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Neuron-glia interactions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779156/adolescent-isolation-rearing-produces-a-prepulse-inhibition-deficit-correlated-with-expression-of-the-nmda-glun1-subunit-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#1
Megan L Fitzgerald, Virginia M Pickel
Adolescence is a transition period during which social interaction is necessary for normal brain and behavior development. Severely abnormal social interactions during adolescence can increase the incidence of lifelong psychiatric disease. Decreased prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a quantifiable hallmark of some psychiatric illnesses in humans and can be elicited in rodents by isolation rearing throughout the adolescent transition period. PPI is a measure of sensorimotor gating in which the nucleus accumbens (Acb) is crucially involved...
May 19, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765315/challenges-in-reproducibility-replicability-and-comparability-of-computational-models-and-tools-for-neuronal-and-glial-networks-cells-and-subcellular-structures
#2
Tiina Manninen, Jugoslava Aćimović, Riikka Havela, Heidi Teppola, Marja-Leena Linne
The possibility to replicate and reproduce published research results is one of the biggest challenges in all areas of science. In computational neuroscience, there are thousands of models available. However, it is rarely possible to reimplement the models based on the information in the original publication, let alone rerun the models just because the model implementations have not been made publicly available. We evaluate and discuss the comparability of a versatile choice of simulation tools: tools for biochemical reactions and spiking neuronal networks, and relatively new tools for growth in cell cultures...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760681/sex-steroids-adult-neurogenesis-and-inflammation-in-cns-homeostasis-degeneration-and-repair
#3
REVIEW
Tracy A Larson
Sex steroidal hormones coordinate the development and maintenance of tissue architecture in many organs, including the central nervous systems (CNS). Within the CNS, sex steroids regulate the morphology, physiology, and behavior of a wide variety of neural cells including, but not limited to, neurons, glia, endothelial cells, and immune cells. Sex steroids spatially and temporally control distinct molecular networks, that, in turn modulate neural activity, synaptic plasticity, growth factor expression and function, nutrient exchange, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738840/ancient-horizontally-transferred-genes-in-the-genome-of-california-two-spot-octopus-octopus-bimaculoides
#4
Conghui Liu, Bo Liu, Yan Zhang, Fan Jiang, Yuwei Ren, Shuqu Li, Hengchao Wang, Wei Fan
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), a mechanism that shares genetic material between the host and donor from separated offspring branches, has been described as a means of producing novel and beneficial phenotypes for the host organisms. However, in molluscs, the second most diverse group, the existence of HGT is still controversial. In the present study, 12 HGT genes were identified from California two-spot octopus Octopus bimaculoides based on a similarity search, phylogenetic construction, gene composition analysis and PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) validation...
May 5, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706870/studying-axon-astrocyte-functional-interactions-by-3d-two-photon-ca-2-imaging-a-practical-guide-to-experiments-and-big-data-analysis
#5
Iaroslav Savtchouk, Giovanni Carriero, Andrea Volterra
Recent advances in fast volumetric imaging have enabled rapid generation of large amounts of multi-dimensional functional data. While many computer frameworks exist for data storage and analysis of the multi-gigabyte Ca2+ imaging experiments in neurons, they are less useful for analyzing Ca2+ dynamics in astrocytes, where transients do not follow a predictable spatio-temporal distribution pattern. In this manuscript, we provide a detailed protocol and commentary for recording and analyzing three-dimensional (3D) Ca2+ transients through time in GCaMP6f-expressing astrocytes of adult brain slices in response to axonal stimulation, using our recently developed tools to perform interactive exploration, filtering, and time-correlation analysis of the transients...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692728/purinergic-receptors-in-neurological-diseases-with-motor-symptoms-targets-for-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Ágatha Oliveira-Giacomelli, Yahaira Naaldijk, Laura Sardá-Arroyo, Maria C B Gonçalves, Juliana Corrêa-Velloso, Micheli M Pillat, Héllio D N de Souza, Henning Ulrich
Since proving adenosine triphosphate (ATP) functions as a neurotransmitter in neuron/glia interactions, the purinergic system has been more intensely studied within the scope of the central nervous system. In neurological disorders with associated motor symptoms, including Parkinson's disease (PD), motor neuron diseases (MND), multiple sclerosis (MS), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's Disease (HD), restless leg syndrome (RLS), and ataxias, alterations in purinergic receptor expression and activity have been noted, indicating a potential role for this system in disease etiology and progression...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670611/advances-in-biomarker-guided-therapy-for-pediatric-and-adult-onset-neuroinflammatory-disorders-targeting-chemokines-cytokines
#7
REVIEW
Michael R Pranzatelli
The concept and recognized components of "neuroinflammation" are expanding at the intersection of neurobiology and immunobiology. Chemokines (CKs), no longer merely necessary for immune cell trafficking and positioning, have multiple physiologic, developmental, and modulatory functionalities in the central nervous system (CNS) through neuron-glia interactions and other mechanisms affecting neurotransmission. They issue the "help me" cry of neurons and astrocytes in response to CNS injury, engaging invading lymphoid cells (T cells and B cells) and myeloid cells (dendritic cells, monocytes, and neutrophils) (adaptive immunity), as well as microglia and macrophages (innate immunity), in a cascade of events, some beneficial (reparative), others destructive (excitotoxic)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627007/mutation-of-the-cellular-adhesion-molecule-necl2-is-associated-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#8
Yan Xu, Liang Li, Hai-Tao Ren, Bin Yin, Jian-Gang Yuan, Xiao-Zhong Peng, Bo-Qin Qiang, Li-Ying Cui
AIMS: To investigate the association of the Nectin/Necl family genes with the risk of developing NMOSD. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was performed on two familial NMOSD cases and two unaffected family members. Additionally, 106 patients with sporadic NMOSD and 212 healthy controls (HCs) underwent screening for mutant Necl2. Finally, the molecular weight and cellular localization of mutant NECL2 was examined in transfected HeLa cells. RESULTS: We identified a novel deletion mutation in Necl2 (c...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626009/the-nurr1-ligand-1-1-bis-3-indolyl-1-p-chlorophenyl-methane-modulates-glial-reactivity-and-is-neuroprotective-in-mptp-induced-parkinsonism
#9
Sean L Hammond, Katriana A Popichak, Xi Li, Lindsay G Hunt, Evan H Richman, Pranav Damale, Edwin Chong, Donald S Backos, Stephen Safe, Ronald B Tjalkens
The orphan nuclear receptor, Nurr1 (NR4A2), regulates inflammatory gene expression in glial cells, as well as genes associated with homeostatic and trophic function in dopaminergic neurons. Despite these known functions of Nurr1, an endogenous ligand has not been discovered. We postulated that activation of Nurr1 would suppress activation of glia and thereby protect against loss of dopamine (DA) neurons following subacute lesioning with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Our previous studies have shown that a synthetic Nurr1 ligand, 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-chlorophenyl)methane (C-DIM12), suppresses inflammatory gene expression in primary astrocytes and induces a dopaminergic phenotype in neurons...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623030/on-the-role-of-store-operated-calcium-entry-in-acute-and-chronic-neurodegenerative-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Agnese Secondo, Giacinto Bagetta, Diana Amantea
In both excitable and non-excitable cells, calcium (Ca2+ ) signals are maintained by a highly integrated process involving store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), namely the opening of plasma membrane (PM) Ca2+ channels following the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Upon depletion of Ca2+ store, the stromal interaction molecule (STIM) senses Ca2+ level reduction and migrates from endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-like sites to the PM where it activates the channel proteins Orai and/or the transient receptor potential channels (TRPC) prompting Ca2+ refilling...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618972/an-inflammation-centric-view-of-neurological-disease-beyond-the-neuron
#11
REVIEW
Stephen D Skaper, Laura Facci, Morena Zusso, Pietro Giusti
Inflammation is a complex biological response fundamental to how the body deals with injury and infection to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury and effect repair. Unlike a normally beneficial acute inflammatory response, chronic inflammation can lead to tissue damage and ultimately its destruction, and often results from an inappropriate immune response. Inflammation in the nervous system ("neuroinflammation"), especially when prolonged, can be particularly injurious. While inflammation per se may not cause disease, it contributes importantly to disease pathogenesis across both the peripheral (neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia) and central [e...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615864/molecular-neuropathology-of-astrocytes-and-oligodendrocytes-in-alcohol-use-disorders
#12
REVIEW
José J Miguel-Hidalgo
Postmortem studies reveal structural and molecular alterations of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in both the gray and white matter (GM and WM) of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in human subjects with chronic alcohol abuse or dependence. These glial cellular changes appear to parallel and may largely explain structural and functional alterations detected using neuroimaging techniques in subjects with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Moreover, due to the crucial roles of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in neurotransmission and signal conduction, these cells are very likely major players in the molecular mechanisms underpinning alcoholism-related connectivity disturbances between the PFC and relevant interconnecting brain regions...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614835/botulinum-toxin-type-a-a-modulator-of-spinal-neuron-glia-interactions-under-neuropathic-pain-conditions
#13
REVIEW
Ewelina Rojewska, Anna Piotrowska, Katarzyna Popiolek-Barczyk, Joanna Mika
Neuropathic pain represents a significant clinical problem because it is a chronic condition often refractory to available therapy. Therefore, there is still a strong need for new analgesics. Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) is used to treat a variety of clinical diseases associated with pain. Glia are in continuous bi-directional communication with neurons to direct the formation and refinement of synaptic connectivity. This review addresses the effects of BoNT/A on the relationship between glia and neurons under neuropathic pain...
April 2, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601944/cellular-players-that-shape-evolving-pathology-and-neurodegeneration-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
REVIEW
Shweta S Puntambekar, Maha Saber, Bruce T Lamb, Olga N Kokiko-Cochran
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide, and has emerged as a critical risk factor for multiple neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD). How the inflammatory cascade resulting from mechanical stress, axonal shearing and the loss of neurons and glia following initial impact in TBI, contributes to the development of AD-like disease is unclear. Neuroinflammation, characterized by blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and activation of brain-resident microglia and astrocytes, resulting in secretion of inflammatory mediators and subsequent recruitment of peripheral immune cells has been the focus of extensive research in attempts to identify drug-targets towards improving functional outcomes post TBI...
March 27, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593561/reciprocal-interactions-of-mitochondria-and-the-neuroimmunoendocrine-system-in-neurodegenerative-disorders-an-important-role-for-melatonin-regulation
#15
REVIEW
Victoria O Polyakova, Igor M Kvetnoy, George Anderson, Jessica Rosati, Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Natalya S Linkova
Structural and functional alterations of mitochondria are intimately linked to a wide array of medical conditions. Many factors are involved in the regulation of mitochondrial function, including cytokines, chaperones, chemokines, neurosteroids, and ubiquitins. The role of diffusely located cells of the neuroendocrine system, including biogenic amines and peptide hormones, in the management of mitochondrial function, as well as the role of altered mitochondrial function in the regulation of these cells and system, is an area of intense investigation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557362/contributions-of-neurotropic-human-herpesviruses-herpes-simplex-virus-1-and-human-herpesvirus-6-to-neurodegenerative-disease-pathology
#16
REVIEW
Jessica M Hogestyn, David J Mock, Margot Mayer-Proschel
Human herpesviruses (HVs) have developed ingenious mechanisms that enable them to traverse the defenses of the central nervous system (CNS). The ability of HVs to enter a state of latency, a defining characteristic of this viral family, allows them to persist in the human host indefinitely. As such, HVs represent the most frequently detected pathogens in the brain. Under constant immune pressure, these infections are largely asymptomatic in healthy hosts. However, many neurotropic HVs have been directly connected with CNS pathology in the context of other stressors and genetic risk factors...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546711/the-pseudopod-system-for-axon-glia-interactions-stimulation-and-isolation-of-schwann-cell-protrusions-that-form-in-response-to-axonal-membranes
#17
Yannick Poitelon, M Laura Feltri
In the peripheral nervous system, axons dictate the differentiation state of Schwann cells. Most of this axonal influence on Schwann cells is due to juxtacrine interactions between axonal transmembrane molecules (e.g., the neuregulin growth factor) and receptors on the Schwann cell (e.g., the ErbB2/ErbB3 receptor). The fleeting nature of this interaction together with the lack of synchronicity in the development of the Schwann cell population limits our capability to study this phenomenon in vivo. Here we present a simple Boyden Chamber-based method to study this important cell-cell interaction event...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538620/camkii-dependent-endoplasmic-reticulum-fission-by-whisker-stimulation-and-during-cortical-spreading-depolarization
#18
Krzysztof Kucharz, Martin Lauritzen
Cortical spreading depolarization waves, the cause underlying migraine aura, are also the markers and mechanism of pathology in the acutely injured human brain. Propagation of spreading depolarization wave uniquely depends on the interaction between presynaptic and postsynaptic glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In the normally perfused brain, even a single wave causes a massive depolarization of neurons and glia, which results in transient loss of neuronal function and depression of the ongoing electrocorticographic activity...
April 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532253/transcriptional-and-epigenetic-control-of-mammalian-olfactory-epithelium-development
#19
REVIEW
Godwin Sokpor, Eman Abbas, Joachim Rosenbusch, Jochen F Staiger, Tran Tuoc
The postnatal mammalian olfactory epithelium (OE) represents a major aspect of the peripheral olfactory system. It is a pseudostratified tissue that originates from the olfactory placode and is composed of diverse cells, some of which are specialized receptor neurons capable of transducing odorant stimuli to afford the perception of smell (olfaction). The OE is known to offer a tractable miniature model for studying the systematic generation of neurons and glia that typify neural tissue development. During OE development, stem/progenitor cells that will become olfactory sensory neurons and/or non-neuronal cell types display fine spatiotemporal expression of neuronal and non-neuronal genes that ensures their proper proliferation, differentiation, survival, and regeneration...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524569/developmental-neurotoxicity-resulting-from-pharmacotherapy-of-preterm-labor-modeled-in-vitro-terbutaline-and-dexamethasone-separately-and-together
#20
Theodore A Slotkin, Samantha Skavicus, Frederic J Seidler
Terbutaline and dexamethasone are used in the management of preterm labor, often for durations of treatment exceeding those recommended, and both have been implicated in increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. We used a variety of cell models to establish the critical stages at which neurodifferentiation is vulnerable to these agents and to determine whether combined exposures produce a worsened outcome. Terbutaline selectively promoted the initial emergence of glia from embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs)...
May 1, 2018: Toxicology
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