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Neuron-glia interactions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918359/major-depressive-disorder-and-anxiety-disorders-from-the-glial-perspective-etiological-mechanisms-intervention-and-monitoring
#1
REVIEW
Mari Sild, Edward S Ruthazer, Linda Booij
Despite intense ongoing research efforts, the etiology of psychiatric disorders remains incompletely understood. Among biological factors playing a role in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Anxiety Disorders (ANX), emerging evidence points to the relevance of different types of glia cells and efficient neuron-glia interactions. Here, we review recent findings highlighting the involvement of central nervous system (CNS) glia in MDD and ANX etiology and treatment response. Additionally, several relatively underexplored topics will be discussed: 1) glial response to non-pharmacological therapies, 2) impact of early life adversity on glia, 3) influence of lifestyle factors on glia in the context of MDD and ANX, and 4) monitoring glial functions in patients...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912643/decreased-glial-gaba-and-tonic-inhibition-in-cerebellum-of-mouse-model-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#2
Yoo Sung Kim, Junsung Woo, C Justin Lee, Bo-Eun Yoon
About 5~12% of school-aged children suffer from the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, the core mechanism of ADHD remains unclear. G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein-1 (GIT1) has recently been reported to be associated with ADHD in human and the genetic deletion of GIT1 result in ADHD-like behaviors in mice. Mice lacking GIT1 shows a shift in neuronal excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance. However, the pricise mechanism for E/I imbalance and the role of neuron-glia interaction in GIT1 knockout (KO) mice have not been studied...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901624/the-12th-international-conference-on-brain-energy-metabolism-icbem-energy-metabolism-and-neuron-glia-interactions-in-brain-from-molecular-mechanisms-to-novel-therapeutic-approaches
#3
EDITORIAL
Albert C H Yu, Arne Schousboe, Mary C McKenna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893581/tryptophan-circuit-in-fatigue-from-blood-to-brain-and-cognition
#4
Masatoshi Yamashita, Takanobu Yamamoto
Brain tryptophan and its neuroactive metabolites play key roles in central fatigue. However, previous brain function analysis targets may have included both glia and neurons together. Here, we clarified the fatigue-cognitive circuit of the central-peripheral linkage, including the role of glial-neuronal interaction in cognition. Using a rat model of central fatigue induced by chronic sleep disorder (CFSD), we isolated presynaptic terminals and oligodendrocytes. Results showed that compared to control group, presynaptic levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, and kynurenic acid, but not serotonin, in the CFSD group were higher in the hypothalamus and hippocampus...
September 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892058/glia-specific-enhancers-and-chromatin-structure-regulate-nfia-expression-and-glioma-tumorigenesis
#5
Stacey M Glasgow, Jeffrey C Carlson, Wenyi Zhu, Lesley S Chaboub, Peng Kang, Hyun Kyoung Lee, Yoanne M Clovis, Brittney E Lozzi, Robert J McEvilly, Michael G Rosenfeld, Chad J Creighton, Soo-Kyung Lee, Carrie A Mohila, Benjamin Deneen
Long-range enhancer interactions critically regulate gene expression, yet little is known about how their coordinated activities contribute to CNS development or how this may, in turn, relate to disease states. By examining the regulation of the transcription factor NFIA in the developing spinal cord, we identified long-range enhancers that recapitulate NFIA expression across glial and neuronal lineages in vivo. Complementary genetic studies found that Sox9-Brn2 and Isl1-Lhx3 regulate enhancer activity and NFIA expression in glial and neuronal populations...
September 11, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883901/loss-of-sigma-1-receptor-chaperone-promotes-astrocytosis-and-enhances-the-nrf2-antioxidant-defense
#6
Tzu-Yu Weng, Denise T Hung, Tsung-Ping Su, Shang-Yi A Tsai
Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) functions as a chaperon that interacts with multiple proteins and lipids and is implicated in neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Here, we used Sig-1R KO mice to examine brain expression profiles of astrocytes and ubiquitinated proteins, which are both hallmarks of central nervous system (CNS) pathologies. Our results showed that Sig-1R KO induces increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in primary neuron-glia cultures and in the whole brain of fetus mice with concomitantly increased accumulations of ubiquitinated proteins...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875233/glutamate-dependent-translational-control-of-glutamine-synthetase-in-bergmann-glia-cells
#7
Reynaldo Tiburcio-Félix, Miguel Escalante-López, Bruno López-Bayghen, Daniel Martínez, Luisa C Hernández-Kelly, Samuel Zinker, Dinorah Hernández-Melchor, Esther López-Bayghen, Tatiana N Olivares-Bañuelos, Arturo Ortega
Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter of the vertebrate brain. It exerts its actions through the activation of specific plasma membrane receptors expressed both in neurons and in glial cells. Recent evidence has shown that glutamate uptake systems, particularly enriched in glia cells, trigger biochemical cascades in a similar fashion as receptors. A tight regulation of glutamate extracellular levels prevents neuronal overstimulation and cell death, and it is critically involved in glutamate turnover...
September 5, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846083/glia-initiate-brain-assembly-through-noncanonical-chimaerin-furin-axon-guidance-in-c-elegans
#8
Georgia Rapti, Chang Li, Alan Shan, Yun Lu, Shai Shaham
Brain assembly is hypothesized to begin when pioneer axons extend over non-neuronal cells, forming tracts guiding follower axons. Yet pioneer-neuron identities, their guidance substrates, and their interactions are not well understood. Here, using time-lapse embryonic imaging, genetics, protein-interaction, and functional studies, we uncover the early events of C. elegans brain assembly. We demonstrate that C. elegans glia are key for assembly initiation, guiding pioneer and follower axons using distinct signals...
August 28, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771716/microrna-212-inhibits-oligodendrocytes-during-maturation-by-down-regulation-of-differentiation-associated-gene-expression
#9
Chih-Yen Wang, Benjamin Deneen, Shun-Fen Tzeng
MicroRNA-212 (mir-212) has been reported to regulate neuronal development and functioning. However, its expression and function in glia are not yet known. Here, we demonstrate that the level of microRNA-212 (mir-212) was reduced in spinal cord lesion site at 1 week and 1 month after a contusive spinal cord injury. In addition to its expression in neurons, mir-212 expression was detected in oligodendrocytes (OLGs) and glial progenitor cells (GPCs) in adult CNS. The addition of antagomir-212 to reduce mir-212 expression enabled to improve the cell process outgrowth of OLGs along with the up-regulation of the genes associated with OLG differentiation and maturation, including OLIG1, SOX10, myelin basic protein (MBP), and proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755808/potential-role-of-cxcl10-cxcr3-signaling-in-the-development-of-morphine-tolerance-in-periaqueductal-gray
#10
Wei Wang, Yawen Peng, Hui Yang, Huilian Bu, Genhua Guo, Daiqiang Liu, Bin Shu, Xuebi Tian, Ailin Luo, Xuming Zhang, Feng Gao
Tolerance to morphine antinociception hinders its long-term use in clinical practice. Interaction between neuron and microglia has been proved to play critical role in the mechanism of morphine tolerance, while CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling has been implicated in neuron-glia signaling and morphine analgesia. This study aims to investigate whether CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling in periaqueductal gray (PAG) contributes to the development of morphine tolerance by modulating neuron-microglia interaction. The results showed that the expressions of CXCR3 and CXCL10 were gradually increased in parallel with repeated morphine administration and activation of microglia...
July 24, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754981/cyclin-dependent-kinase-9-is-required-for-the-survival-of-adult-drosophila-melanogaster-glia
#11
Lynette C Foo
Neuronal and glial progenitor cells exist in the adult Drosophila brain. The primarily glial progenitor cells rely on a microRNA, mir-31a, to inhibit the expression of a predicted E3 ubiquitin ligase, CG16947. Erroneous inheritance of CG16947 by the progeny when the neural progenitor cell divides leads to death of the progeny, however how CG16947 achieves glial cell death is unknown. I have identified the interacting partner of CG16947 to be cdk9. I show that reduction of cdk9 expression in glia causes glial loss; highlighting the importance of cdk9 in mediating the survival of glia...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751923/role-of-bdnf-trkb-pathway-in-the-visual-system-therapeutic-implications-for-glaucoma
#12
B A Mysona, J Zhao, K E Bollinger
INTRODUCTION: Neuroprotective therapeutics are needed to treat glaucoma, an optic neuropathy that results in death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). AREAS COVERED: The BDNF/TrkB pathway is important for RGC survival. Temporal and spatial alterations in the BDNF/TrkB pathway occur in development and in response to acute optic nerve injury and to glaucoma. In animal models, BDNF supplementation is successful at slowing RGC death after acute optic nerve injury and in glaucoma, however, the BDNF/TrkB signaling is not the only pathway supporting long term RGC survival...
2017: Expert Review of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737515/cell-biology-of-spinal-cord-injury-and-repair
#13
Timothy M O'Shea, Joshua E Burda, Michael V Sofroniew
Spinal cord injury (SCI) lesions present diverse challenges for repair strategies. Anatomically complete injuries require restoration of neural connectivity across lesions. Anatomically incomplete injuries may benefit from augmentation of spontaneous circuit reorganization. Here, we review SCI cell biology, which varies considerably across three different lesion-related tissue compartments: (a) non-neural lesion core, (b) astrocyte scar border, and (c) surrounding spared but reactive neural tissue. After SCI, axon growth and circuit reorganization are determined by neuron-cell-autonomous mechanisms and by interactions among neurons, glia, and immune and other cells...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707715/myelinating-cocultures-of-rodent-stem-cell-line-derived-neurons-and-immortalized-schwann-cells
#14
Tomohiro Ishii, Emiko Kawakami, Kentaro Endo, Hidemi Misawa, Kazuhiko Watabe
Myelination is one of the most remarkable biological events in the neuron-glia interactions for the development of the mammalian nervous system. To elucidate molecular mechanisms of cell-to-cell interactions in myelin synthesis in vitro, establishment of the myelinating system in cocultures of continuous neuronal and glial cell lines are desirable. In the present study, we performed co-culture experiments using rat neural stem cell-derived neurons or mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived motoneurons with immortalized rat IFRS1 Schwann cells to establish myelinating cultures between these cell lines...
July 14, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689039/connexin43-but-not-connexin30-contributes-to-adult-neurogenesis-in-the-dentate-gyrus
#15
REVIEW
Jiong Zhang, Stephanie Griemsmann, Zhou Wu, Radoslaw Dobrowolski, Klaus Willecke, Martin Theis, Christian Steinhäuser, Peter Bedner
The subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus represents a niche in which radial glia (RG)-like cells generate new neurons throughout postnatal life in the mammalian brain. Previous data showed that RG-like cells are coupled through gap junction channels, primarily formed by connexin43 (Cx43) and Cx30, and that the expression of these proteins is required for adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. However, their individual function and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that Cx43, but not Cx30, is crucial for adult neurogenesis...
July 5, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684344/inhibition-of-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-%C3%AE-reduces-reactive-glia-and-scar-formation-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#16
Dan Pei, Nan Liu, Dan Li, Hongjing Yan, Qiu-Bo Wang, Yan Fang, Ling Xie, Hong-Peng Li
Brain injury leads to complex cellular and molecular interactions within the central nervous system. As the glial scar was a mechanical barrier to regeneration, inhibitory molecules in the forming scar and methods to overcome them have suggested molecular modification strategies to allow neuronal growth and functional regeneration. Here we investigated the roles of PDGFRβ signaling in regulating astrocyte reactivity and scar formation in mice following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The expression and distribution of phosphorylated PDGFRβ was analyzed, and its cell type-specific expression was verified with double labeling of astrocytes (GFAP), microglia (IBA1), oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) (NG2) and leukocytes (CD45)...
July 4, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680301/functional-characterization-of-resting-and-adenovirus-induced-reactive-astrocytes-in-three-dimensional-culture
#17
Junsung Woo, Sun-Kyoung Im, Heejung Chun, Soon-Young Jung, Soo-Jin Oh, Nakwon Choi, C Justin Lee, Eun-Mi Hur
Brain is a rich environment where neurons and glia interact with neighboring cells as well as extracellular matrix in three-dimensional (3D) space. Astrocytes, which are the most abundant cells in the mammalian brain, reside in 3D space and extend highly branched processes that form microdomains and contact synapses. It has been suggested that astrocytes cultured in 3D might be maintained in a less reactive state as compared to those growing in a traditional, two-dimensional (2D) monolayer culture. However, the functional characterization of the astrocytes in 3D culture has been lacking...
June 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674010/fibroblast-growth-factor-signaling-instructs-ensheathing-glia-wrapping-of-drosophila-olfactory-glomeruli
#18
Bing Wu, Jiefu Li, Ya-Hui Chou, David Luginbuhl, Liqun Luo
The formation of complex but highly organized neural circuits requires interactions between neurons and glia. During the assembly of the Drosophila olfactory circuit, 50 olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) classes and 50 projection neuron (PN) classes form synaptic connections in 50 glomerular compartments in the antennal lobe, each of which represents a discrete olfactory information-processing channel. Each compartment is separated from the adjacent compartments by membranous processes from ensheathing glia. Here we show that Thisbe, an FGF released from olfactory neurons, particularly from local interneurons, instructs ensheathing glia to wrap each glomerulus...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637974/neuron-glia-interaction-is-a-key-mechanism-underlying-persistent-orofacial-pain
#19
Koichi Iwata, Ayano Katagiri, Masamichi Shinoda
Excitability of neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (TG), trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc), and upper cervical spinal cord (C1-C2) is greatly enhanced after orofacial inflammation and trigeminal nerve injury, and TG, Vc, and C1-C2 neurons remain sensitized long after such episodes. Sensitized neurons generate various molecules, which are released from nociceptive neurons in these areas and are involved in modulating the excitability of TG, Vc, and C1-C2 nociceptive neurons. Hyperexcitable nociceptive neurons also activate satellite glial cells in the TG and microglial cells and astrocytes in the Vc and C1-C2...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620838/modelling-fus-mislocalisation-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-innervated-human-muscle
#20
Sonja Prpar Mihevc, Mojca Pavlin, Simona Darovic, Marko Živin, Matej Podbregar, Boris Rogelj, Tomaz Mars
Degeneration of distal axons and neuromuscular junctions is an early feature in the pathology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which culminates in motor neuron loss due to axon retraction and muscle atrophy. The complex interactions in the pathogenesis of ALS between motor neurons, muscle cells and accompanying glia require an appropriate experimental model. Here, we have defined a co-culture model based on human myotubes innervated by neurons from embryonic rat spinal cord explants to investigate the pathology and treatment of ALS...
August 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
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