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Metabolics syndrome pediatrics

Thomas Gilliland, Sylvie Dufour, Gerald I Shulman, Kitt Falk Petersen, Sukru H Emre
NAFLD is a common condition linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Simple hepatic steatosis is a risk factor for inflammatory reactions in the liver (NASH), which may lead to cirrhosis. While the mechanism is unclear, NAFLD and NASH are associated with panhypopituitarism, which in the pediatric population often results from craniopharyngioma or pituitary adenoma and the sequelae of treatment, causing hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and GH deficiency...
October 20, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Abdulmoein E Al-Agha, Abrar M Alnawab, Tala M Hejazi
To determine the various etiologies of primary and secondary hyperlipidemia among children visiting the pediatric endocrine clinic. Methods: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional, cohort study conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2010 to 2015 that included 253 children aged from birth to 12 years old. Data were obtained by reviewing medical reports of patients who presented with hyperlipidemia to the clinic, and their laboratory investigation results using KAUH electronic "Phoenix" system...
November 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Marko Šimunović, Joško Božić, Lukrecija Milić, Ivana Unić, Veselin Škrabić
Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) are one of the biggest public health issues in child and adolescent population. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this hospital based study is the first report on the prevalence of MS in obese children and adolescents in Dalmatia, the Mediterranean part of Croatia. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of individual cardiovascular risk factors and MS. Between January 2009 and June 2014, 201 obese subjects aged 6 to 18 were analyzed retrospectively from our Pediatric Endocrine Unit database...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Tarig Ali-Dinar, Jason E Lang
Obesity is a major risk factor for several conditions including atherosclerotic disease, metabolic syndrome, and upper airway dysfunction. However, the purported link between obesity and asthma has remained more difficult to define, in part due to limitations in past epidemiologic studies and the inherent challenge in accurately defining asthma in children. It is possible that obesity leads to asthma only in the presence of a mediating variable such as an obesity-related conditions such as esophageal reflux or insulin resistance...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Zeinab A Elkabbany, Nancy S Elbarbary, Eman A Ismail, Nesrine A Mohamed, Dina Ragab, Shereen Abdel Alem, Yasmine M Ezzat, Sarah S Maurice, Noha U Hashem
AIM: To identify the prevalence and effect of hepatopathies of different etiologies among pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using transient elastography (TE) and its relation to glycemic control. METHODS: One hundred T1DM patients were studied focusing on liver functions, fasting lipid profile, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), hepatitis C virus (HCV), serum immunoglobulins, autoimmune antibodies; anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibody (ASMA), and anti-liver kidney microsomal antibody (anti-LKM)...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Adrienne Wang, Jacob Mouser, Jason Pitt, Daniel Promislow, Matt Kaeberlein
Pediatric mitochondrial disorders are a devastating category of diseases caused by deficiencies in mitochondrial function. Leigh Syndrome (LS) is the most common of these diseases with symptoms typically appearing within the first year of birth and progressing rapidly until death, usually by 6-7 years of age. Our lab has recently shown that genetic inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (TOR) rescues the short lifespan of yeast mutants with defective mitochondrial function, and that pharmacological inhibition of TOR by administration of rapamycin significantly rescues the shortened lifespan, neurological symptoms, and neurodegeneration in a mouse model of LS...
October 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Min-Su Oh, Sorina Kim, Joon-Hyuck Jang, Jong Yoon Park, Hyun-Sik Kang, Mu Sook Lee, Ki Soo Kang
PURPOSE: To analyze the associations among the degrees of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by ultrasonography and metabolic syndrome, degrees of obesity in children, and degrees of parental obesity. METHODS: A total of 198 children with obesity who visited a pediatric obesity clinic were prospectively enrolled in this study. The severity of NAFLD based on ultrasonography was classified into no, mild, moderate, or severe NAFLD group. The degree of obesity based on the percentage over standard weight for height per sex was classified into mild, moderate, or severe...
September 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, David Gozal
Since the initial report 40 years ago on pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) as a distinct and prevalent clinical entity, substantial advances have occurred in the delineation of diagnostic and treatment approaches. However, despite emerging and compelling evidence that OSAS increases the risk for cognitive, cardiovascular and metabolic end-organ morbidities, routine assessment of such morbidities is seldom conducted in clinical practice. One of the major reasons for such discrepancies resides in the relatively labor-intensive and onerous steps that would be required to detect the presence of any of such morbidities, further adding to the already elevated cost of diagnosing the disorder...
October 6, 2016: Chest
Rebecca J Brown, David Araujo-Vilar, Pik To Cheung, David Dunger, Abhimanyu Garg, Michelle Jack, Lucy Mungai, Elif A Oral, Nivedita Patni, Kristina Rother, Julia von Schnurbein, Ekaterina Sorkina, Takara Stanley, Corinne Vigouroux, Martin Wabitsch, Rachel Williams, Tohru Yorifuji
OBJECTIVE: Lipodystrophy syndromes are extremely rare disorders of deficient body fat associated with potentially serious metabolic complications, including diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, and steatohepatitis. Due to their rarity, most clinicians are not familiar with their diagnosis and management. This practice guideline summarizes diagnosis and management of lipodystrophy syndromes not associated with HIV or injectable drugs. PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen participants were nominated by worldwide endocrine societies or selected by the committee as content experts...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Virginia Ponziani, Monia Gennari, Fabio Pizza, Antonio Balsamo, Filippo Bernardi, Giuseppe Plazzi
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of type 1 narcolepsy (NT1) on anthropometric and endocrine features in childhood/adolescence, focusing on patterns and correlates of weight, pubertal development, and growth in treated and untreated patients. METHODS: We collected anthropometric (height, weight, body mass index (BMI) z-scores), pubertal, metabolic, and endocrine data from 72 NT1 patients at diagnosis and all available premorbid anthropometric parameters of patients from their pediatric files (n = 30)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Andrew Lee, Saxon D Smith, Esther Hong, Sarah Garnett, Gayle Fischer
Importance: Increasing evidence suggests that psoriasis poses a cardiometabolic risk in children, as in adults. The best way to screen for this has not yet been established. Waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) can easily identify children with increased central adiposity and is a simpler alternative to body mass index (BMI) that does not require growth charts or percentiles. Having a WtHR of 0.5 or greater is associated with future cardiovascular risk. Objective: To determine whether children with psoriasis are more likely to have increased WtHR, obesity, and metabolic syndrome relative to children without psoriasis...
September 28, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
Evans Machogu, Clement L Ren
The growth of cystic fibrosis newborn screening (CF NBS) has led to an increased number of infants with a positive NBS test but inconclusive CF diagnostic testing. In the USA this condition is called CFTR related metabolic syndrome (CRMS), while in Europe the term CF screen positive, inconclusive diagnosis (CFSPID) is used. Recent advances in CF genetics and epidemiologic studies of CRMS/CFSPID have provided new insights into the prevalence and outcomes associated with this condition. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016;51:S45-S48...
October 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Chun-Ying Lee, Wei-Ting Lin, Sharon Tsai, Yu-Chan Hung, Pei-Wen Wu, Yu-Cheng Yang, Te-Fu Chan, Hsiao-Ling Huang, Yao-Lin Weng, Yu-Wen Chiu, Chia-Tsuan Huang, Chien-Hung Lee
Cardiometabolic risk factors or their precursors are observed in childhood and may continue into adulthood. We investigated the effects of parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric lifestyle factors on the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents, and examined the mediating and modifying effects of pediatric adiposity on these associations. Representative adolescents (n = 2727; age, 12-16 years) were randomly recruited through multistage stratified sampling from 36 schools in Southern Taiwan...
2016: Nutrients
Richard Hollander, Geert Mortier, Koen van Hoeck
: Hyperkalemia in young children is a rare phenomenon and in many cases caused by hemolysis in the specimen due to difficulties in obtaining a sample. However, hyperkalemia can also be a sign of a rare Mendelian syndrome known as familial hyperkalemic hypertension or pseudohypoaldosteronism type II. This disease is characterized by hyperkalemia, hypertension, and mild hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis (with normal anion gap) despite normal glomerular filtration. Full recovery of these abnormalities with thiazide diuretics is essential not to miss the diagnosis of this syndrome...
September 17, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Ramona Stroescu, Teofana Bizerea, Gabriela Doroş, Monica Marazan, Maria Lesovici, Otilia Mãrginean
Objective: To investigate the relationship between markers of adiposity and common carotid artery (CIMT) in obese children born small for gestational age (SGA) versus appropriate for gestational age (AGA), to establish cut-off values for CIMT in obese pediatric populations. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out over a 1-year period (Jul 2013 - June 2014). We analyzed 122 obese patients aged 4-20 (mean age 14.9 ± 2.28). Twenty-six patients were born SGA...
September 5, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Isabel Madeira, Maria Alice Bordallo, Nádia Cristina Rodrigues, Cecilia Carvalho, Fernanda Gazolla, Paulo Collett-Solberg, Clarice Medeiros, Ana Paula Bordallo, Marcos Borges, Claudia Monteiro, Rebeca Ribeiro
Objective: Leptin has been suggested as a potential biomarker of cardiovascular risk. This paper aims to ascertain, based on a sample of prepubertal children, which serum leptin value best suited to identify metabolic syndrome (MS). Subjects and methods: This observational, cross-sectional study recruited children from the outpatient pediatrics clinic, with the purpose of validating serum leptin level cutoffs to identify MS. All obese and overweight children who met eligibility criteria were included in the study, as was a sample of normal-weight children...
September 5, 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Chun-Ming Ma, Fu-Zai Yin, Xiao-Li Liu, Rui Wang, Dong-Hui Lou, Qiang Lu
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the feasibility and accuracy of the height-corrected definition for identifying metabolic syndrome (MS). METHODS: In 2006, anthropometric and biochemical measurements were assessed in a cross-sectional population-based study of 3136 Han adolescents, aged 13-17 years. MS was defined according to the definitions of Cook et al, International Diabetes Federation, and the Society of Pediatrics, Chinese Medical Association. Waist-to-height and blood pressure-to-height ratios were alternatives to waist circumference and blood pressure in the height-corrected definition...
July 27, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Robinson Ramírez-Vélez, Alejandro Anzola, Javier Martinez-Torres, Andres Vivas, Alejandra Tordecilla-Sanders, Daniel Prieto-Benavides, Mikel Izquierdo, Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista, Antonio Garcia-Hermoso
BACKGROUND: In contrast to the definition of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults, there is no standard definition of MetS in pediatric populations. We aimed at assessing the differences in the prevalence of MetS in children and adolescents aged 9-17 years using four different operational definitions for these age groups and at examining the associated variables. METHODS: A total of 675 children and 1247 adolescents attending public schools in Bogota (54.4% girls; age range 9-17...
August 10, 2016: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Pingping Jiang, Andreas Vegge, Thomas Thymann, Jennifer Man-Fan Wan, Per Torp Sangild
BACKGROUND: Exogenous glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) stimulates intestinal adaptation after resection in animal models of pediatric short bowel syndrome (SBS). It is unknown whether the molecular mechanisms of such GLP-2 effects are similar to those of postresection spontaneous adaptation. Using preterm pigs as a model, we hypothesized that GLP-2 treatment would change the intestinal proteome within the first week after resection, relative to individuals not resected or resected without GLP-2 treatment...
August 8, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Pooja Khandelwal, Tsuyoshi Fukuda, Kana Mizuno, Ashley Teusink-Cross, Parinda A Mehta, Rebecca A Marsh, Angela D M Kashuba, Alexander A Vinks, Stella M Davies
Maraviroc is an allosteric small molecule antagonist of chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) and has been used in adult allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients to prevent acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and liver. The goal of this study was to establish feasibility and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of maraviroc in pediatric HSCT recipients. Children ages 2 to 12 years were enrolled and maraviroc was added to standard GVHD prophylaxis, which included a calcineurin inhibitor and either steroids or mycophenolate mofetil...
October 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
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