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Neuron-glia interactions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336992/schwann-cell-lamellipodia-regulate-cell-cell-interactions-and-phagocytosis
#1
Johana Tello Velasquez, James A St John, Lynn Nazareth, Jenny A K Ekberg
Lamellipodia in Schwann cells (SCs) are crucial for myelination, but their other biological functions remain largely uncharacterised. Two types of lamellipodia exist in SCs: axial lamellipodia at the outermost edge of the cell processes, and radial lamellipodia appearing peripherally along the entire cell. We have previously shown that radial lamellipodia on olfactory glia (olfactory ensheathing cells; OECs) promote cell-cell adhesion, contact-mediated migration and phagocytosis. Here we have investigated whether lamellipodia in SCs have similar roles...
January 11, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331396/autophagy-in-ischemic-stroke
#2
REVIEW
Pei Wang, Bo-Zong Shao, Zhiqiang Deng, Shi Chen, Zhenyu Yue, Chao-Yu Miao
Autophagy is a self-eating cellular catabolic pathway, through which long-lived proteins, damaged organelles and misfolded proteins are degraded and recycled for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and normal cellular functions. Autophagy plays an important homeostatic role in the regulation of cell survival. Accumulating evidence shows that autophagy is activated in various cell types in the brain such as neurons, glia cells, and brain microvascular cells upon ischemic stroke. However, the exact role and molecular mechanisms of autophagy process that is implicated in ischemic stroke have yet to be elucidated...
January 10, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330870/cell-therapy-for-spinal-cord-injury-with-olfactory-ensheathing-glia-cells-oecs
#3
REVIEW
Rosa M Gómez, Magdy Y Sánchez, Maria Portela-Lomba, Kemel Ghotme, George E Barreto, Javier Sierra, M Teresa Moreno-Flores
The prospects of achieving regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) have changed, as most recent findings indicate that several species, including humans, can produce neurons in adulthood. Studies targeting this property may be considered as potential therapeutic strategies to respond to injury or the effects of demyelinating diseases in the CNS. While CNS trauma may interrupt the axonal tracts that connect neurons with their targets, some neurons remain alive, as seen in optic nerve and spinal cord (SC) injuries (SCIs)...
January 13, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330091/cdc42ep4-a-perisynaptic-scaffold-protein-in-bergmann-glia-is-required-for-glutamatergic-tripartite-synapse-configuration
#4
Natsumi Ageta-Ishihara, Kohtarou Konno, Maya Yamazaki, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Masahiko Watanabe, Makoto Kinoshita
Configuration of tripartite synapses, comprising the pre-, post-, and peri-synaptic components (axon terminal or bouton, dendritic spine, and astroglial terminal process), is a critical determinant of neurotransmitter kinetics and hence synaptic transmission. However, little is known about molecular basis for the regulation of tripartite synapse morphology. Previous studies showed that CDC42EP4, an effector protein of a cell morphogenesis regulator CDC42, is expressed exclusively in Bergmann glia in the cerebellar cortex, that it forms tight complex with the septin heterooligomer, and that it interacts indirectly with the glutamate transporter GLAST and MYH10/nonmuscle myosin ΙΙB...
January 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283023/neuroinflammation-mast-cells-and-glia-dangerous-liaisons
#5
Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso, Pietro Giusti
The perspective of neuroinflammation as an epiphenomenon following neuron damage is being replaced by the awareness of glia and their importance in neural functions and disorders. Systemic inflammation generates signals that communicate with the brain and leads to changes in metabolism and behavior, with microglia assuming a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Identification of potential peripheral-to-central cellular links is thus a critical step in designing effective therapeutics. Mast cells may fulfill such a role...
October 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204745/heterogeneity-and-function-of-hippocampal-macroglia
#6
REVIEW
Gerald Seifert, Christian Steinhäuser
The contribution of glial cells to normal and impaired hippocampal function is increasingly being recognized, although important questions as to the mechanisms that these cells use for their crosstalk with neurons and capillaries are still unanswered or lead to controversy. Astrocytes in the hippocampus are morphologically variable and a single cell contacts with its processes more than 100,000 synapses. They predominantly express inward rectifier K+ channels and transporters serving homeostatic function but may also release gliotransmitters to modify neuronal signaling and brain circulation...
December 4, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196188/nervous-system-development-and-disease-a-focus-on-trithorax-related-proteins-and-chromatin-remodelers
#7
REVIEW
Amanda Moccia, Donna M Martin
The nervous system comprises many different cell types including neurons, glia, macrophages, and immune cells, each of which is defined by specific patterns of gene expression, morphology, function, and anatomical location. Establishment of these complex and highly regulated cell fates requires spatial and temporal coordination of gene transcription. Open chromatin (euchromatin) allows transcription factors to interact with gene promoters and activate lineage specific genes, whereas closed chromatin (heterochromatin) remains inaccessible to transcriptional activation...
November 28, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180673/calhm2-governs-astrocytic-atp-releasing-in-the-development-of-depression-like-behaviors
#8
M Jun, Q Xiaolong, Y Chaojuan, P Ruiyuan, W Shukun, W Junbing, H Li, C Hong, C Jinbo, W Rong, L Yajin, M Lanqun, W Fengchao, W Zhiying, A Jianxiong, W Yun, Z Xia, Z Chen, Y Zengqiang
Extracellular ATP is a widespread cell-to-cell signaling molecule in the brain, where it functions as a neuromodulator by activating glia and neurons. Although ATP exerts multiple effects on synaptic plasticity and neuro-glia interactions, as well as in mood disorders, the source and regulation of ATP release remain to be elaborated. Here, we define Calhm2 as an ATP-releasing channel protein based on in vitro and in vivo models. Conventional knockout and conditional astrocyte knockout of Calhm2 both lead to significantly reduced ATP concentrations, loss of hippocampal spine number, neural dysfunction and depression-like behaviors in mice, which can be significantly rescued by ATP replenishment...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172736/role-of-glial-cells-in-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-mediated-vasodilation-in-the-rat-retina
#9
Eriko Someya, Asami Mori, Daiki Asano, Akane Morita, Kenji Sakamoto, Tsutomu Nakahara
PURPOSE: Our recent study demonstrated that herkinorin, a non-opioid μ-receptor agonist derived from salvinorin A, dilates retinal arterioles through stimulation of μ-opioid receptors in rats. Activation of neuronal nitric oxide (NO) synthase and the presence of ganglion cells in the retina appear to be crucial for inducing μ-opioid receptor-mediated retinal vasodilation. In the present study, we examined the role of the interaction between neurons and glia in the retinal vasodilator mechanism involving μ-opioid receptors in rats...
November 27, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138279/the-secreted-neurotrophin-sp%C3%A3-tzle-3-promotes-glial-morphogenesis-and-supports-neuronal-survival-and-function
#10
Jaeda C Coutinho-Budd, Amy E Sheehan, Marc R Freeman
Most glial functions depend on establishing intimate morphological relationships with neurons. Significant progress has been made in understanding neuron-glia signaling at synaptic and axonal contacts, but how glia support neuronal cell bodies is unclear. Here we explored the growth and functions of Drosophila cortex glia (which associate almost exclusively with neuronal cell bodies) to understand glia-soma interactions. We show that cortex glia tile with one another and with astrocytes to establish unique central nervous system (CNS) spatial domains that actively restrict glial growth, and selective ablation of cortex glia causes animal lethality...
November 14, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128889/the-role-of-neuron-glia-interactions-in-the-emergence-of-ultra-slow-oscillations
#11
Siow-Cheng Chan, Siew-Ying Mok, Danny Wee-Kiat Ng, Sing-Yau Goh
Ultra-slow cortical oscillatory activity of 1-100 mHz has been recorded in human by electroencephalography and in dissociated cultures of cortical rat neurons, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study presents a computational model of ultra-slow oscillatory activity based on the interaction between neurons and astrocytes. We predict that the frequency of these oscillations closely depends on activation of astrocytes in the network, which is reflected by oscillations of their intracellular calcium concentrations with periods between tens of seconds and minutes...
November 11, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126252/monoamines-in-glioblastoma-complex-biology-with-therapeutic-potential
#12
Seamus Patrick Caragher, Robert Raymond Hall, Riasat Ahsan, Atique U Ahmed
Glioblastoma (GBM) is characterized by extremely poor prognoses, despite the use of gross surgical resection, alkylating chemotherapeutic agents, and radiotherapy. Evidence increasingly highlights the role of the tumor microenvironment in enabling this aggressive phenotype. Despite this interest, the role of neurotransmitters, brain-specific messengers underlying synaptic transmission, remains murky. These signaling molecules influence a complex network of molecular pathways and cellular behaviors in many CNS-resident cells including neural stem cells and progenitor cells, neurons, and glia cells...
November 4, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117513/mechanisms-of-dietary-flavonoid-action-in-neuronal-function-and-neuroinflammation
#13
REVIEW
Baptiste N Jaeger, Sarah L Parylak, Fred H Gage
Flavonoids are a class of plant-derived dietary polyphenols that have attracted attention for their pro-cognitive and anti-inflammatory effects. The diversity of flavonoids and their extensive in vivo metabolism suggest that a variety of cellular targets in the brain are likely to be impacted by flavonoid consumption. Initially characterized as antioxidants, flavonoids are now believed to act directly on neurons and glia via the interaction with major signal transduction cascades, as well as indirectly via interaction with the blood-brain barrier and cerebral vasculature...
November 9, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097753/secretoneurin-a-regulates-neurogenic-and-inflammatory-transcriptional-networks-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus-radial-glia
#14
Dillon F Da Fonte, Christopher J Martyniuk, Lei Xing, Adrian Pelin, Nicolas Corradi, Wei Hu, Vance L Trudeau
Radial glial cells (RGCs) are the most abundant macroglia in the teleost brain and have established roles in neurogenesis and neurosteroidogenesis; however, their transcriptome remains uncharacterized, which limits functional understanding of this important cell type. Using cultured goldfish RGCs, RNA sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly were performed, generating the first reference transcriptome for fish RGCs with 17,620 unique genes identified. These data revealed that RGCs express a diverse repertoire of receptors and signaling molecules, suggesting that RGCs may respond to and synthesize an array of hormones, peptides, cytokines, and growth factors...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091966/positive-feedback-and-synchronized-bursts-in-neuronal-cultures
#15
Yu-Ting Huang, Yu-Lin Chang, Chun-Chung Chen, Pik-Yin Lai, C K Chan
Synchronized bursts (SBs) with complex structures are common in neuronal cultures. Although the phenomenon of SBs has been discovered for a long time, its origin is still unclear. Here, we investigate the properties of these SBs in cultures grown on a multi-electrode array. We find that structures of these SBs are related to the different developmental stages of the cultures and these structures can be modified by changing the magnesium concentration in the culture medium; indicating that synaptic mechanism is involved in the generation of SBs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090517/increased-glia-density-in-the-caudate-nucleus-in-williams-syndrome-implications-for-frontostriatal-dysfunction-in-autism
#16
Kari L Hanson, Caroline H Lew, Branka Hrvoj-Mihic, Kimberly M Groeniger, Eric Halgren, Ursula Bellugi, Katerina Semendeferi
Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder with a well-described, known genetic etiology. In contrast to Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), WS has a unique phenotype characterized by global reductions in IQ and visuospatial ability, with relatively preserved language function, enhanced reactivity to social stimuli and music, and an unusual eagerness to interact socially with strangers. A duplication of the deleted region in WS has been implicated in a subset of ASD cases, defining a spectrum of genetic and behavioral variation at this locus defined by these opposite extremes in social behavior...
November 1, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079819/perturbed-wnt-signaling-leads-to-neuronal-migration-delay-altered-interhemispheric-connections-and-impaired-social-behavior
#17
Riccardo Bocchi, Kristof Egervari, Laura Carol-Perdiguer, Beatrice Viale, Charles Quairiaux, Mathias De Roo, Michael Boitard, Suzanne Oskouie, Patrick Salmon, Jozsef Z Kiss
Perturbed neuronal migration and circuit development have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental diseases; however, the direct steps linking these developmental errors to behavior alterations remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that Wnt/C-Kit signaling is a key regulator of glia-guided radial migration in rat somatosensory cortex. Transient downregulation of Wnt signaling in migrating, callosal projection neurons results in delayed positioning in layer 2/3. Delayed neurons display reduced neuronal activity with impaired afferent connectivity causing permanent deficit in callosal projections...
October 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079540/il-18-contributes-to-bone-cancer-pain-by-regulating-glia-cells-and-neuron-interaction
#18
Su Liu, Yue-Peng Liu, You Lv, Jun-Li Yao, Dong-Mei Yue, Mao-Yin Zhang, Dun-Yi Qi, Gong-Jian Liu
BACKGROUND: Glia cells hyperactivity has been proposed to be responsible for chronic pain, however, the mechanisms remain unclear. IL-18, released from glial cells, has been reported to be involved in neuropathic pain. Here, we investigated the role of IL-18 in bone cancer pain. METHODS: Bone cancer pain was mimicked by injecting Walker-256 mammary gland carcinoma cells into the intramedullary space of the tibia in rats. Expression and location of IL-18 and IL-18 receptor were tested...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078717/untangling-the-wiring-of-the-drosophila-visual-system-developmental-principles-and-molecular-strategies
#19
Haritz Plazaola-Sasieta, Alejandra Fernández-Pineda, Qi Zhu, Marta Morey
The assembly of neural circuits relies on the accurate establishment of connections between synaptic partners. Precise wiring results from responses that neurons elicit to environmental cues and cell-cell contact events during development. A common design principle in both invertebrate and vertebrate adult nervous systems is the orderly array of columnar and layered synaptic units of certain neuropils. This similarity is particularly striking in the visual system, both at the structural and cell-type levels...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076504/the-special-relationship-glia-neuron-interactions-in-the-neuroendocrine-hypothalamus
#20
REVIEW
Jerome Clasadonte, Vincent Prevot
Natural fluctuations in physiological conditions require adaptive responses involving rapid and reversible structural and functional changes in the hypothalamic neuroendocrine circuits that control homeostasis. Here, we discuss the data that implicate hypothalamic glia in the control of hypothalamic neuroendocrine circuits, specifically neuron-glia interactions in the regulation of neurosecretion as well as neuronal excitability. Mechanistically, the morphological plasticity displayed by distal processes of astrocytes, pituicytes and tanycytes modifies the geometry and diffusion properties of the extracellular space...
October 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
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