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Obesity and gut microbiota

Amy Chia-Ching Kao, Sonia Spitzer, Daniel C Anthony, Belinda Lennox, Philip W J Burnet
Olanzapine is an effective antipsychotic drug but since it causes significant weight gain, it is not well tolerated by psychosis patients. The prebiotic, B-GOS® , attenuates metabolic dysfunction in obese subjects, and in rodents, alters central NMDA receptors and may affect serotonin receptors that are relevant in psychosis. We have determined whether B-GOS® influenced olanzapine-associated weight gain and central NMDA and serotonin receptors. Circulating acetate, IL-1β, IL-8 and TNFα, liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), white adipose tissue (WAT) acetate receptor GPR43, and specific faecal bacteria genera were also measured to provide mechanistic information...
March 15, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Shabana, Saleem U Shahid, Uzma Irfan
The human GI tract harbors a diverse and dynamic microbial community comprising bacteria, archaea, viruses and eukaryotic microbes, which varies in composition from individual to individual. A healthy microbiota metabolizes various indigestible dietary components of the host, maintains host immune homeostasis and nutrient intake, but, an imbalanced microbiota has been reported to be associated with many diseases, including obesity. Rodent studies have produced evidence in support of the causal role of the gut microbiota in the development of obesity, however, such causal relationship is lacking in humans...
March 13, 2018: Future Microbiology
Esther Solomon Mshelia, Lawan Adamu, Yakaka Wakil, Usman Aliyu Turaki, Isa Adamu Gulani, Jasini Musa
The equine gut harbours complex microbial populations which influence physiology, metabolism, nutrition and immune functions, while disruption to the gut microbiota has been linked with conditions such as lameness, diabetes and obesity. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the association between microbial dysbiosis, sex, age and body condition scores (BCS) of horses (Equus equus caballus) in Maiduguri and its environs. Forty horses were assessed by convenient sampling, while faecal samples were collected and analyzed to determine the microbiomes in the various age groups with variable BSC in stallions and mares...
March 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Arwa M Amin, Lim Sheau Chin, Chin-Hoe The, Hamza Mostafa, Dzul Azri Mohamed Noor, Muhamad Ali S K Abdul Kader, Yuen Kah Hay, Baharudin Ibrahim
Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) of clopidogrel and aspirin is crucial for coronary artery disease (CAD) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, some patients may endure clopidogrel high on treatment platelets reactivity (HTPR) which may cause thromboembolic events. Clopidogrel HTPR is multifactorial with some genetic and non-genetic factors contributing to it. We aimed to use nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H NMR) pharmacometabolomics analysis of plasma to investigate this multifactorial and identify metabolic phenotypes and pathways associated with clopidogrel HTPR...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Marije J D Huitema, Geert J Schenk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The proportion to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is still incompletely understood. An interesting association between MS etiology and obesity has recently been shown although the mechanisms underlying this association are still unknown. We propose deregulated gut microbiota and increased leptin levels as possible mechanisms underlying MS etiology in obese individuals. RECENT FINDINGS: Alterations in the human gut microbiota and leptin levels have recently been established as immune modulators in both MS patients and obese individuals...
March 10, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Lora J Kasselman, Nicholas A Vernice, Joshua DeLeon, Allison B Reiss
Cardiovascular disease associated with obesity and autoimmunity is the leading cause of death in these populations and significant residual risk remains despite current treatment approaches. Obesity, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are linked to chronic inflammation, and subjects with these disorders have characteristic shifts in their gut microbiome composition. Recent data suggest that alterations in gut microbial and metabolic composition may be responsible, in part, for induction of chronic inflammation, thus promoting cardiovascular disease...
March 2, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Fangjia Lu, Qingyang Liu
The impact of unrhythmic circadian clock on obesity has started to be increasingly appreciated nowadays. Recently it was discovered that interaction between intestinal microbiota and unrhythmic circadian clock plays a key role in such a process. It involves relaying signals from microbiota through dendritic cells to group 3 innate lymphoid cells in the intestine and in the end impacting some of the key transcription factors of circadian clock. Breaking such a signal relay may prove to be an effective way reducing unrhythmic circadian clock-induced obesity...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Cyrus Jahansouz, Christopher Staley, Scott Kizy, Hongliang Xu, Ann V Hertzel, Jessi Coryell, Stephanie Singroy, Matthew Hamilton, Meri DuRand, David A Bernlohr, Michael J Sadowsky, Alexander Khoruts, Sayeed Ikramuddin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test whether the perioperative composition of intestinal microbiota can contribute to variable outcomes following vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for obesity, metabolic outcomes are variable. METHODS: Diet-induced obese mice were randomized to VSG or sham surgery, with or without exposure to antibiotics that selectively suppress mainly gram-positive (fidaxomicin, streptomycin) or gram-negative (ceftriaxone) bacteria on postoperative days (POD) 1-4...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Matthew R Panasevich, Umesh D Wankhade, Sree V Chintapalli, Kartik Shankar, R Scott Rector
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome plays a critical role in the onset and progression of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. However, it is not well documented whether the cecal versus the fecal microbiome is more relevant when assessing its contribution to these diseases. Here, we amplified the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from cecal and fecal samples of female Ossabaw swine fed a low fat control diet (10.5% fat; n=4) or Western diet (43.0% fat; 17.8% high fructose corn syrup; 2% cholesterol; n=3) for 36 weeks...
March 9, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Jie An, Liping Wang, Michael L Patnode, Vanessa K Ridaura, Jonathan M Haldeman, Robert D Stevens, Olga Ilkayeva, James R Bain, Michael J Muehlbauer, Erin L Glynn, Steven Thomas, Deborah Muoio, Scott A Summers, James E Vath, Thomas E Hughes, Jeffrey I Gordon, Christopher B Newgard
Current obesity interventions suffer from lack of durable effects and undesirable complications. Fumagillin, an inhibitor of methionine aminopeptidase-2, causes weight loss by reducing food intake, but with effects on weight that are superior to pair-feeding. Here, we show that feeding of rats on a high-fat diet supplemented with fumagillin (HF/FG) suppresses the aggressive feeding observed in pair-fed controls (HF/PF) and alters expression of circadian genes relative to the HF/PF group. Multiple indices of reduced energy expenditure are observed in HF/FG but not HF/PF rats...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
Yung-Tsung Chen, Yu-Chun Lin, Jin-Seng Lin, Ning-Sun Yang, Ming-Ju Chen
SCOPE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common disease that is concomitant with obesity, resulting in increased mortality. To date, the efficiency of NAFLD treatment still needs to be improved. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus mali APS1, which was isolated from sugary kefir, on hepatic steatosis in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Sprague Dawley rats were fed a control diet, a high-fat diet with saline and a high-fat diet with APS1 intervention by gavage daily for 12 weeks...
March 5, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Jacob E Friedman, Evgenia Dobrinskikh, Alba Alfonso-Garcia, Alexander Fast, Rachel C Janssen, Taylor K Soderborg, Aimee L Anderson, Julie A Reisz, Angelo D'Alessandro, Daniel N Frank, Charles E Robertson, Becky A de la Houssaye, Linda K Johnson, David J Orlicky, Xiaoxin X Wang, Moshe Levi, Eric O Potma, Karim C El Kasmi, Karen R Jonscher
Increasingly, evidence suggests that exposure to maternal obesity creates an inflammatory environment in utero , exerting long-lasting postnatal signatures on the juvenile innate immune system and microbiome that may predispose offspring to development of fatty liver disease. We found that exposure to a maternal Western-style diet (WD) accelerated fibrogenesis in the liver of offspring and was associated with early recruitment of proinflammatory macrophages at 8-12 weeks and microbial dysbiosis as early as 3 weeks of age...
March 2018: Hepatology Communications
Rizaldy C Zapata, Arashdeep Singh, Nadia M Ajdari, Prasanth K Chelikani
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of graded dietary restriction of tryptophan on food intake, energy expenditure, body composition, gut hormones, and select fecal bacterial populations in obesity-prone rats. METHODS: Obesity-prone rats were randomized to isocaloric diets with varying degrees of tryptophan restriction: control (100% requirements), 70% tryptophan (70TRP), 40% tryptophan (40TRP), or 10% tryptophan (10TRP) for 21 days. The sympathetic system was challenged with a subcutaneous injection of propranolol on days 15 to 17...
March 4, 2018: Obesity
Ana D Mandić, Michael Blaut
In a recent article in Cell Reports, Dalby and colleagues convincingly demonstrate that choosing an inadequate control diet in animal experiments that investigate the interaction of nutrition, gut microbiota, and obesity development may lead to the wrong conclusions. The authors systematically compared the effects of refined high- and low-fat diets (rHFD and rLFD) with those of a standard chow diet on mouse physiology, microbiota composition, cecal fermentation, and intestinal morphology. The results obtained in this study question the conclusions drawn from animal studies that compared the effects of HFDs with those of chow diets...
March 1, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Aafke W F Janssen, Saeed Katiraei, Barbara Bartosinska, Daniel Eberhard, Ko Willems van Dijk, Sander Kersten
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is an important regulator of triacylglycerol metabolism, carrying out this role by inhibiting the enzymes lipoprotein lipase and pancreatic lipase. ANGPTL4 is a potential target for ameliorating cardiometabolic diseases. Although ANGPTL4 has been implicated in obesity, the study of the direct role of ANGPTL4 in diet-induced obesity and related metabolic dysfunction is hampered by the massive acute-phase response and development of lethal chylous ascites and peritonitis in Angptl4-/- mice fed a standard high-fat diet...
March 3, 2018: Diabetologia
Ling Xiao, Belinda Van't Land, Phillip A Engen, Ankur Naqib, Stefan J Green, Angie Nato, Thea Leusink-Muis, Johan Garssen, Ali Keshavarzian, Bernd Stahl, Gert Folkerts
Development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is influenced by non-genetic factors, such as optimal microbiome development during early life that "programs" the immune system. Exclusive and prolonged breastfeeding is an independent protective factor against the development of T1D, likely via bioactive components. Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOS) are microbiota modulators, known to regulate immune responses directly. Here we show that early life provision (only for a period of six weeks) of 1% authentic HMOS (consisting of both long-chain, as well as short-chain structures), delayed and suppressed T1D development in non-obese diabetic mice and reduced development of severe pancreatic insulitis in later life...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ceyda Tugba Pekmez, Lars Ove Dragsted, Lena Kirchner Brahe
The gut microbiome affects the health status of the host through different mechanisms and is associated with a wide variety of diseases. Both childhood undernutrition and obesity are linked to alterations in composition and functionality of the gut microbiome. One of the possible mechanisms underlying the interplay between microbiota and host metabolism is through appetite-regulating hormones (including leptin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1). Short chain fatty acids, the end product of bacterial fermentation of non-digestible carbohydrates, might be able to alter energy harvest and metabolism through enteroendocrine cell signaling, adipogenesis and insulin-like growth factor-1 production...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
R B Jones, T L Alderete, A A Martin, B A Geary, D H Hwang, S L Palmer, M I Goran
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that there are links between obesity, liver fat and the gut microbiome. However, there are mixed results on whether probiotics could impact the gut microbiome and/or help to decrease liver fat and obesity outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether a probiotic supplement (VSL#3® ) intervention altered gut microbiota and/or gut hormones associated with appetite regulation. The secondary aim of this study was to determine whether VSL#3® altered body composition and liver fat and fibrosis...
February 28, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
Jin Ah Cho, Daniel J F Chinnapen
Mucosal surfaces that line our gastrointestinal tract are continuously exposed to trillions of bacteria that form a symbiotic relationship and impact host health and disease. It is only beginning to be understood that the cross-talk between the host and microbiome involve dynamic changes in commensal bacterial population, secretion, and absorption of metabolites between the host and microbiome. As emerging evidence implicates dysbiosis of gut microbiota in the pathology and progression of various diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and allergy, conventional treatments that either overlook the microbiome in the mechanism of action, or eliminate vast populations of microbes via wide-spectrum antibiotics need to be reconsidered...
March 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Sunhye Lee, Katherine I Keirsey, Rebecca Kirkland, Zachary I Grunewald, Joan G Fischer, Claire B de La Serre
Background: Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been linked to obesity-associated chronic inflammation. Microbiota manipulation may therefore affect obesity-related comorbidities. Blueberries are rich in anthocyanins, which have anti-inflammatory properties and may alter the gut microbiota. Objective: We hypothesized that blueberry supplementation would alter the gut microbiota, reduce systemic inflammation, and improve insulin resistance in high-fat (HF)-diet-fed rats...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
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