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Coxsackie virus

L A Rojas, R Moreno, H Calderón, R Alemany
There is great skepticism in the capability of adenovirus vectors and oncolytic adenoviruses to reach specific organs or tumors upon systemic administration. Besides antibodies, the presence of CAR (coxsackie and adenovirus receptor) in human erythrocytes has been postulated to sequester CAR-binding adenoviruses, commonly used in gene therapy and oncolytic applications. The use of non-CAR-binding fibers or serotypes has been postulated to solve this limitation. Given the lack of integrins in erythrocytes and therefore of internalization of the CAR-bound virus, we hypothesized that the interaction of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) with CAR in human erythrocytes could be reversible...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
Miao Yu, Qi Long, Huan-Huan Li, Wei Liang, Yu-Hua Liao, Jing Yuan, Xiang Cheng
Myocardial injuries in viral myocarditis (VMC) are caused by viral infection and related autoimmune disorders. Recent studies suggest that IL-9 mediated both antimicrobial immune and autoimmune responses in addition to allergic diseases. However, the role of IL-9 in viral infection and VMC remains controversial and uncertain. In this study, we infected Balb/c mice with Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), and found that IL-9 was enriched in the blood and hearts of VMC mice on days 5 and 7 after virus infection. Most of IL-9 was secreted by CD8(+) T cells on day 5 and CD4(+) T cells on day 7 in the myocardium...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Wei Li, Hui-Hui Gao, Qiong Zhang, Yu-Jie Liu, Ran Tao, Yu-Ping Cheng, Qiang Shu, Shi-Qiang Shang
Herpangina, usually caused by coxsackie virus A, is prevalent in children spreading through the fecal-oral transmission and the respiratory droplets dissemination. Also, it is mostly asymptomatic and self-limiting. In our study, we found that large outbreak of herpangina in children occurred in the summer of 2015 in Hangzhou, China. From May 1th to August 31th, a total of 10 210 children were diagnosed with herpangina in Children's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine. 2 310 throat swabs were collected and tested for enterovirus detection by real-time RT-PCR, while 1 651 cases were positive with the rate of 71...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Hiroyuki Matsuura, Fukiko Ichida, Tsutomu Saji, Shunichi Ogawa, Kenji Waki, Masahide Kaneko, Masahiro Tahara, Takashi Soga, Yasuo Ono, Satoshi Yasukochi
BACKGROUND: The 1st nationwide survey by the Japanese Society of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery of acute or fulminant myocarditis (AMC/FMC) in children revealed that the survival rate of FMC was only 51.6%. The 2nd nationwide survey was performed to evaluate the recent outcomes of pediatric myocarditis.Methods and Results:Questionnaires regarding patients aged ≤18 years with AMC/FMC during the period from January 2006 to December 2011 were mailed. A total of 221 cases (age 6...
October 4, 2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Daniel Becker, Zuzanna Kaczmarska, Christoph Arkona, Robert Schulz, Carolin Tauber, Gerhard Wolber, Rolf Hilgenfeld, Miquel Coll, Jörg Rademann
Small-molecule fragments binding to biomacromolecules can be starting points for the development of drugs, but are often difficult to detect due to low affinities. Here we present a strategy that identifies protein-binding fragments through their potential to induce the target-guided formation of covalently bound, irreversible enzyme inhibitors. A protein-binding nucleophile reacts reversibly with a bis-electrophilic warhead, thereby positioning the second electrophile in close proximity of the active site of a viral protease, resulting in the covalent de-activation of the enzyme...
2016: Nature Communications
Paul K Valestra, Scarlet Herrarte Fornos, John Gian, Burke A Cunha
Coxsackie viruses are enteroviruses most common in children. Coxsackie B viral infections often present with biphasic fever, headache, pharyngitis, nausea/vomiting, diarrhea and a maculopapular rash that spares the palms and soles. These clinical features may be present in other viral infections. We present a case of a hospitalized adult with rash and fever with highly elevated ferritin levels later found to be due to Coxsackie B5. We believe this is the first case of Coxsackie B infection with otherwise unexplained highly elevated ferritin levels...
2016: IDCases
Michelle P Ashton, Anne Eugster, Denise Walther, Natalie Daehling, Stephanie Riethausen, Denise Kuehn, Karin Klingel, Andreas Beyerlein, Stephanie Zillmer, Anette-Gabriele Ziegler, Ezio Bonifacio
Viral infections are associated with autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes. Here, we asked whether this association could be explained by variations in host immune response to a putative type 1 etiological factor, namely coxsackie B viruses (CVB). Heterogeneous antibody responses were observed against CVB capsid proteins. Heterogeneity was largely defined by different binding to VP1 or VP2. Antibody responses that were anti-VP2 competent but anti-VP1 deficient were unable to neutralize CVB, and were characteristic of children who developed early insulin-targeting autoimmunity, suggesting an impaired ability to clear CVB in early childhood...
2016: Scientific Reports
Idris Abdullahi Nasir, Muhammad Sagir Shehu, Yunusa Thairu
INTRODUCTION: Poliovirus infections have been established to be in circulation in the remaining three polio-endemic nations. These pathogens have been associated with several chronic diseases, particularly acute flaccid paralysis of children. This study sought to ascertain whether polioviruses are silently shed by apparently healthy schoolchildren in Bauchi, Katagum, and Misau local government areas of Bauchi state, Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional prospective study that involved 200 stool samples collected from apparently healthy schoolchildren...
2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Sarah S Long
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
U Grabmaier, G Kania, J Kreiner, J Grabmeier, A Uhl, B C Huber, K Lackermair, N Herbach, A Todica, U Eriksson, L T Weckbach, S Brunner
Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is strongly upregulated in hearts of mice with coxsackie virus-induced as well as in patients with viral infection-triggered dilated cardiomyopathy. Nevertheless, the role of its soluble form as a biomarker in inflammatory heart diseases remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether plasma levels of soluble VCAM-1 (sVCAM-1) directly correlated with disease activity and progression of cardiac dysfunction in the mouse model of experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM)...
2016: PloS One
Angela K Peter, William H Bradford, Nancy D Dalton, Yusu Gu, Chieh-Ju Chao, Kirk L Peterson, Kirk U Knowlton
OBJECTIVES: To address the question as to whether echocardiographic and/or microcomputed tomography (microCT) analysis can be utilized to assess the extent of Coxsackie B virus (CVB) induced myocarditis in the absence of left ventricular dysfunction in the mouse. BACKGROUND: Viral myocarditis is a significant clinical problem with associated inflammation of the myocardium and myocardial injury. Murine models of myocarditis are commonly used to study the pathophysiology of the disease, but methods for imaging the mouse myocardium have been limited to echocardiographic assessment of ventricular dysfunction and, to a lesser extent, MRI imaging...
2016: PloS One
Jae-Hoon Kim, Prasanna Weeratunga, Myun Soo Kim, Chamilani Nikapitiya, Byeong-Hoon Lee, Md Bashir Uddin, Tae-Hwan Kim, Ji-Eun Yoon, Chung Park, Jin Yeul Ma, Hongik Kim, Jong-Soo Lee
BACKGROUND: Cortex Phellodendri (C. Phellodendri), the dried trunk bark of Phellodendron amurense Ruprecht, has been known as a traditional herbal medicine, showing several bioactivities. However, antiviral activity of C. Phellodendri aqueous extract (CP) not reported in detail, particularly aiming the prophylactic effectiveness. METHODS: In vitro CP antiviral activity evaluated against Influenza A virus (PR8), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), Coxsackie Virus (H3-GFP) and Enterovirus-71 (EV-71) infection on immune (RAW264...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Ye Fan, Xingui Tian, Chunyan Xue, Minglong Liu, Zhichao Zhou, Xiao Li, Chenyang Li, Rong Zhou
Objective To develop the monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against enterovirus type 71 (EV71). Methods Two neutralization epitopes, SP70 and SP55, from EV71 were cloned into the hexon gene of adenovirus type 3 to generate a recombinant adenovirus type 3 (R1R2A3) presenting SP70 and SP55 antigens. BALB/c mice were immunized with the R1R2A3. The mAbs were developed with hybridoma technology and were analyzed with microneutralizing assay, indirect ELISA, Western blotting and direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA). Results The study obtained four hybridoma cell clones, 2C4, D2C9, I2G2 and I12C3...
August 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Qingyu An, Jun Wu, Xuesong Fan, Liyang Pan, Wei Sun
BACKGROUND: The hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a human syndrome caused by intestinal viruses like that coxsackie A virus 16, enterovirus 71 and easily developed into outbreak in kindergarten and school. Scientifically and accurately early detection of the start time of HFMD epidemic is a key principle in planning of control measures and minimizing the impact of HFMD. The objective of this study was to establish a reliable early detection model for start timing of hand foot mouth disease epidemic in Dalian and to evaluate the performance of model by analyzing the sensitivity in detectability...
2016: PloS One
L Jaramillo, S Smithee, S Tracy, N M Chapman
Domain I is a cloverleaf-like secondary structure at the 5' termini of all enterovirus genomes, comprising part of a cis-acting replication element essential for efficient enteroviral replication. 5' genomic terminal deletions up to as much as 55% of domain I can occur without lethality following coxsackie B virus infections. We report here that the entire CVB structural domain I can be deleted without lethality.
September 2016: Virology
Nicole R Sexton, Everett Clinton Smith, Hervé Blanc, Marco Vignuzzi, Olve B Peersen, Mark R Denison
UNLABELLED: Positive-sense RNA viruses encode RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) essential for genomic replication. With the exception of the large nidoviruses, such as coronaviruses (CoVs), RNA viruses lack proofreading and thus are dependent on RdRps to control nucleotide selectivity and fidelity. CoVs encode a proofreading exonuclease in nonstructural protein 14 (nsp14-ExoN), which confers a greater-than-10-fold increase in fidelity compared to other RNA viruses. It is unknown to what extent the CoV polymerase (nsp12-RdRp) participates in replication fidelity...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Andrea Soledad Pereyra, Olga Mykhaylyk, Eugenia Falomir Lockhart, Jackson Richard Taylor, Osvaldo Delbono, Rodolfo Gustavo Goya, Christian Plank, Claudia Beatriz Hereñu
The goal of magnetic field-assisted gene transfer is to enhance internalization of exogenous nucleic acids by association with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). This technique named magnetofection is particularly useful in difficult-to-transfect cells. It is well known that human, mouse, and rat skeletal muscle cells suffer a maturation-dependent loss of susceptibility to Recombinant Adenoviral vector (RAd) uptake. In postnatal, fully differentiated myofibers, the expression of the primary Coxsackie and Adenoviral membrane receptor (CAR) is severely downregulated representing a main hurdle for the use of these vectors in gene transfer/therapy...
April 2016: Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
Amary Fall, Ndongo Dia, Ousmane Kébé, Fatoumata Diene Sarr, Davy E Kiori, El Hadj Abdoul Khadir Cissé, Sara Sy, Deborah Goudiaby, Vincent Richard, Ousmane Madiagne Diop, Mbayame Ndiaye Niang
Different viruses have been identified as etiologic agents of respiratory tract infections, including severe cases. Among these, human rhinoviruses (HRVs) and human enteroviruses (HEVs) are recognized as leading causes. The present study describes the molecular epidemiology of HRVs and HEVs in Senegal over a 3-year surveillance period. From January 2012 to December 2014, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs specimen were collected from patients with influenza-like illness (ILI). A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed for HRV and HEV detection using the RV16 kit...
August 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
S L Hulin-Curtis, H Uusi-Kerttula, R Jones, L Hanna, J D Chester, A L Parker
Ovarian cancer accounts for >140 000 deaths globally each year. Typically, disease is asymptomatic until an advanced, incurable stage. Although response to cytotoxic chemotherapy is frequently observed, resistance to conventional platinum-based therapies develop rapidly. Improved treatments are therefore urgently required. Virotherapy offers great potential for ovarian cancer, where the application of local, intraperitoneal delivery circumvents some of the limitations of intravenous strategies. To develop effective, adenovirus (Ad)-based platforms for ovarian cancer, we profiled the fluid and cellular components of patient ascites for factors known to influence adenoviral transduction...
July 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
Shengyang Jiang, Donglin Jiang, Peng Zhao, Xinlong He, Shunli Tian, Xueming Wu, Yijia Tao
Collagen deposition is the major cause of myocardial fibrosis, contributing to impaired cardiac contractile function in coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3)-infected hearts. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been considered as a cellular fuel gauge and super metabolic regulator, however, whether AMPK has an effect on collagen production in CVB3‑infected heart remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the association between AMPK activation and CVB3‑infected neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts (NRCFs) was investigated...
July 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
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