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Type 3 Interferon

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765910/a-promising-ifn-deficient-system-to-manufacture-ifn-sensitive-influenza-vaccine-virus
#1
Can Chen, Wenhui Fan, Jing Li, Weinan Zheng, Shuang Zhang, Limin Yang, Di Liu, Wenjun Liu, Lei Sun
Interferon (IFN)-sensitive and replication-incompetent influenza viruses are likely to be the alternatives to inactivated and attenuated virus vaccines. Some IFN-sensitive influenza vaccine candidates with modified non-structural protein 1 (NS1) are highly attenuated in IFN-competent hosts but induce robust antiviral immune responses. However, little research has been done on the manufacturability of these IFN-sensitive vaccine viruses. Here, RIG-I-knockout 293T cells were used to package the IFN-sensitive influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus expressing the mutant NS1 R38A/K41A...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760876/rinck-mediated-monoubiquitination-of-cgas-promotes-antiviral-innate-immune-responses
#2
Zhao-Shan Liu, Zi-Yu Zhang, Hong Cai, Ming Zhao, Jie Mao, Jiang Dai, Tian Xia, Xue-Min Zhang, Tao Li
Background: As an important danger signal, the presence of DNA in cytoplasm triggers potent immune responses. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a recently characterized key sensor for cytoplasmic DNA. The engagement of cGAS with DNA leads to the synthesis of a second messenger, cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), which binds and activates the downstream adaptor protein STING to promote type I interferon production. Although cGAS has been shown to play a pivotal role in innate immunity, the exact regulation of cGAS activation is not fully understood...
2018: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760693/treatment-intensification-in-hiv-infected-patients-is-associated-with-reduced-frequencies-of-regulatory-t-cells
#3
Eva M Grützner, Tanja Hoffmann, Eva Wolf, Elke Gersbacher, Ashley Neizert, Renate Stirner, Ramona Pauli, Albrecht Ulmer, Jürgen Brust, Johannes R Bogner, Hans Jaeger, Rika Draenert
In untreated HIV infection, the efficacy of T cell responses decreases over the disease course, resulting in disease progression. The reasons for this development are not completely understood. However, immunosuppressive cells are supposedly crucially involved. Treatment strategies to avoid the induction of these cells preserve immune functions and are therefore the object of intense research efforts. In this study, we assessed the effect of treatment intensification [=5-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART)] on the development of suppressive cell subsets...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760540/ambiguous-roles-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-chronic-development-of-liver-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Yue Shen, Jing Li, Si-Qi Wang, Wei Jiang
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are defined as a distinct arm of innate immunity. According to their profile of secreted cytokines and lineage-specific transcriptional factors, ILCs can be categorized into the following three groups: group 1 ILCs (including natural killer (NK) cells and ILC1s) are dependent on T-bet and can produce interferon-γ; group 2 ILCs (ILC2s) are dependent on GATA3 and can produce type 2 cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13; and, group 3 ILCs (including lymphoid tissue-like cells and ILC3s) are dependent on RORγt and can produce IL-22 and IL-17...
May 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759327/immunotherapy-responsive-childhood-neurodegeneration-with-systemic-and-central-nervous-system-inflammation
#5
Mario Sa, Yael Hacohen, Lucy Alderson, W K Kling Chong, Glenn Anderson, Thomas S Jacques, David Neubauer, Elzbieta Szczepanik, Ming Lim, Marios Kaliakatsos
Subacute neuroregression in association with raised neopterin and overexpression of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) could indicate a type 1 interferonopathy. Here we describe a novel immunotherapy-responsive, clinico-immunological and imaging phenotype with evidence of innate immune activation. Three children (patient 1: 22-month-old boy; patient 2: 5-year-old girl; patient 3: 4-year-old girl) presented with asymmetric bilateral mixed dystonia and spasticity, regression in language (expressive more than receptive) and bulbar symptoms with no evidence of seizures...
April 27, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757355/a-prospective-study-to-monitor-for-tuberculosis-during-anti-tumour-necrosis-factor-therapy-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases
#6
Choon Kin Lee, Sunny H Wong, Grace Lui, Whitney Tang, Lai San Tam, Margaret Ip, Esther Hung, Minhu Chen, Justin C Wu, Siew C Ng
Background: Biologic therapies have revolutionised the treatment of immune- mediated diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and rheumatological disorders. However, biologic treatments are associated with an increased risk of reactivation of latent tuberculosis. Data of regular monitoring for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) during biologic treatment are lacking. Methods: Consecutive patients eligible for biologic therapies were screened for LTBI and prospectively followed-up for 3 years...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755463/the-role-of-optineurin-in-antiviral-type-i-interferon-production
#7
REVIEW
Ahmed Outlioua, Marie Pourcelot, Damien Arnoult
After a viral infection and the stimulation of some pattern-recognition receptors as the toll-like receptor 3 in the endosomes or the RIG-I-like receptors in the cytosol, activation of the IKK-related kinase TBK1 leads to the production of type I interferons (IFNs) after phosphorylation of the transcription factors IRF3 and IRF7. Recent findings indicate an involvement of K63-linked polyubiquitination and of the Golgi-localized protein optineurin (OPTN) in the activation of this crucial kinase involved in innate antiviral immunity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753657/irf-1-rig-i-and-mda5-display-potent-antiviral-activities-against-norovirus-coordinately-induced-by-different-types-of-interferons
#8
Wen Dang, Lei Xu, Yuebang Yin, Sunrui Chen, Wenshi Wang, Mohamad S Hakim, Kyeong-Ok Chang, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Qiuwei Pan
Norovirus represents the main cause of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. In immunocompromised patients, it bears high risk of causing chronic infection with significant morbidity and mortality. The lack of specific treatment prompts the development of anti-norovirus agents. In this study, we have investigated the role of interferon (IFN) response and evaluated antiviral activities of different IFNs against human norovirus (HuNoV) replication using a HuNoV replicon model. We found that HuNoV RNA replication was sensitive to all types of IFNs, including IFNα (type I), IFNγ (type II), IFNλ1 and 3 (type III)...
May 10, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752586/comparison-of-tracheal-reconstruction-with-allograft-fresh-xenograft-and-artificial-trachea-scaffold-in-a-rabbit-model
#9
Jae Yeon Lee, Jeong Hun Park, Dong-Woo Cho
This study evaluated the possibility of tracheal reconstruction with allograft, pig-to-rabbit fresh xenograft or use of a tissue-engineered trachea, and compared acute rejection of three different transplanted tracheal segments in rabbits. Eighteen healthy New Zealand White rabbits weighing 2.5-3.1 kg were transplanted with three different types of trachea substitutes. Two rabbits and two alpha 1, 3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout pigs weighing 5 kg were used as donors. The rabbits were divided into three groups: an allograft control group consisting of rabbit-to-rabbit allotransplantation animals (n = 6), a fresh xenograft group consisting of pig-to-rabbit xenotransplantation animals (n = 6), and an artificial trachea scaffold group (n = 6)...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751576/thymoquinone-suppresses-irf-3-mediated-expression-of-type-i-interferons-via-suppression-of-tbk1
#10
Nur Aziz, Young-Jin Son, Jae Youl Cho
Interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 is known to have a critical role in viral and bacterial innate immune responses by regulating the production of type I interferon (IFN). Thymoquinone (TQ) is a compound derived from black cumin ( Nigella sativa L.) and is known to regulate immune responses by affecting transcription factors associated with inflammation, including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). However, the role of TQ in the IRF-3 signaling pathway has not been elucidated...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751499/survival-and-prognostic-factors-in-mixed-cryoglobulinemia-data-from-246-cases
#11
Cesare Mazzaro, Luigino Dal Maso, Endri Mauro, Valter Gattei, Michela Ghersetti, Pietro Bulian, Giulia Moratelli, Gabriele Grassi, Francesca Zorat, Gabriele Pozzato
INTRODUCTION: The clinical and therapeutic management of mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) remains a subject of controversy. In addition, most studies have not recorded the long-term follow-up and the outcome of these cases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We enrolled 246 patients affected by MC who were consecutively admitted to our Department from January 1993 to February 2013. Clinical and biological data had been recorded until June 2014. RESULTS: The median age (at diagnosis) was 60 years (range 26⁻83)...
May 3, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743358/the-chromatin-remodeling-factor-spoc1-acts-as-a-cellular-restriction-factor-against-human-cytomegalovirus-by-repressing-the-major-immediate-early-promoter
#12
Anna Reichel, Anne-Charlotte Stilp, Myriam Scherer, Nina Reuter, Sören Lukassen, Bahram Kasmapour, Sabrina Schreiner, Luka Cicin-Sain, Andreas Winterpacht, Thomas Stamminger
The cellular protein SPOC1 (survival time-associated PHD finger protein in ovarian cancer 1) acts as a regulator of chromatin structure and DNA damage response. It binds H3K4me2/3 containing chromatin and promotes DNA condensation by recruiting corepressors such as KAP-1 and H3K9 methyltransferases. Previous studies identified SPOC1 as a restriction factor against human adenovirus (HAdV) infection that is antagonized by E1B-55K/E4orf6-dependent proteasomal degradation. Here, we demonstrate that, in contrast to HAdV-infected cells, SPOC1 is transiently upregulated during the early phase of HCMV replication...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742458/interferons-type-ii-and-their-receptors-r1-and-r2-in-fish-species-evolution-structure-and-function
#13
Jiří Zahradník, Lucie Kolářová, Hana Pařízková, Petr Kolenko, Bohdan Schneider
Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is one of the key players in the immune system of vertebrates. The evolution and properties of IFN-γ and its receptors in fish species are of special interest as they point to the origin of innate immunity in vertebrates. We studied the phylogeny, biophysical and structural properties of IFN-γ and its receptors. Our phylogeny analysis suggests the existence of two groups of IFN-γ related proteins, one specific for Acanthomorpha, the other for Cypriniformes, Characiformes and Siluriformes...
May 6, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740439/understanding-viral-dsrna-mediated-innate-immune-responses-at-the-cellular-level-using-a-rainbow-trout-model
#14
Sarah J Poynter, Stephanie J DeWitte-Orr
Viruses across genome types produce long dsRNA molecules during replication [viral (v-) dsRNA]. dsRNA is a potent signaling molecule and inducer of type I interferon (IFN), leading to the production of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), and a protective antiviral state within the cell. Research on dsRNA-induced immune responses has relied heavily on a commercially available, and biologically irrelevant dsRNA, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). Alternatively, dsRNA can be produced by in vitro transcription (ivt-) dsRNA, with a defined sequence and length...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731828/puerarin-alleviates-delayed-type-hypersensitivity-via-cytokine-inhibition-by-modulating-th1-th2-balance
#15
Jing Tong, Xi-Jiang Hu, Wen-Qian Cai, Xiang Dai, Lei Wang
Puerarin has long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine, which possesses various physiological properties, including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative, anti-diabetic and anti-cancer activities. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of puerarin on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) induced by ovalbumin (OVA) in mice and explore its underlying mechanisms. The results showed that puerarin significantly attenuated DTH, resulting from a decrement in footpad swelling, reduction in inflammatory cell as well as a decline in anti-OVA IgG in serum...
May 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731751/unique-action-of-interleukin-18-on-t-cells-and-other-immune-cells
#16
REVIEW
Kenji Nakanishi
Interleukin (IL)-18 was originally discovered as a factor that enhances interferon (IFN)-γ production by anti-CD3-stimulated Th1 cells, particularly in association with IL-12. IL-12 is a cytokine that induces development of Th1 cells. IL-18 cannot induce Th1 cell development, but has the capacity to activate established Th1 cells to produce IFN-γ in the presence of IL-12. Thus, IL-18 is regarded as a proinflammatory cytokine that facilitates type 1 responses. However, in the absence of IL-12 but presence of IL-2, IL-18 stimulates natural killer cells, NKT cells, and even established Th1 cells to produce IL-3, IL-9, and IL-13...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720226/increased-a20-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-interactions-in-bid-deficient-glia-attenuate-tlr3-and-tlr4-induced-inflammation
#17
Sinéad Kinsella, Michael Fichtner, Orla Watters, Hans-Georg König, Jochen H M Prehn
BACKGROUND: Chronic pro-inflammatory signaling propagates damage to neural tissue and affects the rate of disease progression. Increased activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), master regulators of the innate immune response, is implicated in the etiology of several neuropathologies including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Previously, we identified that the Bcl-2 family protein BH3-interacting domain death agonist (Bid) potentiates the TLR4-NF-κB pro-inflammatory response in glia, and specifically characterized an interaction between Bid and TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) in microglia in response to TLR4 activation...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717061/the-interaction-between-ikk%C3%AE-and-lc3-promotes-type-i-interferon-production-through-the-tlr9-containing-laposome
#18
Kachiko Hayashi, Manabu Taura, Akiko Iwasaki
Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognizes DNA in endosomes and activates distinct signaling pathways to stimulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines and type I interferons (IFNs). The assembly of signaling platforms on microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3)-decorated endosomal vesicles is required to transduce TLR9 signals that stimulate the production of IFN but not interleukin-12 p40 (IL-12p40). LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP), a form of noncanonical autophagy, is critical for the activation of interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) and for IFN synthesis...
May 1, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707619/differences-in-proinflammatory-cytokines-and-monocyte-subtypes-in-older-as-compared-with-younger-kidney-transplant-recipients
#19
Emily C Liang, Maura Rossetti, Tiffany Sidwell, Victoria Groysberg, Gema Sunga, Yael Korin, Sitaram Vangala, Basmah Abdalla, Erik Lum, Suphamai Bunnapradist, Phuong-Thu Pham, Gabriel Danovitch, Elaine F Reed, Joanna Schaenman
Background: The number of elderly patients with end-stage kidney disease requiring kidney transplantation continues to grow. Evaluation of healthy older adults has revealed proinflammatory changes in the immune system, which are posited to contribute to age-associated illnesses via "inflamm-aging." Immunologic dysfunction is also associated with impaired control of infections. Whether these immunologic changes are found in older kidney transplant recipients is not currently known, but may have important implications for risk for adverse clinical outcomes...
March 2018: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703257/insp-3-r-sec5-interaction-on-phagosomes-modulates-innate-immunity-to-candida-albicans-by-promoting-cytosolic-ca-2-elevation-and-tbk1-activity
#20
Long Yang, Wenwen Gu, King-Ho Cheung, Lan Yan, Benjamin Chun-Kit Tong, Yuanying Jiang, Jun Yang
BACKGROUND: Candida albicans (C. albicans) invasion triggers antifungal innate immunity, and the elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3 R) plays a critical role in this process. However, the molecular pathways linking the InsP3 R-mediated increase in Ca2+ and immune responses remain elusive. RESULTS: In the present study, we find that during C. albicans phagocytosis in macrophages, exocyst complex component 2 (SEC5) promotes InsP3 R channel activity by binding to its C-terminal α-helix (H1), increasing cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+ ]c )...
April 27, 2018: BMC Biology
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