatric-surgery-drives-major-rearrangements-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-including-the-biofilm-composition
#10
Giuseppina Campisciano, Carolina Cason, Silvia Palmisano, Michela Giuricin, Alessia Rizzardi, Lory Saveria Croce, Nicolo De Manzini, Manola Comar
The intestinal microbiota disequilibrium has been associated with obesity, while the role of the gut mucosal biofilms in this pathology is still unknown. We analysed the changes in the intestinal microbiota of obese patients after bariatric surgery with the aim of disclosing the rearrangement of the biofilm configuration. Although the bariatric surgery drives major rearrangements of the gut microbiota, obese patients maintain the Prevotella enterotype before and after surgery, as shown by normal weight patients, with an increase of Bacteroides vulgatus and Bacteroides uniformis ...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772287/probiotics-and-nutraceuticals-as-a-new-frontier-in-obesity-prevention-and-management
#11
N Kobyliak, T Falalyeyeva, N Boyko, O Tsyryuk, T Beregova, L Ostapchenko
INTRODUCTION: The beneficial interaction between the microbiota and humans is how bacteria contained within the gut 'talk' to the immune system and in this landscape, probiotics and nutraceuticals play a major role. The study aims to determine whether probiotics plus nutraceuticals such as smectite or omega-3 are superior to probiotic alone on the monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced obesity model in rats. METHODS: Totally, 75 rats divided into five groups were included (n=15, in each)...
May 14, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769268/pbdes-altered-gut-microbiome-and-bile-acid-homeostasis-in-male-c57bl-6-mice
#12
Cindy Yanfei Li, Joseph L Dempsey, Dongfang Wang, SooWan Lee, Kris M Weigel, Qiang Fei, Deepak Kumar Bhatt, Bhagwat Prasad, Daniel Raftery, Haiwei Gu, Julia Yue Cui
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent environmental contaminants with well-characterized toxicities in host organs. Gut microbiome is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of xenobiotic biotransformation; however, little is known about its interactions with PBDEs. Primary bile acids (BAs) are metabolized by the gut microbiome into more lipophilic secondary BAs that may be absorbed and interact with certain host receptors. The goal of this study was to test our hypothesis that PBDEs cause dysbiosis and aberrant regulation of BA homeostasis...
May 16, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762899/metagenomics-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-a-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-mouse-model-fed-with-epigallocatechin-3-o-3-o-methyl-gallate-egcg3-me
#13
Xin Zhang, Yuhui Chen, Jieyu Zhu, Man Zhang, Chi-Tang Ho, Qingrong Huang, Jinxuan Cao
SCOPE: (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3''Me) has been shown to have a modulatory effect on human intestinal microbiota, and the relationship between intestinal flora and obesity has attracted more and more attention recently. Here, we investigated the potential link between EGCG3''Me and gut microbiota composition, as well as the underlying mechanisms of the anti-obesity activity of EGCG3''Me. METHODS AND RESULTS: EGCG3''Me was prepared from oolong tea by column chromatography, and the influence of EGCG3''Me on intestinal microbiota was analysed using a human flora-associated high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model by metagenomics...
May 15, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762384/microbial-metabolism-in-the-mammalian-gut-molecular-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#14
Anne Hall, James Versalovic
Human intestinal microbes participate actively at the interface of diet, nutrition, and overall health status. These biodiverse communities of microorganisms have a broader metabolic repertoire compared with their host, and they are able to synthesize and degrade substrates that would be otherwise unavailable. In recent years, we have recognized that healthy microbial communities are important for energy harvest and the regulation of body systems outside the digestive tract. Microbial dysbiosis, however, has been implicated in a number of human disorders, including obesity and inflammation...
June 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757949/effects-of-dietary-intake-of-japanese-mushrooms-on-visceral-fat-accumulation-and-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#15
Takamitsu Shimizu, Koichiro Mori, Kenji Ouchi, Mamoru Kushida, Tsuyoshi Tsuduki
A lot of Japanese people are generally known for having a healthy diet, and consume a variety of mushrooms daily. Many studies have reported anti-obesity effects of mushrooms, but few have investigated the effects of consuming a variety of edible mushroom types together in realistic quantities. In this study, we investigated whether supplementation with a variety of mushroom types affects visceral fat accumulation and gut microbiota in mice. The most popular mushroom varieties in Japan were lyophilized and mixed according to their local production ratios...
May 14, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757063/gut-microbiota-composition-in-mid-pregnancy-is-associated-with-gestational-weight-gain-but-not-prepregnancy-body-mass-index
#16
Anna-Katariina Aatsinki, Henna-Maria Uusitupa, Eveliina Munukka, Henri Pesonen, Anniina Rintala, Sami Pietilä, Leo Lahti, Erkki Eerola, Linnea Karlsson, Hasse Karlsson
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a time of numerous hormonal, metabolic, and immunological changes for both the mother and the fetus. Furthermore, maternal gut microbiota composition (GMC) is altered during pregnancy. One major factor affecting GMC in pregnant and nonpregnant populations is obesity. The aim was to analyze associations between maternal overweight/obesity, as well as gestational weight gain (GWG) and GMC. Moreover, the modifying effect of depression and anxiety symptom scores on weight and GMC were investigated...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748675/catechin-supplemented-in-a-fos-diet-induces-weight-loss-by-altering-cecal-microbiota-and-gene-expression-of-colonic-epithelial-cells
#17
Jianming Luo, Lulu Han, Liu Liu, Lijuan Gao, Bin Xue, Yong Wang, Shiyi Ou, Michael Miller, Xichun Peng
Our previous study showed that catechin controlled rats' body weights and changed gut microbiota composition when supplemented into a high-fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) diet. This experiment is devised to further confirm the relationship between specific bacteria in the colon and body weight gain, and to investigate how specific bacteria impact body weight by changing the expression of colonic epithelial cells. Forty obese rats were divided into four groups: three catechin-supplemented groups with a high-FOS diet (100, 400, and 700 mg kg-1 d-1 catechin, orally administered) and one group with a high-FOS diet only...
May 11, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738946/tributyltin-exposure-induces-gut-microbiome-dysbiosis-with-increased-body-weight-gain-and-dyslipidemia-in-mice
#18
Hao Guo, Haotian Yan, Dong Cheng, Xinglong Wei, Ruirui Kou, Jiliang Si
Gut microbiome dysbiosis plays a profound role in the pathogenesis of obesity and tributyltin (TBT) has been found as an environmental obesogen. However, whether TBT could disturb gut microbiome and the relationship between obesity induced by TBT exposure and alteration in gut microbiota are still unknown. In order to assess the association between them, mice were exposed to TBTCl (50 μg kg-1 ) once every three days from postnatal days (PNDs) 24 to 54. The results demonstrated that TBT exposure resulted in increased body weight gain, lager visceral fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in male mice on PND 84...
May 3, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734011/the-ability-of-human-intestinal-anaerobes-to-metabolize-different-oligosaccharides-novel-means-for-microbiota-modulation
#19
Riichi Ose, Katsuaki Hirano, Shintaro Maeno, Junichi Nakagawa, Seppo Salminen, Takumi Tochio, Akihito Endo
Prebiotic oligosaccharides are known to have significant impacts on gut microbiota and are thus widely used to program healthy microbiota composition and activity from infants to the elderly. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are among the major target microorganisms of oligosaccharides, but the metabolic properties of oligosaccharides in other predominant gut microbes have not been well characterized. In the present study, we demonstrated the metabolic properties of six oligosaccharides in 31 key gut anaerobes...
May 4, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733482/dietary-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-modifies-gut-microbiota-and-reduces-fat-accumulation-in-high-fat-diet-fed-obese-mice
#20
Nanako Nihei, Hinako Okamoto, Takahiro Furune, Naoko Ikuta, Kengo Sasaki, Gerald Rimbach, Yutaka Yoshikawa, Keiji Terao
We investigated the effect of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) on the bacterial populations of gut microbiota, production of organic acids, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and lipid metabolism in obese mice induced by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to three diet groups: normal diet (ND) (5% [w/w] fat), HFD (35% [w/w] fat), and HFD (35% [w/w] fat) + 5.5% (w/w) α-CD for 16 weeks. Increases in body and epididymal adipose tissue weights were observed in the HFD group compared with the ND group, which were attenuated in the HFD+α-CD group...
May 7, 2018: BioFactors
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