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Neuron-glia interactions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100779/intramembrane-proteolysis-of-astrotactins
#1
Hao Chang, Philip M Smallwood, John Williams, Jeremy Nathans
Astrotactins are vertebrate-specific membrane proteins implicated in neuron-glia interactions during central nervous system development and in hair follicle polarity during skin development. By studying epitope-tagged derivatives of mouse Astrotactin2 (Astn2) produced in transfected cells, we determined that the amino- and carboxy-termini reside in the extracellular space and are initially linked by two transmembrane segments and a single cytoplasmic domain. We further show that Astn2 undergoes proteolytic cleavage in the second transmembrane domain (TM2) and that a disulfide bond holds the resulting two fragments together...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094337/glatiramer-acetate-attenuates-the-activation-of-cd4-t-cells-by-modulating-stat1-and-3-signaling-in-glia
#2
Ye-Hyeon Ahn, Sae-Bom Jeon, Chi Young Chang, Eun-Ah Goh, Sang Soo Kim, Ho Jin Kim, Jaewhan Song, Eun Jung Park
Interactions between immune effector cells of the central nervous system appear to directly or indirectly influence the progress/regression of multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we report that glial STAT1 and -3 are distinctively phosphorylated following the interaction of activated lymphocytes and glia, and this effect is significantly inhibited by glatiramer acetate (GA), a disease-modifying drug for MS. GA also reduces the activations of STAT1 and -3 by MS-associated stimuli such as IFNγ or LPS in primary glia, but not neurons...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086980/inflammation-in-epileptogenesis-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
REVIEW
Kyria M Webster, Mujun Sun, Peter Crack, Terence J O'Brien, Sandy R Shultz, Bridgette D Semple
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common and debilitating consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Seizures contribute to progressive neurodegeneration and poor functional and psychosocial outcomes for TBI survivors, and epilepsy after TBI is often resistant to existing anti-epileptic drugs. The development of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) occurs in a complex neurobiological environment characterized by ongoing TBI-induced secondary injury processes. Neuroinflammation is an important secondary injury process, though how it contributes to epileptogenesis, and the development of chronic, spontaneous seizure activity, remains poorly understood...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076797/major-shifts-in-glial-regional-identity-are-a-transcriptional-hallmark-of-human-brain-aging
#4
Lilach Soreq, Jamie Rose, Eyal Soreq, John Hardy, Daniah Trabzuni, Mark R Cookson, Colin Smith, Mina Ryten, Rickie Patani, Jernej Ule
Gene expression studies suggest that aging of the human brain is determined by a complex interplay of molecular events, although both its region- and cell-type-specific consequences remain poorly understood. Here, we extensively characterized aging-altered gene expression changes across ten human brain regions from 480 individuals ranging in age from 16 to 106 years. We show that astrocyte- and oligodendrocyte-specific genes, but not neuron-specific genes, shift their regional expression patterns upon aging, particularly in the hippocampus and substantia nigra, while the expression of microglia- and endothelial-specific genes increase in all brain regions...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051179/the-hypoparathyroidism-associated-mutation-in-drosophila-gcm-compromises-protein-stability-and-glial-cell-formation
#5
Xiao Xi, Lu Lu, Chun-Chun Zhuge, Xuebing Chen, Yuanfen Zhai, Jingjing Cheng, Haian Mao, Chang-Ching Yang, Bertrand Chin-Ming Tan, Yi-Nan Lee, Cheng-Ting Chien, Margaret S Ho
Differentiated neurons and glia are acquired from immature precursors via transcriptional controls exerted by factors such as proteins in the family of Glial Cells Missing (Gcm). Mammalian Gcm proteins mediate neural stem cell induction, placenta and parathyroid development, whereas Drosophila Gcm proteins act as a key switch to determine neuronal and glial cell fates and regulate hemocyte development. The present study reports a hypoparathyroidism-associated mutation R59L that alters Drosophila Gcm (Gcm) protein stability, rendering it unstable, and hyperubiquitinated via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039160/%C3%A2-potential-roles-of-enteric-glia-in-bridging-neuro-immune-communication-in-the-gut
#6
Aaron K Chow, Brian David Gulbransen
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a network of neurons and glia that controls ongoing gastrointestinal (GI) functions. Damage or injury to the ENS can lead to functional GI disorders. Current data support the conclusion that many functional GI disorders are caused by an imbalance between gut microbes and the immune system but how the ENS is involved in these interactions is less understood. Due to the proximity of the ENS to bacteria and other foreign antigens present in the GI tract, it is important to prevent the passage of these antigens through the GI epithelium...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003466/ultrastructural-anatomy-of-nodes-of-ranvier-in-the-peripheral-nervous-system-as-revealed-by-sted-microscopy
#7
Elisa D'Este, Dirk Kamin, Francisco Balzarotti, Stefan W Hell
We used stimulated emission depletion (STED) superresolution microscopy to analyze the nanoscale organization of 12 glial and axonal proteins at the nodes of Ranvier of teased sciatic nerve fibers. Cytoskeletal proteins of the axon (betaIV spectrin, ankyrin G) exhibit a high degree of one-dimensional longitudinal order at nodal gaps. In contrast, axonal and glial nodal adhesion molecules [neurofascin-186, neuron glial-related cell adhesion molecule (NrCAM)] can arrange in a more complex, 2D hexagonal-like lattice but still feature a ∼190-nm periodicity...
December 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997986/anatomy-and-spatial-organization-of-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-in-mouse-retina
#8
Jingjing Wang, Matthew L O'Sullivan, Dibyendu Mukherjee, Vanessa M Puñal, Sina Farsiu, Jeremy N Kay
Müller glia, the most abundant glia of vertebrate retina, have an elaborate morphology characterized by a vertical stalk that spans the retina and branches in each retinal layer. Müller glia play diverse, critical roles in retinal homeostasis, which are presumably enabled by their complex anatomy. However, much remains unknown, particularly in mouse, about the anatomical arrangement of Müller cells and their arbors, and how these features arise in development. Here we use membrane-targeted fluorescent proteins to reveal the fine structure of mouse Müller arbors...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997826/repulsive-epithelial-cues-direct-glial-migration-along-the-nerve
#9
Sofia Sasse, Christian Klämbt
Most glial cells show pronounced migratory abilities and generally follow axonal trajectories to reach their final destination. However, the molecular cues controlling their directional migration are largely unknown. To address this, we established glial migration onto the developing Drosophila leg imaginal disc as a model. Here, CNS-derived glial cells move along nerves containing motoaxons and sensory axons. Along their path, glial cells encounter at least three choice points where directional decisions are needed...
December 19, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932309/binge-alcohol-alters-exercise-driven-neuroplasticity
#10
Emily A Barton, Yanbin Lu, Murad Megjhani, Mark E Maynard, Prathamesh M Kulkarni, Badrinath Roysam, J Leigh Leasure
Exercise is increasingly being used as a treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUD), but the interactive effects of alcohol and exercise on the brain remain largely unexplored. Alcohol damages the brain, in part by altering glial functioning. In contrast, exercise promotes glial health and plasticity. In the present study, we investigated whether binge alcohol would attenuate the effects of subsequent exercise on glia. We focused on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), an alcohol-vulnerable region that also undergoes neuroplastic changes in response to exercise...
December 5, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911416/the-indirect-neuron-astrocyte-coculture-assay-an-in-vitro-set-up-for-the-detailed-investigation-of-neuron-glia-interactions
#11
Christine Gottschling, Egor Dzyubenko, Maren Geissler, Andreas Faissner
Proper neuronal development and function is the prerequisite of the developing and the adult brain. However, the mechanisms underlying the highly controlled formation and maintenance of complex neuronal networks are not completely understood thus far. The open questions concerning neurons in health and disease are diverse and reaching from understanding the basic development to investigating human related pathologies, e.g., Alzheimer's disease and Schizophrenia. The most detailed analysis of neurons can be performed in vitro...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908976/a-novel-method-for-culturing-stellate-astrocytes-reveals-spatially-distinct-ca2-signaling-and-vesicle-recycling-in-astrocytic-processes
#12
Anne C Wolfes, Saheeb Ahmed, Ankit Awasthi, Markus A Stahlberg, Ashish Rajput, Daniel S Magruder, Stefan Bonn, Camin Dean
Interactions between astrocytes and neurons rely on the release and uptake of glial and neuronal molecules. But whether astrocytic vesicles exist and exocytose in a regulated or constitutive fashion is under debate. The majority of studies have relied on indirect methods or on astrocyte cultures that do not resemble stellate astrocytes found in vivo. Here, to investigate vesicle-associated proteins and exocytosis in stellate astrocytes specifically, we developed a simple, fast, and economical method for growing stellate astrocyte monocultures...
January 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891070/monoaminergic-mechanisms-in-epilepsy-may-offer-innovative-therapeutic-opportunity-for-monoaminergic-multi-target-drugs
#13
REVIEW
Dubravka Svob Strac, Nela Pivac, Ilse J Smolders, Wieslawa A Fogel, Philippe De Deurwaerdere, Giuseppe Di Giovanni
A large body of experimental and clinical evidence has strongly suggested that monoamines play an important role in regulating epileptogenesis, seizure susceptibility, convulsions, and comorbid psychiatric disorders commonly seen in people with epilepsy (PWE). However, neither the relative significance of individual monoamines nor their interaction has yet been fully clarified due to the complexity of these neurotransmitter systems. In addition, epilepsy is diverse, with many different seizure types and epilepsy syndromes, and the role played by monoamines may vary from one condition to another...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890430/tar-dna-binding-protein-43-inhibits-inflammatory-response-and-protects-chondrocyte-function-by-modulating-rack1-expression-in-osteoarthritis
#14
Yongming Huang, Qiming Huang, Haitao Su, Xiujun Mai, Enhui Feng, Zhenwu Cao, Xiuyun Zeng
BACKGROUND: TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43, transactive response DNA binding protein 43kDa) accumulates in the cytoplasm of affected neurons and glia, as large inclusions of stress granules (SGs). However, the mechanism of TDP-43 interaction with the target genes and its specific role in osteoarthritis (OA) progression is still unknown. The goal of this study was to identify the role of TDP-43 in OA progression by modulating its target genes. METHODS: MSCs were transfected with TDP-43 gene lentivirus...
January 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834787/cocaine-promotes-primary-human-astrocyte-proliferation-via-jnk-dependent-up-regulation-of-cyclin-a2
#15
Chun-Ting Lee, Kristen L Boeshore, Chun Wu, Kevin G Becker, Stacie L Errico, Deborah C Mash, William J Freed
PURPOSE: Astrocytes perform a plethora of important functions in the central nervous system (CNS) and are involved in cocaine-evoked synaptic plasticity. Previously, we showed that while cocaine decreased cyclin A2 expression in primary human neural progenitor cells, it increased cyclin A2 expression in human astrocytes. Since cyclin A2 is an essential regulator of the cell cycle, the aim of the present study is to clarify the effect of cocaine on proliferation of human astrocytes and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms...
November 8, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830161/astrocytic-calcium-activation-in-a-mouse-model-of-tdcs-extended-discussion
#16
Hiromu Monai, Hajime Hirase
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been reported to be effective for alleviation of neuropsychiatric and neurological conditions as well as enhancement of memory and cognition. Despite the positive effects of tDCS in humans, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Recently, we reported that astrocytes, a major glial cell type in the brain, show an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) levels during tDCS in the cerebral cortex of the awake mouse. This tDCS-induced elevation in astrocytic Ca(2+) has subsequently been demonstrated to be important for cortical plasticity...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813323/tumor-targeted-nanotherapeutics-overcoming-treatment-barriers-for-glioblastoma
#17
REVIEW
Aniket S Wadajkar, Jimena G Dancy, David S Hersh, Pavlos Anastasiadis, Nhan L Tran, Graeme F Woodworth, Jeffrey A Winkles, Anthony J Kim
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive and lethal form of primary brain cancer. Numerous barriers exist to the effective treatment of GBM including the tightly controlled interface between the bloodstream and central nervous system termed the 'neurovascular unit,' a narrow and tortuous tumor extracellular space containing a dense meshwork of proteins and glycosaminoglycans, and genomic heterogeneity and instability. A major goal of GBM therapy is achieving sustained drug delivery to glioma cells while minimizing toxicity to adjacent neurons and glia...
November 4, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809681/citrate-stabilized-lanthanide-doped-nanoparticles-brain-penetration-and-interaction-with-immune-cells-and-neurons
#18
Corinne Portioli, Marco Pedroni, Donatella Benati, Marta Donini, Roberta Bonafede, Raffaella Mariotti, Luigi Perbellini, Marzia Cerpelloni, Stefano Dusi, Adolfo Speghini, Marina Bentivoglio
AIM: To unravel key aspects of the use of lanthanide-doped nanoparticles (NPs) in biomedicine, the interaction with immune and brain cells. MATERIALS & METHODS: Effects of citrate-stabilized CaF2 and SrF2: Yb, Er NPs (13-15 nm) on human dendritic cells and neurons were assessed in vitro. In vivo distribution was analyzed in mice at tissue and ultrastructural levels, and with glia immunophenotyping. RESULTS: The NPs did not elicit dendritic cell activation and were internalized by cultured neurons, without viability changes...
November 4, 2016: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807898/yap-functions-as-a-mechanotransducer-in-oligodendrocyte-morphogenesis-and-maturation
#19
Takeshi Shimizu, Yasuyuki Osanai, Kenji F Tanaka, Manabu Abe, Rie Natsume, Kenji Sakimura, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are myelinating cells of the central nervous system. Recent studies have shown that mechanical factors influence various cell properties. Mechanical stimuli can be transduced into intracellular biochemical signals through mechanosensors and intracellular mechanotransducers, such as YAP. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying mechanical regulation of OLs by YAP remain unknown. We found that OL morphology and interactions between OLs and neuronal axons were affected by knocking down YAP...
February 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796063/endogenous-gaba-controls-oligodendrocyte-lineage-cell-number-myelination-and-cns-internode-length
#20
Nicola B Hamilton, Laura E Clarke, I Lorena Arancibia-Carcamo, Eleni Kougioumtzidou, Moritz Matthey, Ragnhildur Káradóttir, Louise Whiteley, Linda H Bergersen, William D Richardson, David Attwell
Adjusting the thickness and internodal length of the myelin sheath is a mechanism for tuning the conduction velocity of axons to match computational needs. Interactions between oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) and developing axons regulate the formation of myelin around axons. We now show, using organotypic cerebral cortex slices from mice expressing eGFP in Sox10-positive oligodendrocytes, that endogenously released GABA, acting on GABAA receptors, greatly reduces the number of oligodendrocyte lineage cells...
February 2017: Glia
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