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Neuron-glia interactions

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523979/pacap-promotes-matrix-driven-adhesion-of-cultured-adult-murine-neural-progenitors
#1
James A Waschek, Joseph R Cohen, Gloria C Chi, Tomasz J Proszynski, Pawel Niewiadomski
New neurons are born throughout the life of mammals in germinal zones of the brain known as neurogenic niches: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These niches contain a subpopulation of cells known as adult neural progenitor cells (aNPCs), which self-renew and give rise to new neurons and glia. aNPCs are regulated by many factors present in the niche, including the extracellular matrix (ECM). We show that the neuropeptide PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) affects subventricular zone-derived aNPCs by increasing their surface adhesion...
May 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476689/pax6-interacts-with-iba1-and-shows-age-associated-alterations-in-brain-of-aging-mice
#2
Shashank Kumar Maurya, Rajnikant Mishra
The Pax6, a transcriptional regulator and multifunctional protein, has been found critical for neurogenesis, neuro-degeneration, mental retardation, neuroendocrine tumors, glioblastoma and astrocytomas. The age-associated alteration in the expression of Pax6 in neuron and glia has also been observed in the immunologically privileged brain. Therefore, it is presumed that Pax6 may modulate brain immunity by activation of microglia either directly interacting with genes or proteins of microglia or indirectly though inflammation associated with neurodegeneration...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472364/association-between-polymorphisms-in-the-purinergic-p2y12-receptor-gene-and-severity-of-both-cancer-pain-and-postoperative-pain
#3
Masahiko Sumitani, Daisuke Nishizawa, Makoto Nagashima, Kazutaka Ikeda, Hiroaki Abe, Ryoji Kato, Hiroshi Ueda, Yoshitsugu Yamada
Background.:  Despite the widespread use of opioids for the treatment of cancer pain, results from several surveys consistently show that pain is still prevalent in some patients with malignant diseases. The purinergic P2Y12 receptor is a primary site leading to microglial activation and hyperalgesic pain behaviors and is considered a key regulator in the prevention of the aggravation of clinical pain conditions. Genetic variability in the P2RY12 gene may contribute to individual differences in pain and opioid sensitivity...
May 4, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469467/interactions-of-tryptophan-and-its-catabolites-with-melatonin-and-the-alpha-7-nicotinic-receptor-in-central-nervous-system-and-psychiatric-disorders-role-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-and-direct-mitochondria-regulation
#4
REVIEW
George Anderson, Michael Maes
Recent work indicates an intimate interaction of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathways with the melatonergic pathways, primarily via TRYCAT pathway induction taking tryptophan away from the production of serotonin, which is a necessary precursor for the melatonergic pathways. The alpha 7 nicotinic receptor may be significantly modulated by this interaction, given its inactivation by the TRYCAT, kynurenic acid, and its induction by melatonin. Similarly, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor is activated by both kynurenic acid and kynurenine, leading to CYP1A2 and melatonin metabolism, whereas melatonin may act to inhibit the aryl hydrocarbon receptor...
2017: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466266/prolonged-dysfunction-of-astrocytes-and-activation-of-microglia-accelerate-degeneration-of-dopaminergic-neurons-in-the-rat-substantia-nigra-and-block-compensation-of-early-motor-dysfunction-induced-by-6-ohda
#5
Katarzyna Kuter, Łukasz Olech, Urszula Głowacka
Progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) is the underlying cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). The disease in early stages is difficult to diagnose, because behavioral deficits are masked by compensatory processes. Astrocytic and microglial pathology precedes motor symptoms. Besides supportive functions of astrocytes in the brain, their role in PD is unrecognized. Prolonged dysfunction of astrocytes could increase the vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons and advance their degeneration during aging...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451639/microglial-tnf%C3%AE-induces-cox2-and-pgi2-synthase-expression-in-spinal-endothelial-cells-during-neuropathic-pain
#6
Hirosato Kanda, Kimiko Kobayashi, Hiroki Yamanaka, Masamichi Okubo, Koichi Noguchi
Prostaglandins (PGs) are typical lipid mediators that play a role in homeostasis and disease. They are synthesized from arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenase 1 (COX1) and COX2. Although COX2 has been reported to be upregulated in the spinal cord after nerve injury, its expression and functional roles in neuropathic pain remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Cox2, PGI2 synthase (Pgis), and prostaglandin I2 receptor (IP receptor) mRNA in the rat spinal cord after spared nerve injury (SNI)...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450076/local-energy-on-demand-are-spontaneous-astrocytic-ca-2-microdomains-the-regulatory-unit-for-astrocyte-neuron-metabolic-cooperation
#7
REVIEW
Martin Oheim, Elke Schmidt, Johannes Hirrlinger
Astrocytes are a neural cell type critically involved in maintaining brain energy homeostasis as well as signaling. Like neurons, astrocytes are a heterogeneous cell population. Cortical astrocytes show a complex morphology with a highly branched aborization and numerous fine processes ensheathing the synapses of neighboring neurons, and typically extend one process connecting to blood vessels. Recent studies employing genetically encoded fluorescent calcium (Ca(2+)) indicators have described 'spontaneous' localized Ca(2+)-transients in the astrocyte periphery that occur asynchronously, independently of signals in other parts of the cells, and that do not involve somatic Ca(2+) transients; however, neither it is known whether these Ca(2+)-microdomains occur at or near neuronal synapses nor have their molecular basis nor downstream effector(s) been identified...
April 24, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403399/the-role-of-microglia-in-the-pathobiology-of-neuropathic-pain-development-what-do-we-know
#8
H Zhao, A Alam, Q Chen, M A Eusman, A Pal, S Eguchi, L Wu, D Ma
Neuropathic pain, a maladaptive and chronic condition that can develop after a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system, is characterized by allodynia, hyperalgesia and spontaneous pain, and comorbidities such as sleep deprivation, depression and anxiety. The activation of microglial cells in response to nerve injury has been implicated in the development of neuropathic pain. Mediators such as Neuregulin-1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and fractalkine are released after nerve injury and are involved in the activation of microglial cells...
April 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389721/chemokines-in-neuron-glial-cell-interaction-and-pathogenesis-of-neuropathic-pain
#9
REVIEW
Zhi-Jun Zhang, Bao-Chun Jiang, Yong-Jing Gao
Neuropathic pain resulting from damage or dysfunction of the nervous system is a highly debilitating chronic pain state and is often resistant to currently available treatments. It has become clear that neuroinflammation, mainly mediated by proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, plays an important role in the establishment and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Chemokines were originally identified as regulators of peripheral immune cell trafficking and were also expressed in neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system...
April 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377062/cytokines-and-cytokine-networks-target-neurons-to-modulate-long-term-potentiation
#10
G Aleph Prieto, Carl W Cotman
Cytokines play crucial roles in the communication between brain cells including neurons and glia, as well as in the brain-periphery interactions. In the brain, cytokines modulate long-term potentiation (LTP), a cellular correlate of memory. Whether cytokines regulate LTP by direct effects on neurons or by indirect mechanisms mediated by non-neuronal cells is poorly understood. Elucidating neuron-specific effects of cytokines has been challenging because most brain cells express cytokine receptors. Moreover, cytokines commonly increase the expression of multiple cytokines in their target cells, thus increasing the complexity of brain cytokine networks even after single-cytokine challenges...
March 29, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315110/impact-of-astrocytes-on-the-injury-induced-by-in-vitro-ischemia
#11
Cláudio Roque, Graça Baltazar
Cell cultures are characterized by their simplicity, controllability, and ability to provide detailed basic information on how a particular cell population responds to specific stimuli or insult. These characteristics led to their extensive application in the study of molecular interactions and represent a valuable tool in the study of different pathologies. However, due to the lack of interactions between the different components that form an in vivo system, the results obtained in pure cell cultures not always translate what occurs in vivo...
March 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284582/the-association-of-cntnap2-rs7794745-gene-polymorphism-and-autism-in-iranian-population
#12
Sahar Zare, Farhad Mashayekhi, Elham Bidabadi
Autism is a heterogeneous and multifactorial disease that results from the interaction between genetic vulnerability and environmental factors. Several studies showed that many of genes that play role in autism are component of signaling networks that regulate growth and synaptic plasticity, play an important role in the etiology of autism. Contactin associated-like 2 (CNTNAP2) gene is a member of the superfamily of synaptic adhesion proteins and encodes a scaffold protein called CASPR2 that is involved in the interaction of neuron-glia and clusters K(+) channels in myelinated axons...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280462/the-role-of-glia-in-the-peripheral-and-central-auditory-system-following-noise-overexposure-contribution-of-tnf-%C3%AE-and-il-1%C3%AE-to-the-pathogenesis-of-hearing-loss
#13
Verónica Fuentes-Santamaría, Juan Carlos Alvarado, Pedro Melgar-Rojas, María C Gabaldón-Ull, Josef M Miller, José M Juiz
Repeated noise exposure induces inflammation and cellular adaptations in the peripheral and central auditory system resulting in pathophysiology of hearing loss. In this study, we analyzed the mechanisms by which noise-induced inflammatory-related events in the cochlea activate glial-mediated cellular responses in the cochlear nucleus (CN), the first relay station of the auditory pathway. The auditory function, glial activation, modifications in gene expression and protein levels of inflammatory mediators and ultrastructural changes in glial-neuronal interactions were assessed in rats exposed to broadband noise (0...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280327/biocompatibility-of-very-small-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-in-murine-organotypic-hippocampal-slice-cultures-and-the-role-of-microglia
#14
Martin Pohland, Robert Glumm, Frank Wiekhorst, Jürgen Kiwit, Jana Glumm
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) are applied as contrast media for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and treatment of neurologic diseases despite the fact that important information concerning their local interactions is still lacking. Due to their small size, SPIO have great potential for magnetically labeling different cell populations, facilitating their MRI tracking in vivo. Before SPIO are applied, however, their effect on cell viability and tissue homoeostasis should be studied thoroughly...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271667/consequences-of-early-adverse-rearing-experience-eare-on-development-insights-from-non-human-primate-studies
#15
REVIEW
Bo Zhang
Early rearing experiences are important in one's whole life, whereas early adverse rearing experience(EARE) is usually related to various physical and mental disorders in later life. Although there were many studies on human and animals, regarding the effect of EARE on brain development, neuroendocrine systems, as well as the consequential mental disorders and behavioral abnormalities, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Due to the close genetic relationship and similarity in social organizations with humans, non-human primate(NHP) studies were performed for over 60 years...
January 18, 2017: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271184/shared-genetic-risk-between-corticobasal-degeneration-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-and-frontotemporal-dementia
#16
Jennifer S Yokoyama, Celeste M Karch, Chun C Fan, Luke W Bonham, Naomi Kouri, Owen A Ross, Rosa Rademakers, Jungsu Kim, Yunpeng Wang, Günter U Höglinger, Ulrich Müller, Raffaele Ferrari, John Hardy, Parastoo Momeni, Leo P Sugrue, Christopher P Hess, A James Barkovich, Adam L Boxer, William W Seeley, Gil D Rabinovici, Howard J Rosen, Bruce L Miller, Nicholas J Schmansky, Bruce Fischl, Bradley T Hyman, Dennis W Dickson, Gerard D Schellenberg, Ole A Andreassen, Anders M Dale, Rahul S Desikan
Corticobasal degeneration (CBD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and a subset of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by tau inclusions in neurons and glia (tauopathies). Although clinical, pathological and genetic evidence suggests overlapping pathobiology between CBD, PSP, and FTD, the relationship between these disorders is still not well understood. Using summary statistics (odds ratios and p values) from large genome-wide association studies (total n = 14,286 cases and controls) and recently established genetic methods, we investigated the genetic overlap between CBD and PSP and CBD and FTD...
May 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267791/dmyc-is-required-in-retinal-progenitors-to-prevent-jnk-mediated-retinal-glial-activation
#17
Lígia Tavares, Andreia Correia, Marília A Santos, João B Relvas, Paulo S Pereira
In the nervous system, glial cells provide crucial insulation and trophic support to neurons and are important for neuronal survival. In reaction to a wide variety of insults, glial cells respond with changes in cell morphology and metabolism to allow repair. Additionally, these cells can acquire migratory and proliferative potential. In particular, after axonal damage or pruning the clearance of axonal debris by glial cells is key for a healthy nervous system. Thus, bidirectional neuron-glial interactions are crucial in development, but little is known about the cellular sensors and signalling pathways involved...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237844/characterization-of-the-cystine-glutamate-antiporter-in-cultured-bergmann-glia-cells
#18
Edna Suárez-Pozos, Zila Martínez-Lozada, Orquidia G Méndez-Flores, Alain M Guillem, Luisa C Hernández-Kelly, Francisco Castelán, Tatiana N Olivares-Bañuelos, Donaji Chi-Castañeda, Mustapha Najimi, Arturo Ortega
Glutamate, the major excitatory transmitter in the vertebrate brain is a potent neurotoxin through the over-stimulation of its specific membrane receptors. In accordance, a tight regulation of its extracellular levels by plasma membrane transporters is present. A family of excitatory amino acid transporters is expressed in neurons and glia cells and is responsible of the removal of the neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft. Glial transporters account for more than 80% of the brain uptake activity. The cystine/glutamate antiporter is another plasma membrane-bound protein critically involved in glutamatergic transmission...
February 24, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237716/clostridium-perfringens-epsilon-toxin-induces-permanent-neuronal-degeneration-and-behavioral-changes
#19
Winston E Morris, Jorge Goldstein, Leandro M Redondo, Adriana Cangelosi, Patricia Geoghegan, Marcela Brocco, Fabián C Loidl, Mariano E Fernandez-Miyakawa
Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX), the most potent toxin produced by this bacteria, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of enterotoxaemia in ruminants, causing brain edema and encephalomalacia. Studies of animals suffering from ETX intoxication describe severe neurological disorders that are thought to be the result of vasogenic brain edemas and indirect neuronal toxicity, killing oligodendrocytes but not astrocytes, microglia, or neurons in vitro. In this study, by means of intravenous and intracerebroventricular delivery of sub-lethal concentrations of ETX, the histological and ultrastructural changes of the brain were studied in rats and mice...
February 22, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217083/postnatal-loss-of-neuronal-and-glial-neurofascins-differentially-affects-node-of-ranvier-maintenance-and-myelinated-axon-function
#20
Anna M Taylor, Julia Saifetiarova, Manzoor A Bhat
Intricate molecular interactions between neurons and glial cells underlie the creation of unique domains that are essential for saltatory conduction of action potentials by myelinated axons. Previously, the cell surface adhesion molecule Neurofascin (Nfasc) has been shown to have a dual-role in the establishment of axonal domains from both the glial and neuronal interface. While the neuron-specific isoform of Neurofascin (NF186) is indispensable for clustering of voltage-gated sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier; the glial-specific isoform of Neurofascin (NF155) is required for myelinating glial cells to organize the paranodal domain...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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