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Neuron-glia interactions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911416/the-indirect-neuron-astrocyte-coculture-assay-an-in-vitro-set-up-for-the-detailed-investigation-of-neuron-glia-interactions
#1
Christine Gottschling, Egor Dzyubenko, Maren Geissler, Andreas Faissner
Proper neuronal development and function is the prerequisite of the developing and the adult brain. However, the mechanisms underlying the highly controlled formation and maintenance of complex neuronal networks are not completely understood thus far. The open questions concerning neurons in health and disease are diverse and reaching from understanding the basic development to investigating human related pathologies, e.g., Alzheimer's disease and Schizophrenia. The most detailed analysis of neurons can be performed in vitro...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908976/a-novel-method-for-culturing-stellate-astrocytes-reveals-spatially-distinct-ca2-signaling-and-vesicle-recycling-in-astrocytic-processes
#2
Anne C Wolfes, Saheeb Ahmed, Ankit Awasthi, Markus A Stahlberg, Ashish Rajput, Daniel S Magruder, Stefan Bonn, Camin Dean
Interactions between astrocytes and neurons rely on the release and uptake of glial and neuronal molecules. But whether astrocytic vesicles exist and exocytose in a regulated or constitutive fashion is under debate. The majority of studies have relied on indirect methods or on astrocyte cultures that do not resemble stellate astrocytes found in vivo. Here, to investigate vesicle-associated proteins and exocytosis in stellate astrocytes specifically, we developed a simple, fast, and economical method for growing stellate astrocyte monocultures...
December 1, 2016: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891070/monoaminergic-mechanisms-in-epilepsy-may-offer-innovative-therapeutic-opportunity-for-monoaminergic-multi-target-drugs
#3
REVIEW
Dubravka Svob Strac, Nela Pivac, Ilse J Smolders, Wieslawa A Fogel, Philippe De Deurwaerdere, Giuseppe Di Giovanni
A large body of experimental and clinical evidence has strongly suggested that monoamines play an important role in regulating epileptogenesis, seizure susceptibility, convulsions, and comorbid psychiatric disorders commonly seen in people with epilepsy (PWE). However, neither the relative significance of individual monoamines nor their interaction has yet been fully clarified due to the complexity of these neurotransmitter systems. In addition, epilepsy is diverse, with many different seizure types and epilepsy syndromes, and the role played by monoamines may vary from one condition to another...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890430/tar-dna-binding-protein-43-inhibits-inflammatory-response-and-protects-chondrocyte-function-by-modulating-rack1-expression-in-osteoarthritis
#4
Yongming Huang, Qiming Huang, Haitao Su, Xiujun Mai, Enhui Feng, Zhenwu Cao, Xiuyun Zeng
BACKGROUND: TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43, transactive response DNA binding protein 43kDa) accumulates in the cytoplasm of affected neurons and glia, as large inclusions of stress granules (SGs). However, the mechanism of TDP-43 interaction with the target genes and its specific role in osteoarthritis (OA) progression is still unknown. The goal of this study was to identify the role of TDP-43 in OA progression by modulating its target genes. METHODS: MSCs were transfected with TDP-43 gene lentivirus...
November 24, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834787/cocaine-promotes-primary-human-astrocyte-proliferation-via-jnk-dependent-up-regulation-of-cyclin-a2
#5
Chun-Ting Lee, Kristen L Boeshore, Chun Wu, Kevin G Becker, Stacie L Errico, Deborah C Mash, William J Freed
PURPOSE: Astrocytes perform a plethora of important functions in the central nervous system (CNS) and are involved in cocaine-evoked synaptic plasticity. Previously, we showed that while cocaine decreased cyclin A2 expression in primary human neural progenitor cells, it increased cyclin A2 expression in human astrocytes. Since cyclin A2 is an essential regulator of the cell cycle, the aim of the present study is to clarify the effect of cocaine on proliferation of human astrocytes and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms...
November 8, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830161/astrocytic-calcium-activation-in-a-mouse-model-of-tdcs-extended-discussion
#6
Hiromu Monai, Hajime Hirase
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been reported to be effective for alleviation of neuropsychiatric and neurological conditions as well as enhancement of memory and cognition. Despite the positive effects of tDCS in humans, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Recently, we reported that astrocytes, a major glial cell type in the brain, show an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) levels during tDCS in the cerebral cortex of the awake mouse. This tDCS-induced elevation in astrocytic Ca(2+) has subsequently been demonstrated to be important for cortical plasticity...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813323/tumor-targeted-nanotherapeutics-overcoming-treatment-barriers-for-glioblastoma
#7
REVIEW
Aniket S Wadajkar, Jimena G Dancy, David S Hersh, Pavlos Anastasiadis, Nhan L Tran, Graeme F Woodworth, Jeffrey A Winkles, Anthony J Kim
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive and lethal form of primary brain cancer. Numerous barriers exist to the effective treatment of GBM including the tightly controlled interface between the bloodstream and central nervous system termed the 'neurovascular unit,' a narrow and tortuous tumor extracellular space containing a dense meshwork of proteins and glycosaminoglycans, and genomic heterogeneity and instability. A major goal of GBM therapy is achieving sustained drug delivery to glioma cells while minimizing toxicity to adjacent neurons and glia...
November 4, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809681/citrate-stabilized-lanthanide-doped-nanoparticles-brain-penetration-and-interaction-with-immune-cells-and-neurons
#8
Corinne Portioli, Marco Pedroni, Donatella Benati, Marta Donini, Roberta Bonafede, Raffaella Mariotti, Luigi Perbellini, Marzia Cerpelloni, Stefano Dusi, Adolfo Speghini, Marina Bentivoglio
AIM: To unravel key aspects of the use of lanthanide-doped nanoparticles (NPs) in biomedicine, the interaction with immune and brain cells. MATERIALS & METHODS: Effects of citrate-stabilized CaF2 and SrF2: Yb, Er NPs (13-15 nm) on human dendritic cells and neurons were assessed in vitro. In vivo distribution was analyzed in mice at tissue and ultrastructural levels, and with glia immunophenotyping. RESULTS: The NPs did not elicit dendritic cell activation and were internalized by cultured neurons, without viability changes...
November 4, 2016: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807898/yap-functions-as-a-mechanotransducer-in-oligodendrocyte-morphogenesis-and-maturation
#9
Takeshi Shimizu, Yasuyuki Osanai, Kenji F Tanaka, Manabu Abe, Rie Natsume, Kenji Sakimura, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are myelinating cells of the central nervous system. Recent studies have shown that mechanical factors influence various cell properties. Mechanical stimuli can be transduced into intracellular biochemical signals through mechanosensors and intracellular mechanotransducers, such as YAP. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying mechanical regulation of OLs by YAP remain unknown. We found that OL morphology and interactions between OLs and neuronal axons were affected by knocking down YAP...
November 3, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796063/endogenous-gaba-controls-oligodendrocyte-lineage-cell-number-myelination-and-cns-internode-length
#10
Nicola B Hamilton, Laura E Clarke, I Lorena Arancibia-Carcamo, Eleni Kougioumtzidou, Moritz Matthey, Ragnhildur Káradóttir, Louise Whiteley, Linda H Bergersen, William D Richardson, David Attwell
Adjusting the thickness and internodal length of the myelin sheath is a mechanism for tuning the conduction velocity of axons to match computational needs. Interactions between oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and developing axons regulate the formation of myelin around axons. We now show, using organotypic cerebral cortex slices from mice expressing eGFP in Sox10-positive oligodendrocytes, that endogenously released GABA, acting on GABAA receptors, greatly reduces the number of oligodendrocyte lineage cells...
October 31, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751234/direct-modulation-of-gfap-expressing-glia-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-bi-directionally-regulates-feeding
#11
Naiyan Chen, Hiroki Sugihara, Jinah Kim, Zhanyan Fu, Boaz Barak, Mriganka Sur, Guoping Feng, Weiping Han
Multiple hypothalamic neuronal populations that regulate energy balance have been identified. Although hypothalamic glia exist in abundance and form intimate structural connections with neurons, their roles in energy homeostasis are less known. Here we show that selective Ca(2+) activation of glia in the mouse arcuate nucleus (ARC) reversibly induces increased food intake while disruption of Ca(2+) signaling pathway in ARC glia reduces food intake. The specific activation of ARC glia enhances the activity of agouti-related protein/neuropeptide Y (AgRP/NPY)-expressing neurons but induces no net response in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons...
October 18, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697904/the-stage-dependent-roles-of-ldb1-and-functional-redundancy-with-ldb2-in-mammalian-retinogenesis
#12
Keren Gueta, Ahuvit David, Tsadok Cohen, Yotam Menuchin-Lasowski, Hila Nobel, Ginat Narkis, LiQi Li, Paul Love, Jimmy de Melo, Seth Blackshaw, Heiner Westphal, Ruth Ashery-Padan
The Lim domain-binding proteins are key co-factor proteins that assemble with LIM domains of the LMO/LIM-HD family to form functional complexes that regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. Using conditional mutagenesis and comparative phenotypic analysis, we analyze the function of Ldb1 and Ldb2 in mouse retinal development, and demonstrate overlapping and specific functions of both proteins. Ldb1 interacts with Lhx2 in the embryonic retina and both Ldb1 and Ldb2 play a key role in maintaining the pool of retinal progenitor cells...
November 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687148/cathepsin-s-contributes-to-microglia-mediated-olfactory-dysfunction-through-the-regulation-of-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-axis-in-a-niemann-pick-disease-type-c1-model
#13
Yoojin Seo, Hyung-Sik Kim, Insung Kang, Soon Won Choi, Tae-Hoon Shin, Ji-Hee Shin, Byung-Chul Lee, Jin Young Lee, Jae-Jun Kim, Myung Geun Kook, Kyung-Sun Kang
Microglia can aggravate olfactory dysfunction by mediating neuronal death in the olfactory bulb (OB) of a murine model of Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder accompanied by lipid trafficking defects. In this study, we focused on the crosstalk between neurons and microglia to elucidate the mechanisms underlying extensive microgliosis in the NPC1-affected brain. Microglia in the OB of NPC1 mice strongly expressed CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (Cx3cr1), a specific receptor for the neural chemokine C-X3-C motif ligand 1 (Cx3cl1)...
December 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662685/complete-neuron-astrocyte-interaction-model-digital-multiplierless-design-and-networking-mechanism
#14
Saeed Haghiri, Arash Ahmadi, Mehrdad Saif
Glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia, are non-neuronal cells providing support and protection for neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). They also act as supportive cells in the brain. Among a variety of glial cells, the star-shaped glial cells, i.e., astrocytes, are the largest cell population in the brain. The important role of astrocyte such as neuronal synchronization, synaptic information regulation, feedback to neural activity and extracellular regulation make the astrocytes play a vital role in brain disease...
September 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660327/monitoring-cell-cell-contacts-in-vivo-in-transgenic-animals
#15
Ting-Hao Huang, Tarciso Velho, Carlos Lois
We used a synthetic genetic system based on ligand-induced intramembrane proteolysis to monitor cell-cell contacts in animals. Upon ligand-receptor interaction in sites of cell-cell contact, the transmembrane domain of an engineered receptor is cleaved by intramembrane proteolysis and releases a protein fragment that regulates transcription in the interacting partners. We demonstrate that the system can be used to regulate gene expression between interacting cells both in vitro and in vivo, in transgenic Drosophila We show that the system allows for detection of interactions between neurons and glia in the Drosophila nervous system...
September 22, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658374/cadm3-necl-1-interferes-with-the-activation-of-the-pi3-kinase-akt-signaling-cascade-and-inhibits-schwann-cell-myelination-in-vitro
#16
Ming-Shuo Chen, Hyosung Kim, Léonard Jagot-Lacoussiere, Patrice Maurel
Axo-glial interactions are critical for myelination and the domain organization of myelinated fibers. Cell adhesion molecules belonging to the Cadm family, and in particular Cadm3 (axonal) and its heterophilic binding partner Cadm4 (Schwann cell), mediate these interactions along the internode. Using targeted shRNA-mediated knockdown, we show that the removal of axonal Cadm3 promotes Schwann cell myelination in the in vitro DRG neuron/Schwann cell myelinating system. Conversely, over-expressing Cadm3 on the surface of DRG neuron axons results in an almost complete inability by Schwann cells to form myelin segments...
December 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647497/delayed-glial-clearance-of-degenerating-axons-in-aged-drosophila-is-due-to-reduced-pi3k-draper-activity
#17
Maria D Purice, Sean D Speese, Mary A Logan
Advanced age is the greatest risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, but the mechanisms that render the senescent brain vulnerable to disease are unclear. Glial immune responses provide neuroprotection in a variety of contexts. Thus, we explored how glial responses to neurodegeneration are altered with age. Here we show that glia-axon phagocytic interactions change dramatically in the aged Drosophila brain. Aged glia clear degenerating axons slowly due to low phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signalling and, subsequently, reduced expression of the conserved phagocytic receptor Draper/MEGF10...
September 20, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640997/atp-from-synaptic-terminals-and-astrocytes-regulates-nmda-receptors-and-synaptic-plasticity-through-psd-95-multi-protein-complex
#18
U Lalo, O Palygin, A Verkhratsky, S G N Grant, Y Pankratov
Recent studies highlighted the importance of astrocyte-secreted molecules, such as ATP, for the slow modulation of synaptic transmission in central neurones. Biophysical mechanisms underlying the impact of gliotransmitters on the strength of individual synapse remain, however, unclear. Here we show that purinergic P2X receptors can bring significant contribution to the signalling in the individual synaptic boutons. ATP released from astrocytes facilitates a recruitment of P2X receptors into excitatory synapses by Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622932/glial-contributions-to-visceral-pain-implications-for-disease-etiology-and-the-female-predominance-of-persistent-pain
#19
REVIEW
K N Dodds, E A H Beckett, S F Evans, P M Grace, L R Watkins, M R Hutchinson
In the central nervous system, bidirectional signaling between glial cells and neurons ('neuroimmune communication') facilitates the development of persistent pain. Spinal glia can contribute to heightened pain states by a prolonged release of neurokine signals that sensitize adjacent centrally projecting neurons. Although many persistent pain conditions are disproportionately common in females, whether specific neuroimmune mechanisms lead to this increased susceptibility remains unclear. This review summarizes the major known contributions of glia and neuroimmune interactions in pain, which has been determined principally in male rodents and in the context of somatic pain conditions...
September 13, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619889/functional-metabolic-interactions-of-human-neuron-astrocyte-3d-in-vitro-networks
#20
Daniel Simão, Ana P Terrasso, Ana P Teixeira, Catarina Brito, Ursula Sonnewald, Paula M Alves
The generation of human neural tissue-like 3D structures holds great promise for disease modeling, drug discovery and regenerative medicine strategies. Promoting the establishment of complex cell-cell interactions, 3D culture systems enable the development of human cell-based models with increased physiological relevance, over monolayer cultures. Here, we demonstrate the establishment of neuronal and astrocytic metabolic signatures and shuttles in a human 3D neural cell model, namely the glutamine-glutamate-GABA shuttle...
2016: Scientific Reports
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