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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644902/sirt6-alters-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#1
Eitan Okun, Daniel Marton, Daniel Cohen, Kathleen Griffioen, Yariv Kanfi, Tomer Illouz, Ravit Madar, Haim Y Cohen
Sirtuins are pleiotropic NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases involved in metabolism, DNA damage repair, inflammation and stress resistance. SIRT6, a member of the sirtuin family, regulates the process of normal aging and increases the lifespan of male mice over-expressing Sirt6 by 15%. Neurogenesis, the formation of new neurons within the hippocampus of adult mammals, involves several complex stages including stem cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and network integration. During aging, the number of newly generated neurons continuously declines, and this is correlated with a decline in neuronal plasticity and cognitive behavior...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644824/mechanism-underlying-acupuncture-ameliorated-depressive-behaviors-by-enhancing-glial-glutamate-transporter-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-cums-rats
#2
Ding Luo, Rui Ma, Yanan Wu, Xuechun Zhang, Yue Liu, Lin Wang, Wenbin Fu
BACKGROUND Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a recurrent mental illness worldwide. The glutamatergic neurotransmission system is now a target for antidepressant therapy because it takes part in synaptic plasticity and cognition in physical condition and has a potential excitatory neurotoxicity in pathological conditions. Glial glutamate transporter EAAT2 performs 90% of Glu neurotransmission. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of acupuncture on depressive behaviors and EAAT2 in CUMS...
June 23, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644072/clinicopathological-and-imaging-features-of-lipoastrocytoma-case-report
#3
Laxminadh Sivaraju, Saritha Aryan, Nandita Ghosal, Alangar S Hegde
Lipidized tumors of the central nervous system are very uncommon, with only a few cases described. We report a case of a 25-year-old woman with a tumor involving the left premotor area. She underwent gross total excision. Histologically, the tumor was composed of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive glial cells with areas of lipidization. A diagnosis of lipoastrocytoma was rendered. At three-year follow-up she was doing well, supporting the presumed favorable prognosis of these uncommon tumors. Absence of xanthochromic appearance, mitotic activity, necrosis and poor reticulin activity are the differentiating features from the pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642128/immunomodulation-of-parkinson-s-disease-using-mucuna-pruriens-mp
#4
REVIEW
Sachchida Nand Rai, Hareram Birla, Walia Zahra, Saumitra Sen Singh, Surya Pratap Singh
Immune control is associated with nigrostriatal neuroprotection for Parkinson's disease (PD); though its direct cause and effect relationships have not yet been realized and modulating the immune system for therapeutic gain has been openly discussed. While the pathobiology of PD remains in study, neuroinflammation is thought to speed nigrostriatal degeneration. The neuroinflammatory cascade associated with PD begins with aggregation of misfolded or post-translationally modified α-synuclein (α-syn). Such aggregation results in neuronal cell death and the presence of chronically activated glia (microglia and astroglia), leading to the production of proinflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and enzymes such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642089/involvement-of-mapk-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-and-ampk-mtor-signaling-pathways-in-protection-of-remote-glial-cells-from-axotomy-induced-necrosis-and-apoptosis-in-the-isolated-crayfish-stretch-receptor
#5
E V Berezhnaya, M Y Bibov, M A Komandirov, M A Neginskaya, M V Rudkovskii, A B Uzdensky
Severe mechanical nerve injury such as axotomy can lead to neuron degeneration and death of surrounding glial cells. We showed that axotomy not only mechanically injures glial cells at the cutting location, but also induces necrosis or apoptosis of satellite glial cells remote from the transection site. Therefore, axon integrity is necessary for survival of surrounding glial cells. We used the crayfish stretch receptor that consists of a single mechanoreceptor neuron enveloped by satellite glial cells as a simple, but informative model object in the study of the role of various signaling proteins in axotomy-induced death of remote glial cells...
June 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641538/glt-1-upregulation-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-ischemic-brain-injury
#6
Yu-Yan Hu, Li Li, Xiao-Hui Xian, Min Zhang, Xiao-Cai Sun, Shu-Qin Li, Xin Cui, Jie Qi, Wen-Bin Li
Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, which plays an important role in many aspects of normal brain function such as neural development, motor functions, learning and memory etc. However, excessive accumulation of glutamate in the extracellular fluid will induce excitotoxicity which is considered to be a major mechanism of cell death in brain ischemia. There is no enzyme to decompose the glutamate in extracellular fluid, so extracellular glutamate homeostasis within the central nervous system is mainly regulated by the uptake activity of excitatory amino acid transporters...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640893/oroxylin-a-promotes-retinal-ganglion-cell-survival-in-a-rat-optic-nerve-crush-model
#7
Shu-Fang Lin, Jia-Ying Chien, Kishan Kapupara, Chi-Ying F Huang, Shun-Ping Huang
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of oroxylin A on the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and the activation of microglial cells in a rat optic nerve (ON) crush model. METHODS: Oroxylin A (15mg/Kg in 0.2ml phosphate-buffered saline) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS control) was immediately administered after ON crush once by subcutaneous injection. Rats were euthanized at 2 weeks after the crush injury. The density of RGC was counted by retrograde labeling with FluoroGold and immunostaining of retina flat mounts for Brn3a...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639900/the-novel-cxcr4-antagonist-prx177561-reduces-tumor-cell-proliferation-and-accelerates-cancer-stem-cell-differentiation-in-glioblastoma-preclinical-models
#8
Giovanni Luca Gravina, Andrea Mancini, Alessandro Colapietro, Flora Vitale, Antonella Vetuschi, Simona Pompili, Giulia Rossi, Francesco Marampon, Peter J Richardson, Lee Patient, Lee Patient, Stephen Burbidge, Claudio Festuccia
Glioblastoma is the most frequent and the most lethal primary brain tumor among adults. Standard of care is the association of radiotherapy with concomitant or adjuvant temozolomide. However, to date, recurrence is inevitable. The CXCL12/CXCR4 pathway is upregulated in the glioblastoma tumor microenvironment regulating tumor cell proliferation, local invasion, angiogenesis, and the efficacy of radio-chemotherapy. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the novel CXCR4 antagonist, PRX177561, in preclinical models of glioblastoma...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639111/a-lifetime-s-adventure-in-extracellular-k-regulation-the-scottish-connection
#9
Angus M Brown
In a career that has spanned 45 years and shows no signs of slowing down, Dr Bruce Ransom has devoted considerable time and energy to studying regulation of interstitial K(+). When Bruce commenced his studies in 1969 virtually nothing was known of the functions of glial cells, but Bruce's research contributed to the physiological assignation of function to mammalian astrocytes, namely interstitial K(+) buffering. The experiments that I describe in this review concern the response of the membrane potential (Em) of in vivo cat cortical astrocytes to changes in [K(+)]o, an experimental manoeuvre that was achieved in two different ways...
June 21, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638936/nuclear-receptors-in-neural-stem-progenitor-cell-homeostasis
#10
REVIEW
Dimitrios Gkikas, Matina Tsampoula, Panagiotis K Politis
In the central nervous system, embryonic and adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) generate the enormous variety and huge numbers of neuronal and glial cells that provide structural and functional support in the brain and spinal cord. Over the last decades, nuclear receptors and their natural ligands have emerged as critical regulators of NSC homeostasis during embryonic development and adult life. Furthermore, substantial progress has been achieved towards elucidating the molecular mechanisms of nuclear receptors action in proliferative and differentiation capacities of NSCs...
June 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638915/-optogenetic-activation-of-dorsal-hippocampal-astrocytic-rac1-blocks-the-learning-of-associative-memory
#11
Xiao-Mu Guo, Zhao-Hui Liao, Ye-Zheng Tao, Fei-Fei Wang, Lan Ma
Rac1 belongs to the family of Rho GTPases, and plays important roles in the brain function. It affects the cell migration and axon guidance via regulating the cytoskeleton and cellular morphology. However, the effect of its dynamic activation in regulating physiological function remains unclear. Recently, a photoactivatable analogue of Rac1 (PA-Rac1) has been developed, allowing the activation of Rac1 by the specific wavelength of light in living cells. Thus, we constructed recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) of PA-Rac1 and its light-insensitive mutant PA-Rac1-C450A under the control of the mouse glial fibrillary acidic protein (mGFAP) promoter to manipulate Rac1 activity in astrocytes by optical stimulation...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638088/chemokine-receptor-cxcr4-regulates-camkii-creb-pathway-in-spinal-neurons-that-underlies-cancer-induced-bone-pain
#12
Xue-Ming Hu, Hui Zhang, Heng Xu, Hai-Long Zhang, Li-Ping Chen, Wen-Qiang Cui, Wei Yang, Wen Shen
We previously demonstrated that the chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays an important role in cancer-induced bone pain by activating spinal neurons and glial cells. However, the specific neuronal mechanism of CXCR4 signaling is not clear. We further report that CXCR4 contributes to the activation of the neuronal CaMKII/CREB pathway in cancer-induced bone pain. We used a tumor cell implantation (TCI) model and observed that CXCR4, p-CaMKII and p-CREB were persistently up-regulated in spinal neurons. CXCR4 also co-expressed with p-CaMKII and p-CREB, and mediated p-CaMKII and p-CREB expression after TCI...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637974/neuron-glia-interaction-is-a-key-mechanism-underlying-persistent-orofacial-pain
#13
Koichi Iwata, Ayano Katagiri, Masamichi Shinoda
Excitability of neurons in the trigeminal ganglion (TG), trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc), and upper cervical spinal cord (C1-C2) is greatly enhanced after orofacial inflammation and trigeminal nerve injury, and TG, Vc, and C1-C2 neurons remain sensitized long after such episodes. Sensitized neurons generate various molecules, which are released from nociceptive neurons in these areas and are involved in modulating the excitability of TG, Vc, and C1-C2 nociceptive neurons. Hyperexcitable nociceptive neurons also activate satellite glial cells in the TG and microglial cells and astrocytes in the Vc and C1-C2...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637679/characterization-of-ectonucleotidase-expression-in-the-rat-carotid-body-regulation-by-chronic-hypoxia
#14
Shaima Salman, Cathy Vollmer, Grant B McClelland, Colin A Nurse
The carotid body (CB) chemoreflex maintains blood PO2 and PCO2/H(+) homeostasis and displays sensory plasticity during exposure to chronic hypoxia. Purinergic signaling via P1 and P2 receptors plays a pivotal role in shaping the afferent discharge at the sensory synapse containing catecholaminergic chemoreceptor (type I) cells, glial-like type II cells, and sensory (petrosal) nerve endings. However, little is known about the family of ectonucleotidases that control synaptic nucleotide levels. Using quantitative PCR (QPCR), we first compared expression levels of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases1,2,3,5,6) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (E5'Nt/CD73) mRNAs in juvenile rat CB versus brain, petrosal ganglia, sympathetic (superior cervical) ganglia, and a sympathoadrenal chromaffin (MAH) cell line...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637335/astrocyte-produced-mir-146a-as-a-mediator-of-motor-neuron-loss-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#15
Samantha L Sison, Teresa N Patitucci, Emily R Seminary, Eric Villalon, Christian L Lorson, Allison D Ebert
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the leading genetic cause of infant mortality, is caused by loss of the survival motor neuron-1 (SMN1) gene, which leads to motor neuron loss, muscle atrophy, respiratory distress, and death. Motor neurons exhibit the most profound loss, but the mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis are not fully understood. Recent evidence suggests that motor neuron extrinsic influences, such as those arising from astrocytes, contribute to motor neuron malfunction and loss. Here we investigated both loss-of-function and toxic gain-of-function astrocyte mechanisms that could play a role in SMA pathology...
June 15, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637008/cytotoxic-profiling-of-artesunic-and-betulinic-acids-and-their-synthetic-hybrid-compound-on-neurons-and-gliomas
#16
Annemarie Ackermann, Aysun Çapcı Karagöz, Ali Ghoochani, Michael Buchfelder, Ilker Eyüpoglu, Svetlana B Tsogoeva, Nicolai Savaskan
Gliomas are brain-born tumors with devastating impact on their brain microenvironment. Novel approaches employ multiple combinations of chemical compounds in synthetic hybrid molecules to target malignant tumors. Here, we report on the chemical hybridization approach exemplified by artesunic acid (ARTA) and naturally occurring triterpene betulinic acid (BETA). Artemisinin derived semisynthetic compound artesunic acid (ARTA) and naturally occurring triterpene BETA were used to synthetically couple to the hybrid compound termed 212A...
June 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634726/connexin-channels-at-the-glio-vascular-interface-gatekeepers-of-the-brain
#17
Marijke De Bock, Luc Leybaert, Christian Giaume
Neuronal survival, electrical signaling and synaptic activity require a well-balanced micro-environment in the central nervous system. This is achieved by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), an endothelial barrier situated in the brain capillaries, that controls near-to-all passage in and out of the brain. The endothelial barrier function is highly dependent on signaling interactions with surrounding glial, neuronal and vascular cells, together forming the neuro-glio-vascular unit. Within this functional unit, connexin (Cx) channels are of utmost importance for intercellular communication between the different cellular compartments...
June 20, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634469/alexander-disease-mutations-produce-cells-with-coexpression-of-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-and-ng2-in-neurosphere-cultures-and-inhibit-differentiation-into-mature-oligodendrocytes
#18
Ulises Gómez-Pinedo, Maria Salomé Sirerol-Piquer, María Durán-Moreno, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Jorge Matias-Guiu
BACKGROUND: Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The disease is characterized by presence of GFAP aggregates in the cytoplasm of astrocytes and loss of myelin. OBJECTIVES: Determine the effect of AxD-related mutations on adult neurogenesis. METHODS: We transfected different types of mutant GFAP into neurospheres using the nucleofection technique. RESULTS: We find that mutations may cause coexpression of GFAP and NG2 in neurosphere cultures, which would inhibit the differentiation of precursors into oligodendrocytes and thus explain the myelin loss occurring in the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634210/the-glycosylation-pathway-is-required-for-the-secretion-of-slit-and-for-the-maintenance-of-the-slit-receptor-robo-on-axons
#19
Mary Ann Manavalan, Vatsala Ruvini Jayasinghe, Rickinder Grewal, Krishna Moorthi Bhat
Slit proteins act as repulsive axon guidance cues by activating receptors of the Roundabout (Robo) family. During early neurogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, Slit prevents the growth cones of longitudinal tract neurons from inappropriately crossing the midline, thus restricting these cells to trajectories parallel to the midline. Slit is expressed in midline glial cells, and Robo is present in longitudinal axon tracts and growth cones. We showed that the enzyme Mummy (Mmy) controlled Slit-Robo signaling through mechanisms that affected both the ligand and the receptor...
June 20, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633562/advances-in-imaging-brain-metabolism
#20
Fahmeed Hyder, Douglas L Rothman
Metabolism is central to neuroimaging because it can reveal pathways by which neuronal and glial cells use nutrients to fuel their growth and function. We focus on advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods used in brain metabolic studies. (17)O-MRS and (31)P-MRS, respectively, provide rates of oxygen use and ATP synthesis inside mitochondria, whereas (19)F-MRS enables measurement of cytosolic glucose metabolism. Calibrated functional MRI (fMRI), an advanced form of fMRI that uses contrast generated by deoxyhemoglobin, provides maps of oxygen use that track neuronal firing across brain regions...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
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