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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328117/noonan-syndrome-ptpn11-mutations-and-brain-tumors-a-clinical-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Aurore Siegfried, Claude Cances, Marie Denuelle, Najat Loukh, Maïté Tauber, Hélène Cavé, Marie-Bernadette Delisle
Noonan syndrome (NS), an autosomal dominant disorder, is characterized by short stature, congenital heart defects, developmental delay, and facial dysmorphism. PTPN11 mutations are the most common cause of NS. PTPN11 encodes a non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP2. Hematopoietic malignancies and solid tumors are associated with NS. Among solid tumors, brain tumors have been described in children and young adults but remain rather rare. We report a 16-year-old boy with PTPN11-related NS who, at the age of 12, was incidentally found to have a left temporal lobe brain tumor and a cystic lesion in the right thalamus...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327707/direct-visualization-of-carbon-nanotube-degradation-in-primary-cells-by-photothermal-imaging
#2
Julie Russier, Laura Oudjedi, Martin Piponnier, Cyrill Bussy, Maurizio Prato, Kostas Kostarelos, Brahim Lounis, Alberto Bianco, Laurent Cognet
Assessment of biodegradability of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is a critically important aspect that needs to be solved before their translation into new biomedical tools. CNT biodegradation has been shown both in vitro and in vivo, but we are limited by the number of analytical techniques that can be used to follow the entire process. Photothermal imaging (PhI) is an innovative technique that enables the quantitative detection of nanometer-sized absorptive objects. In this study, we demonstrate that PhI allows the observation of the degradation process of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) following their internalization by primary glial cells...
March 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326946/polyamidoamine-dendrimer-conjugated-triamcinolone-acetonide-attenuates-nerve-injury-induced-spinal-cord-microglia-activation-and-mechanical-allodynia
#3
Hwisung Kim, Boomin Choi, Hyoungsub Lim, Hyunjung Min, Jae Hoon Oh, Sunghyun Choi, Joung Goo Cho, Jong-Sang Park, Sung Joong Lee
Background Accumulating evidence on the causal role of spinal cord microglia activation in the development of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury suggests that microglial activation inhibitors might be useful analgesics for neuropathic pain. Studies also have shown that polyamidoamine dendrimer may function as a drug delivery vehicle to microglia in the central nervous system. In this regard, we developed polyamidoamine dendrimer-conjugated triamcinolone acetonide, a previously identified microglial activation inhibitor, and tested its analgesic efficacy in a mouse peripheral nerve injury model...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326927/glial-activation-in-the-collagenase-model-of-nociception-associated-with-osteoarthritis
#4
Sara Adães, Lígia Almeida, Catarina S Potes, Ana Rita Ferreira, José M Castro-Lopes, Joana Ferreira-Gomes, Fani L Neto
Background Experimental osteoarthritis entails neuropathic-like changes in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Since glial activation has emerged as a key player in nociception, being reported in numerous models of neuropathic pain, we aimed at evaluating if glial cell activation may also occur in the DRG and spinal cord of rats with osteoarthritis induced by intra-articular injection of collagenase. Methods Osteoarthritis was induced by two injections, separated by three days, of 500 U of type II collagenase into the knee joint of rats...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325921/zika-virus-genome-biology-and-molecular-pathogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Anyou Wang, Stephanie Thurmond, Leonel Islas, Kingyung Hui, Rong Hai
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging RNA virus in the widespread Flavivirus genus. Recently, ZIKV has rapidly spread around the world and has been implicated in human disease, including neurological disorders, triggering public and scientific attention. Understanding how ZIKV causes disease is the highest priority, yet little is known about this virus. Here we examine the currently published data from ZIKV studies to provide the latest understanding of ZIKV genome biology and molecular pathogenesis. The ZIKV genome evolved rapidly from the Flavivirus genus and diverged from the members of this genus, even within the dengue virus cluster to which ZIKV belongs...
March 22, 2017: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323976/protective-effects-of-fetal-zone-steroids-are-comparable-to-estradiol-in-hyperoxia-induced-cell-death-of-immature-glia
#6
Stephanie Hübner, Donna E Sunny, Christine Pöhlke, Johanna Ruhnau, Antje Vogelgesang, Bettina Reich, Matthias Heckmann
Impaired neurodevelopment in preterm infants is caused by prematurity itself; however, hypoxia/ischemia, inflammation, and hyperoxia contribute to the extent of impairment. Because preterm birth is accompanied by a dramatic decrease in 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone, preliminary clinical studies have been carried out to substitute these steroids in preterm infants; however, they failed to confirm significantly improved neurological outcomes. We therefore hypothesized that the persistently high postnatal production of fetal zone steroids (mainly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) until term could interfere with E2-mediated protection...
March 3, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323022/astrocyte-heme-oxygenase-1-reduces-mortality-and-improves-outcome-after-collagenase-induced-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#7
Jing Chen-Roetling, Pramod Kamalapathy, Yang Cao, Wei Song, Hyman M Schipper, Raymond F Regan
Pharmacotherapies that increase CNS expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and other antioxidant proteins have improved outcome in experimental models of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In order to more specifically investigate the relationship between HO-1 and ICH outcome, mice expressing human HO-1 driven by the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter (GFAP·HMOX1 mice) were tested in a model of in situ parenchymal hemorrhage. Injection of collagenase into the striata of wild-type (WT) mice resulted in a 26...
March 17, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322750/supradural-inflammatory-soup-in-awake-and-freely-moving-rats-induces-facial-allodynia-that-is-blocked-by-putative-immune-modulators
#8
Julie Wieseler, Amanda Ellis, Andrew McFadden, Kendra Stone, Kimberley Brown, Sara Cady, Leandro F Bastos, David Sprunger, Niloofar Rezvani, Kirk Johnson, Kenner C Rice, Steven F Maier, Linda R Watkins
Facial allodynia is a migraine symptom that is generally considered to represent a pivotal point in migraine progression. Treatment before development of facial allodynia tends to be more successful than treatment afterwards. As such, understanding the underlying mechanisms of facial allodynia may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying migraine. Migraine facial allodynia is modeled by applying inflammatory soup (histamine, bradykinin, serotonin, prostaglandin E2) over the dura. Whether glial and/or immune activation contributes to such pain is unknown...
March 16, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322170/utilizing-delta-opioid-receptors-and-peptides-for-cytoprotection-implications-in-stroke-and-other-neurological-disorders
#9
Marci G Crowley, M Grant Liska, Trenton Lippert, Sydney Coreya, Cesar V Borlongan
The opioid system has been elucidated as a potential target for therapy in a variety of neurological disorders including stroke. Delta opioid receptors have been revealed to pose an especially compelling biological function for new neuroprotective therapies. Two distinct therapeutic mechanisms have been characterized for delta opioid receptors s, namely, these receptors aid in maintaining ionic homeostasis and initiate endogenous neuroprotective pathways. Specific agonists of delta opioid receptors, such as (D-Ala2, D-Leu5) enkephalin (DADLE), have displayed the ability to promote neuronal survival and mitigate apoptotic pathways...
March 20, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322157/diabetes-related-neurological-implications-and-pharmacogenomics
#10
Rojas Carranza Camilo Andrés, Bustos Cruz Rosa Helena, Pino Pinzón Carmen Juliana, Ariza Marquez Yeimy Viviana, Gómez Bello Rosa Margarita, Cañadas Garre Marisa
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most commonly occurring cause of neuropathy around the world and is beginning to grow in countries where there is a risk of obesity. DM Type II, (T2DM) is a common age-related disease and is a major health concern, particularly in developed countries in Europe where the population is aging. T2DM is a chronic disease which is characterised by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, together with the body's inability to use glucose as energy. Such metabolic disorder produces a chronic inflammatory state, as well as changes in lipid metabolism leading to hypertriglyceridemia, thereby producing chronic deterioration of the organs and premature morbidity and mortality...
March 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321600/post-6-ohda-lesion-exposure-to-stress-affects-neurotrophic-factor-expression-and-aggravates-motor-impairment
#11
Phumzile Nomfundo Ngema, Musa Vuyisile Mabandla
Chronic exposure to stress amplifies locomotor deficits and exacerbates dopamine neuron loss in an animal model for Parkinson's disease. The release of neurotrophic factors such as glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) following neuronal injury attenuates exacerbated degeneration of these neurons. In this study, the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was injected unilaterally into the medial forebrain bundle of male Sprague Dawley rats. A subset of these rats was subjected to post-lesion restraint stress after which the effect of exposure to stress on locomotor activity (forelimb akinesia test), neurotrophic factor (GDNF and NT-3) and corticosterone concentration was assessed...
March 20, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321435/amyloid-precursor-protein-family-as-unconventional-go-coupled-receptors-and-the-control-of-neuronal-motility
#12
REVIEW
Jenna M Ramaker, Philip F Copenhaver
Cleavage of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) generates amyloid peptides that accumulate in Alzheimer Disease (AD), but APP is also upregulated by developing and injured neurons, suggesting that it regulates neuronal motility. APP can also function as a G protein-coupled receptor that signals via the heterotrimeric G protein Gαo, but evidence for APP-Gαo signaling in vivo has been lacking. Using Manduca as a model system, we showed that insect APP (APPL) regulates neuronal migration in a Gαo-dependent manner...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321183/early-events-in-retinal-degeneration-caused-by-rhodopsin-mutation-or-pigment-epithelium-malfunction-differences-and-similarities
#13
Johnny Di Pierdomenico, Diego García-Ayuso, Isabel Pinilla, Nicolás Cuenca, Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Marta Agudo-Barriuso, María P Villegas-Pérez
To study the course of photoreceptor cell death and macro and microglial reactivity in two rat models of retinal degeneration with different etiologies. Retinas from P23H-1 (rhodopsin mutation) and Royal College of Surgeon (RCS, pigment epithelium malfunction) rats and age-matched control animals (Sprague-Dawley and Pievald Viro Glaxo, respectively) were cross-sectioned at different postnatal ages (from P10 to P60) and rhodopsin, L/M- and S-opsin, ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1), glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins were immunodetected...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320737/mir-31-mutants-reveal-continuous-glial-homeostasis-in-the-adult-drosophila-brain
#14
Lynette Caizhen Foo, Shilin Song, Stephen Michael Cohen
The study of adult neural cell production has concentrated on neurogenesis. The mechanisms controlling adult gliogenesis are still poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence for a homeostatic process that maintains the population of glial cells in the Drosophila adult brain. Flies lacking microRNA miR-31a start adult life with a normal complement of glia, but transiently lose glia due to apoptosis. miR-31a expression identifies a subset of predominantly gliogenic adult neural progenitor cells. Failure to limit expression of the predicted E3 ubiquitin ligase, Rchy1, in these cells results in glial loss...
March 20, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320419/cerebellar-ependymoma-with-overlapping-features-of-clear-cell-and-tanycytic-variants-mimicking-hemangioblastoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
Xiu-Peng Zhang, Yang Liu, Di Zhang, Qin Zheng, Chen Wang, Liang Wang, Qing-Chang Li, Xue-Shan Qiu, En-Hua Wang
BACKGROUND: Imaging and histology of clear-cell ependymoma and cerebellum-based hemangioblastoma are similar; distinguishing between them is a diagnostic challenge. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old Chinese woman presented with an intermittent headache of 8 years' duration. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass in the cerebellum. Neurological imaging suggested hemangioblastoma (HB). Histologically, the tumor included cellular and paucicellular areas, in which cells were arranged in nests or diffusely distributed; and a highly vascular area, in which tumor cells were arranged in clusters and separated by capillaries...
March 20, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320280/molecular-mechanisms-mediating-involvement-of-glial-cells-in-brain-plastic-remodeling-in-epilepsy
#16
REVIEW
L G Khaspekov, L E Frumkina
In this review we summarize published data on the involvement of glial cells in molecular mechanisms underlying brain plastic reorganization in epilepsy. The role of astrocytes as glial elements in pathological plasticity in epilepsy is discussed. Data on the involvement of aquaporin-4 in epileptogenic plastic changes and on participation of microglia and extracellular matrix in dysregulation of synaptic transmission and plastic remodeling in epileptic brain tissue are reviewed.
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320272/neurotrophic-factors-bdnf-and-gdnf-and-the-serotonergic-system-of-the-brain
#17
REVIEW
N K Popova, T V Ilchibaeva, V S Naumenko
Neurotrophic factors play a key role in development, differentiation, synaptogenesis, and survival of neurons in the brain as well as in the process of their adaptation to external influences. The serotonergic (5-HT) system is another major factor in the development and neuroplasticity of the brain. In the present review, the results of our own research as well as data provided in the corresponding literature on the interaction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) with the 5-HT-system of the brain are considered...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320099/light-emitting-diode-led-therapy-improves-occipital-cortex-damage-by-decreasing-apoptosis-and-increasing-bdnf-expressing-cells-in-methanol-induced-toxicity-in-rats
#18
Amir Ghanbari, Majid Ghareghani, Kazem Zibara, Hamdallah Delaviz, Elham Ebadi, Mohammad Hossein Jahantab
Methanol-induced retinal toxicity, frequently associated with elevated free radicals and cell edema, is characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and vision loss. Previous studies investigated the effect of photomodulation on RGCs, but not the visual cortex. In this study, the effect of 670nm Light-Emitting Diode (LED) therapy on RGCs and visual cortex recovery was investigated in a seven-day methanol-induced retinal toxicity protocol in rats. Methanol administration showed a reduction in the number of RGCs, loss of neurons (neuronal nuclear antigen, NeuN+), activation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP+) expressing cells, suppression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF+) positive cells, increase in apoptosis (caspase 3+) and enhancement of nitric oxide (NO) release in serum and brain...
March 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320098/inhibition-of-tissue-transglutaminase-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammation-in-glial-cells-through-akt-mtor-signal-pathway
#19
Yirong Ding, Ji Zhang, Rui Wang
AIM: In view of the facts that tTG protein expression level and its enzyme activity increase in AD brains of both individuals and transgenic animals and compelling evidence of the involvement of inflammation in AD pathogenesis, tTG could be involved in the inflammation responses in the brain. In the present study, we examined the effects of the irreversible and the competitive inhibitor of tTG on the condition of lipopolysaccharide-induced mimic inflammation models in glial cells. METHODS: Western blot and tTG enzyme activity assay were applied to detect tTG and isopeptide protein levels and tTG enzyme activity...
March 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319259/label-free-identification-of-the-microstructure-of-rat-spinal-cords-based-on-nonlinear-optical-microscopy
#20
C X Liao, Z Y Wang, Y Zhou, L Q Zhou, X Q Zhu, W G Liu, J X Chen
The spinal cord is a vital link between the brain and the body and mainly comprises neurons, glial cells and nerve fibres. In this work, nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopy based on intrinsic tissue properties was employed to label-freely analyze the cells and matrix in spinal cords at a molecular level. The high-resolution and high-contrast NLO images of unstained spinal cords demonstrate that NLO microscopy has the ability to show the microstructure of white and grey matter including ventral horn, intermediate area, dorsal horns, ventral column, lateral column and dorsal column...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
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