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Obesity and gut microbiota

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717237/fat-binding-capacity-and-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota-both-determine-the-effect-of-wheat-bran-fractions-on-adiposity
#1
Francesco Suriano, Laure B Bindels, Joran Verspreet, Christophe M Courtin, Kristin Verbeke, Patrice D Cani, Audrey M Neyrinck, Nathalie M Delzenne
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of different wheat bran fractions on the gut microbiota and fat binding capacity to explain their differential effects on metabolic and inflammatory disorders induced by a western diet (WD) in mice. Wheat bran derived arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS), a crude fraction of wheat bran (WB), or the same wheat bran with reduced particle size (WBs) were added to the WD of mice for 8 weeks. AXOS shifted the gut microbiota composition, blunted Clostridium and Turicibacter genera and strongly promoted Bifidobacterium and Butyricicoccus genera, independently of changes in gut antimicrobial peptide expression...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717234/dietary-lipid-content-reorganizes-gut-microbiota-and-probiotic-l-rhamnosus-attenuates-obesity-and-enhances-catabolic-hormonal-milieu-in-zebrafish
#2
Silvia Falcinelli, Ana Rodiles, Azadeh Hatef, Simona Picchietti, Lina Cossignani, Daniel L Merrifield, Suraj Unniappan, Oliana Carnevali
In the present study, we explored whether dietary lipid content influences the gut microbiome in adult zebrafish. Diets containing three different lipid levels (high [HFD], medium [MFD], and low [LFD]) were administered with or without the supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (P) to zebrafish in order to explore how the dietary lipid content may influence the gut microbiome. Dietary lipid content shifted the gut microbiome structure. The addition of L. rhamnosus in the diets, induced transcriptional reduction of orexigenic genes, upregulation of anorexigenic genes, and transcriptional decrease of genes involved in cholesterol and triglyceride (TAG) metabolism, concomitantly with lower content of cholesterol and TAG...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713266/significance-of-microbiota-in-obesity-and-metabolic-diseases-and-the-modulatory-potential-by-medicinal-plant-and-food-ingredients
#3
REVIEW
Hoda M Eid, Michelle L Wright, N V Anil Kumar, Abdel Qawasmeh, Sherif T S Hassan, Andrei Mocan, Seyed M Nabavi, Luca Rastrelli, Atanas G Atanasov, Pierre S Haddad
Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of three or more metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Obesity has become the epidemic of the twenty-first century with more than 1.6 billion overweight adults. Due to the strong connection between obesity and type 2 diabetes, obesity has received wide attention with subsequent coining of the term "diabesity." Recent studies have identified unique contributions of the immensely diverse gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711599/arachidonic-acid-sex-dependently-affects-obesity-through-linking-gut-microbiota-driven-inflammation-to-hypothalamus-adipose-liver-axis
#4
Pan Zhuang, Qiyang Shou, Yanhua Lu, Guangfa Wang, Jieni Qiu, Jun Wang, Lilin He, Jingnan Chen, Jingjing Jiao, Yu Zhang
Unraveling the role of dietary lipids is beneficial to treat obesity and metabolic dysfunction. Nonetheless, how dietary lipids affect existing obesity remains unknown. Arachidonic acid (AA), a derivative of linoleic acid, is one of the crucial n-6 fatty acids. The aim of this study was to investigate whether AA affects obesity through associating microbiota-driven inflammation with hypothalamus-adipose-liver axis. Four-week old C57BL/6J mice were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD, 45% fat) for 10 weeks to induce obesity, and then fed a HFD enriched with 10 g/kg of AA or a continuous HFD in the following 15 weeks...
July 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708466/a-bidirectional-association-between-the-gut-microbiota-and-cns-disease-in-a-biphasic-murine-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Sara L Colpitts, Eli J Kasper, Abigail Keever, Caleb Liljenberg, Trevor Kirby, Krisztian Magori, Lloyd H Kasper, Javier Ochoa-Repáraz
The gut microbiome plays an important role in the development of inflammatory disease as shown using experimental models of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. Gut microbes influence the response of regulatory immune cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), which drive protection in acute and chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Recent observations suggest that communication between the host and the gut microbiome is bidirectional. We hypothesized that the gut microbiota differs between the acute inflammatory and chronic progressive stages of a murine model of secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SP-MS)...
July 14, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706193/polydextrose-changes-the-gut-microbiome-and-attenuates-fasting-triglyceride-and-cholesterol-levels-in-western-diet-fed-mice
#6
Ghulam Shere Raza, Heli Putaala, Ashley A Hibberd, Esa Alhoniemi, Kirsti Tiihonen, Kari Antero Mäkelä, Karl-Heinz Herzig
Obesity and dyslipidemia are hallmarks of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Polydextrose (PDX), a soluble fiber has lipid lowering effects. We hypothesize that PDX reduces triglycerides and cholesterol by influencing gut microbiota, which in turn modulate intestinal gene expression. C57BL/6 male mice were fed a Western diet (WD) ±75 mg PDX twice daily by oral gavage for 14 days. Body weight and food intake were monitored daily. Fasting plasma lipids, caecal microbiota and gene expression in intestine and liver were measured after 14 days of feeding...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704610/effects-of-medium-and-long-chain-triacylglycerols-on-lipid-metabolism-and-gut-microbiota-composition-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#7
Shengmin Zhou, Yueqiang Wang, Jörg Jacoby, Yuanrong Jiang, Yaqiong Zhang, Liangli Lucy Yu
Obesity is related to an increasing risk of chronic diseases. Medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT) have been recognized as a promising choice to reduce body weight. In this study, three MLCT with different contents of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) (10%-30%, w/w) were prepared, and their effects on lipid metabolism and fecal gut microbiota composition of C57BL/6J mice were systematically investigated. MLCT with 30% (w/w) MCFA showed the best performance in decreasing body weight gain as well as optimizing serum lipid parameters and liver triacylglycerol content...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704522/assessment-of-gut-microbiota-populations-in-lean-and-obese-zucker-rats
#8
Reza Hakkak, Soheila Korourian, Steven L Foley, Bruce D Erickson
Obesity has been on the rise in the US and worldwide for the last several decades. Obesity has been associated with chronic disease development, such as certain types of cancer, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and liver diseases. Previously, we reported that obesity promotes DMBA-induced mammary tumor development using the obese Zucker rat model. The intestinal microbiota is composed of a diverse population of obligate and facultative anaerobic microorganisms, and these organisms carry out a broad range of metabolic activities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701081/gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-associated-with-glucose-metabolism-disorders-and-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-older-adults
#9
K Lippert, L Kedenko, L Antonielli, I Kedenko, C Gemeier, M Leitner, A Kautzky-Willer, B Paulweber, E Hackl
Obesity and associated metabolic disorders have become highly prevalent diseases worldwide, and the human gut microbiota, due to its influence on host energy metabolism, has been attributed an important role therein. This pilot study explores host-microbiota relationships in men and women affected by various types of glucose metabolism disorder. Among 20 individuals aged 58 to 71 years with either normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, or type 2 diabetes mellitus the gut bacterial communities were compared based on barcoded 454 sequencing of 16S rRNA genes amplified from stool samples...
July 13, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696041/the-contribution-of-microbial-biotechnology-to-sustainable-development-goals-microbiome-therapies
#10
Paul W O'Toole, Max Paoli
Complex communities of microbes live on and in plants, humans and other animals. These communities are collectively referred to as the microbiota or microbiome. Plants and animals evolved to co-exist with these microbes. In mammals, particular kinds of alteration of the microbiome (dysbiosis) are associated with loss of health, most likely due to loss of microbial metabolites, signalling molecules, or regulators of host pathways. Modern life-style diseases such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), type 2 diabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome have been linked to dysbiosis...
July 11, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695905/corrigendum-ganoderma-lucidum-reduces-obesity-in-mice-by-modulating-the-composition-of-the-gut-microbiota
#11
Chih-Jung Chang, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Chia-Chen Lu, Jan Martel, Yun-Fei Ko, David M Ojcius, Shun-Fu Tseng, Tsung-Ru Wu, Yi-Yuan Margaret Chen, John D Young, Hsin-Chih Lai
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8489.
July 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691342/dual-function-of-lactobacillus-kefiri-dh5-in-preventing-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-direct-reduction-of-cholesterol-and-upregulation-of-ppar%C3%AE-in-adipose-tissue
#12
Dong-Hyeon Kim, Dana Jeong, Il-Byeong Kang, Hyunsook Kim, Kwang-Young Song, Kun-Ho Seo
SCOPE: Kefir consumption inhibits the development of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice fed 60% high-fat diet (HFD). To identify the key contributor of this effect, we isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from kefir and examined their anti-obesity properties from in vitro screening and in vivo validation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirteen kefir LAB isolates were subjected to survivability test using artificial gastrointestinal environment and cholesterol-reducing assay...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690599/gut-dysbiosis-and-adaptive-immune-response-in-diet-induced-obesity-vs-systemic-inflammation
#13
Jana Pindjakova, Claudio Sartini, Oriana Lo Re, Francesca Rappa, Berengere Coupe, Benjamin Lelouvier, Valerio Pazienza, Manlio Vinciguerra
A mutual interplay exists between adaptive immune system and gut microbiota. Altered gut microbial ecosystems are associated with the metabolic syndrome, occurring in most obese individuals. However, it is unknown why 10-25% of obese individuals are metabolically healthy, while normal weight individuals can develop inflammation and atherosclerosis. We modeled these specific metabolic conditions in mice fed with a chow diet, an obesogenic but not inflammatory diet-mimicking healthy obesity, or Paigen diet-mimicking inflammation in the lean subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687644/genome-scale-model-and-omics-analysis-of-metabolic-capacities-of-akkermansia-muciniphila-reveal-a-preferential-mucin-degrading-lifestyle
#14
Noora Ottman, Mark Davids, Maria Suarez-Diez, Sjef Boeren, Peter J Schaap, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Hauke Smidt, Clara Belzer, Willem M de Vos
The composition and activity of the microbiota in the human gastrointestinal tract is primarily shaped by nutrients derived either from food or the host. Bacteria colonizing the mucus layer have evolved to use mucin as a carbon and energy source. One of the members of the mucosa-associated microbiota is Akkermansia muciniphila, which is capable of producing an extensive repertoire of mucin-degrading enzymes. To further study substrate utilization abilities of A. muciniphila, we constructed a genome-scale metabolic model to test amino acid auxotrophy, vitamin biosynthesis, and sugar degrading capacities...
July 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685024/bugs-guts-and-brains-and-the-regulation-of-food-intake-and-body-weight
#15
REVIEW
M K Hamilton, H E Raybould
The microbiota-gut-brain axis is currently being explored in many types of rodent models, including models of behavioral, neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders. Our laboratory is interested in determining the mechanisms and consequences of activation of vagal afferent neurons that lead to activation of parasympathetic reflexes and changes in feeding behavior in the context of obesity. Obesity is associated with microbial dysbiosis, decreased intestinal barrier function, gut inflammation, metabolic endotoxemia, chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and desensitization of vagal afferent nerves...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682227/-gut-microbiota-and-efficacy-of-cancer-therapies
#16
Marie Vétizou, Romain Daillère, Laurence Zitvogel
The gut microbiota is known to affect digestion, protection against pathogens infection, immune system maturation and enteric nervous system development, but others links have also been established with diabetes, obesity, autism and cancer. Lately, bacterial species from the gut have been involved in tumor immunosurveillance. Natural or mediated by treatment such as chemotherapy or immunotherapy, anti-tumoral immune responses seem to rely on gut microbiota. The bacteria involved and their mechanisms of action are different according to the treatment of interest...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682223/-gut-microbiota-and-immune-crosstalk-in-metabolic-disease
#17
Rémy Burcelin
The aim of the review is to discuss about the role played by the defence crosstalk between the gut microbiota and the intestinal immune system, in the development of metabolic disease focusing on obesity and diabetes. Starting from physiological and pathological stand points and based on the latest published data, this review is addressing how the concept of the hologenome theory of evolution can drive the fate of metabolic disease. The notion of "metabolic infection" to explain the "metabolic inflammation" is discussed...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680065/nopal-opuntia-ficus-indica-protects-from-metabolic-endotoxemia-by-modifying-gut-microbiota-in-obese-rats-fed-high-fat-sucrose-diet
#18
Mónica Sánchez-Tapia, Miriam Aguilar-López, Claudia Pérez-Cruz, Edgar Pichardo-Ontiveros, Mei Wang, Sharon M Donovan, Armando R Tovar, Nimbe Torres
Current efforts are directed to reducing the gut dysbiosis and inflammation produced by obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether consuming nopal, a vegetable rich in dietary fibre, vitamin C, and polyphenols can reduce the metabolic consequences of obesity by modifying the gut microbiota and preventing metabolic endotoxemia in rats fed a high fat and sucrose diet. With this aim, rats were fed a high fat diet with 5% sucrose in the drinking water (HFS) for 7 months and then were fed for 1 month with HFS + 5% nopal (HFS + N)...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679750/erratum-for-kang-et-al-gut-microbiota-mediates-the-protective-effects-of-dietary-capsaicin-against-chronic-low-grade-inflammation-and-associated-obesity-induced-by-high-fat-diet
#19
Chao Kang, Bin Wang, Kanakaraju Kaliannan, Xiaolan Wang, Hedong Lang, Suocheng Hui, Li Huang, Yong Zhang, Ming Zhou, Mengting Chen, Mantian Mi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678744/gut-microbial-profile-analysis-by-miseq-sequencing-of-pancreatic-carcinoma-patients-in-china
#20
Zhigang Ren, Jianwen Jiang, Haiyang Xie, Ang Li, Haifeng Lu, Shaoyan Xu, Lin Zhou, Hua Zhang, Guangying Cui, Xinhua Chen, Yuanxing Liu, Liming Wu, Nan Qin, Ranran Sun, Wei Wang, Lanjuan Li, Weilin Wang, Shusen Zheng
Pancreatic carcinoma (PC) is a lethal cancer. Gut microbiota is associated with some risk factors of PC, e.g. obesity and types II diabetes. However, the specific gut microbial profile in clinical PC in China has never been reported. This prospective study collected 85 PC and 57 matched healthy controls (HC) to analyze microbial characteristics by MiSeq sequencing. The results showed that gut microbial diversity was decreased in PC with an unique microbial profile, which partly attributed to its decrease of alpha diversity...
June 29, 2017: Oncotarget
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