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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446004/conditioned-medium-derived-from-salidroside-pretreated-mesenchymal-stem-cell-culture-ameliorates-mouse-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cerebral-neuroinflammation-histological-and-immunohistochemical-study
#1
Zeinab M El Maadawi
Background and Objectives: Neuroinflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Conditioned medium (CM) derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) revealed substantial benefits due to its rich content of trophic factors. Salidroside (Sal), extracted from Rhodiola rosea, is known for its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Sal pretreated CM (CM-Sal) derived from bone marrow MSCs in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced neuroinflammation...
April 30, 2017: International Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445734/opposing-actions-of-fgf8a-on-notch-signaling-distinguish-two-muller-glial-cell-populations-that-contribute-to-retina-growth-and-regeneration
#2
Jin Wan, Daniel Goldman
The teleost retina grows throughout life and exhibits a robust regenerative response following injury. Critical to both these events are Muller glia (or, Muller glial cells; MGs), which produce progenitors for retinal growth and repair. We report that Fgf8a may be an MG niche factor that acts through Notch signaling to regulate spontaneous and injury-dependent MG proliferation. Remarkably, forced Fgf8a expression inhibits Notch signaling and stimulates MG proliferation in young tissue but increases Notch signaling and suppresses MG proliferation in older tissue...
April 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445733/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-immunity-in-the-brain-determines-fly-lifespan-in-healthy-aging-and-age-related-neurodegeneration
#3
Ilias Kounatidis, Stanislava Chtarbanova, Yang Cao, Margaret Hayne, Dhruv Jayanth, Barry Ganetzky, Petros Ligoxygakis
During aging, innate immunity progresses to a chronically active state. However, what distinguishes those that "age well" from those developing age-related neurological conditions is unclear. We used Drosophila to explore the cost of immunity in the aging brain. We show that mutations in intracellular negative regulators of the IMD/NF-κB pathway predisposed flies to toxic levels of antimicrobial peptides, resulting in early locomotor defects, extensive neurodegeneration, and reduced lifespan. These phenotypes were rescued when immunity was suppressed in glia...
April 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445150/modulation-of-the-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-channel-kir4-1-by-the-pro-invasive-mir-5096-in-glioblastoma-cells
#4
Dominique Thuringer, Gaetan Chanteloup, Jonathan Boucher, Nicolas Pernet, Christophe Boudesco, Gaetan Jego, Aurelien Chatelier, Patrick Bois, Jessica Gobbo, Laurent Cronier, Eric Solary, Carmen Garrido
Inwardly rectifying potassium channels (Kir), and especially the barium-sensitive Kir4.1 encoded by KCNJ10, are key regulators of glial functions. A lower expression or mislocation of Kir4.1 is detected in human brain tumors. MicroRNAs participate in the regulation of ionic channels and associated neurologic disorders. Here, we analyze effects of miR-5096 on the Kir4.1 expression and function in two glioblastoma cell lines, U87 and U251. Using whole-cell patch-clamp and western-blot analysis, we show that cell loading with miR-5096 decreases the Kir4...
April 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444921/biochemical-characterization-and-analyses-of-polysialic-acid-associated-carrier-proteins-and-genes-in-piglets-during-neonatal-development
#5
Bing Wang, Yue Chen, He Ren, Nai Zhang, Frederic Arthur Troy Ii
Polysialic acid plays a key role in cancer metastasis and neurodevelopment. Our aim was to determine the developmental gene expression profiles for the two polysialyltransferases ST 8Sia II and ST8Sia IV, NCAM, SynCAM1, Neuropilin-2 (NRP2) and their polysialylated cognate glycans in different regions of the piglet brain during postnatal development. Our findings show that: (1) The cellular levels of mRNA coding for ST8Sia II and ST8Sia IV, NCAM, SynCAM1, NRP2 and polySia are age-dependent and cell type specific during neonatal brain development; (2) There was a lack of correlation between abundance level of mRNA coding for ST8Sia II and ST8Sia IV and the abundance level of the post-translation expression of polySia in all nine brain regions; (3) Expression levels of polySia did not correlate with the levels of the carrier proteins, NCAM-140, SynCAM1 and NRP2 in nine brain regions; (4) The cellular abundance of ST8Sia II and ST8Sia IV in nine subregions of piglet brain is regulated at the level of translation/posttranslation, and not at the level of transcription...
April 26, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444635/the-leukocentric-theory-of-neurological-disorder-a-manifesto
#6
Robert Fern
Approximately half of the human brain is composed of white matter (WM), a specialized tissue housing the axonal projection of neurons and their necessary supporting glial cells. Axons course long distances from their parent soma, have a delicate structure, large surface area and in many cases are dependent upon a uniquely close morphological arrangement with myelinating oligodendrocyte partners; all factors that may predispose them to injury and disease. WM damage is central to a range of well-characterized disorders including multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury and is also makes a significant contribution to disorders often considered to be largely focused in gray matter; for example, in stroke where ~49% of injury by volume is located in WM...
April 25, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442998/glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gene-delivery-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-delicate-balance-between-neuroprotection-trophic-effects-and-unwanted-compensatory-mechanisms
#7
REVIEW
Liliane Tenenbaum, Marie Humbert-Claude
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and Neurturin (NRTN) bind to a receptor complex consisting of a member of the GDNF family receptor (GFR)-α and the Ret tyrosine kinase. Both factors were shown to protect nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons and reduce motor symptoms when applied terminally in toxin-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) models. However, clinical trials based on intraputaminal GDNF protein administration or recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated NRTN gene delivery have been disappointing...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442994/egf-enhances-oligodendrogenesis-from-glial-progenitor-cells
#8
Junlin Yang, Xuejun Cheng, Jiajun Qi, Binghua Xie, Xiaofeng Zhao, Kang Zheng, Zunyi Zhang, Mengsheng Qiu
Emerging evidence indicates that epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling plays a positive role in myelin development and repair, but little is known about its biological effects on the early generation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage cells. In this study, we investigated the role of EGF in early OL development with isolated glial restricted precursor (GRP) cells. It was found that EGF collaborated with Platelet Derived Growth Factor-AA (PDGFaa) to promote the survival and self-renewal of GRP cells, but predisposed GRP cells to develop into O4(-) early-stage oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in the absence of or PDGFaa...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442943/flow-shear-stress-enhances-the-proliferative-potential-of-cultured-radial-glial-cells-possibly-via-an-activation-of-mechanosensitive-calcium-channel
#9
Min Gu Park, Heeyeong Jang, Sang-Hoon Lee, C Justin Lee
Radial glial cells (RGCs) which function as neural stem cells are known to be non-excitable and their proliferation depends on the intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) level. It has been well established that Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-mediated Ca(2+) release and Ca(2+) entry through various Ca(2+) channels are involved in the proliferation of RGCs. Furthermore, RGCs line the ventricular wall and are exposed to a shear stress due to a physical contact with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, little is known about how the Ca(2+) entry through mechanosensitive ion channels affects the proliferation of RGCs...
April 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442538/peripheral-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-tnf-%C3%AE-modulates-amyloid-pathology-by-regulating-blood-derived-immune-cells-and-glial-response-in-the-brain-of-ad-tnf-transgenic-mice
#10
Evi Paouri, Ourania Tzara, Georgia-Ioanna Kartalou, Sofia Zenelak, Spiros Georgopoulos
Increasing evidence has suggested that systemic inflammation along with local brain inflammation can play a significant role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Identifying key molecules that regulate the crosstalk between the immune and the central nervous system can provide potential therapeutic targets. TNF-α is a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and AD. Recent studies have reported that anti-TNF-α therapy or RA itself can modulate AD pathology, although the underlying mechanism is unclear...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442442/prostaglandins-and-other-lipid-mediators-polm-special-issue-of-the-6th-european-workshop-on-lipid-mediators-role-of-m%C3%A3-ller-cell-cytochrome-p450-2c44-in-murine-retinal-angiogenesis
#11
Jiong Hu, Alexandra Geyer, Sarah Dziumbla, Khader Awwad, Darryl C Zeldin, Wolf-Hagen Schunck, Rüdiger Popp, Timo Frömel, Ingrid Fleming
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and their cytochrome P450 (CYP450) metabolites have been linked to angiogenesis and vessel homeostasis. However, the role of individual CYP isoforms and their endogenous metabolites in those processes are not clear. Here, we focused on the role of Cyp2c44 in postnatal retinal angiogenesis and report that Cyp2c44 is highly expressed in Müller glial cells in the retina. The constitutive as well as inducible postnatal genetic deletion of Cyp2c44 resulted in an increased vessel network density without affecting vessel radial expansion during the first postnatal week...
April 22, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442392/4-chlorodiazepam-is-neuroprotective-against-amyloid-beta-in-organotypic-hippocampal-cultures
#12
B D Arbo, J B Hoppe, K Rodrigues, L M Garcia-Segura, C G Salbego, M F Ribeiro
The translocator protein (TSPO) is an outer mitochondrial membrane protein involved in the transport of cholesterol into the mitochondria, which is the first step for the synthesis of steroid hormones, as well as in the regulation of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening and apoptosis. Studies have shown that the activation of TSPO may promote neuroprotective actions in experimental models of neurodegeneration and brain injury. In a previous study, our group showed that 4'-chlorodiazepam (4'-CD), a TSPO ligand, was neuroprotective against amyloid-beta (Aβ) in SHSY-5Y neuroblastoma cells...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442356/unbiased-stereological-analysis-of-the-fate-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-in-the-adult-mouse-brain-and-effect-of-reference-memory-training
#13
Jenna J Boulanger, Claude Messier
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) are glial cells that differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes during early stages of post-natal life. However, OPCs persist beyond developmental myelination and represent an important population of cycling cells in the grey and white matter of the adult brain. Here, we used unbiased systematic stereological analysis to determine the total number of OPCs in the neocortex and corpus callosum of the adult mouse. We found that the ratio of OPCs to neurons is of 1: 10 in the adult neocortex...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442042/growth-arrest-specific-1-gas1-and-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-receptor-%C3%AE-1-gfr%C3%AE-1-two-mouse-oocyte-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored-proteins-are-involved-in-fertilisation
#14
M Agopiantz, L Xandre-Rodriguez, B Jin, G Urbistondoy, C Ialy-Radio, M Chalbi, J-P Wolf, A Ziyyat, B Lefèvre
Recently, Juno, the oocyte receptor for Izumo1, a male immunoglobulin, was discovered. Juno is an essential glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GIP)-anchored protein. This result did not exclude the participation of other GIP-anchored proteins in this process. After bibliographic and database searches we selected five GIP-anchored proteins (Cpm, Ephrin-A4, Gas1, Gfra1 and Rgmb) as potential oocyte candidates participating in fertilisation. Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses showed that only three were present on the mouse ovulated oocyte membrane and, of these, only two were clearly involved in the fertilisation process, namely growth arrest specific 1 (Gas1) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor α1 (Gfrα1)...
April 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441718/therapeutic-effect-of-melittin-on-a-rat-model-of-chronic-prostatitis-induced-by-complete-freund-s-adjuvant
#15
Li Lin, Bao-Ping Zhu, Liang Cai
OBJECTIVES: The present study was aimed to establish a model of chronic prostatitis in rat with the use of intraprostatic injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant, and to examine the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of melittin on the newly-developed chronic prostatic pain model. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) into the prostate. Twelve days after model rats of the treatment group were injected melittin into the prostate, while those of the control group received sterile saline injection...
April 21, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441621/prion-like-transmission-of-pathogenic-protein-aggregates-in-genetic-models-of-neurodegenerative-disease
#16
REVIEW
Margaret Mp Pearce
A key pathological hallmark of most neurodegenerative diseases is the misfolding of a particular protein, leading to deposition of toxic protein aggregates in brain tissue. Recent data provide compelling evidence that pathogenic protein aggregates have prion-like properties-they self-replicate by templated misfolding of monomeric proteins and spread between individual cells. Studies in genetic model organisms have expanded our understanding of how prion-like pathogenic aggregates propagate in vivo, revealing potential roles for spreading along neural networks and key cellular processes in both neurons and glial cells...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441400/a-genomics-approach-identifies-selective-effects-of-trans-resveratrol-in-cerebral-cortex-neuron-and-glia-gene-expression
#17
Gemma Navarro, Eva Martínez-Pinilla, Alejandro Sánchez-Melgar, Raquel Ortiz, Véronique Noé, Mairena Martín, Carlos Ciudad, Rafael Franco
The mode of action of trans-resveratrol, a promising lead compound for the development of neuroprotective drugs, is unknown. Data from a functional genomics study were retrieved with the aim to find differentially expressed genes that may be involved in the benefits provided by trans-resveratrol. Genes that showed a significantly different expression (p<0.05, cut-off of a two-fold change) in mice fed with a control diet or a control diet containing trans-resveratrol were different in cortex, heart and skeletal muscle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441076/a-novel-neuroprotective-small-molecule-for-glial-cell-derived-neurotrophic-factor-induction-and-photoreceptor-rescue
#18
Petr Baranov, Hong Lin, Kathryn McCabe, David Gale, Shenshen Cai, Burke Lieppman, Dwight Morrow, Phoebe Lei, Justin Liao, Michael Young
PURPOSE: Degenerative diseases of the retina, such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration, are characterized by the irreversible loss of photoreceptors. Several growth factors, including glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), have been shown to rescue retinal neurons. An alternative strategy to direct GDNF administration is its induction in host retina by small molecules. Here we studied the ability of a novel small molecule GSK812 to induce GDNF in vitro/in vivo and rescue photoreceptors...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440477/synchronized-dual-pulse-gastric-electrical-stimulation-improves-gastric-emptying-and-activates-enteric-glial-cells-via-upregulation-of-gfap-and-s100b-with-different-courses-of-subdiaphragmatic-vagotomy-in-rats
#19
Nian Wang, Shuangning Song, Jie Chen
Previous research and clinical practice have indicated that damage to the vagal nerve may seriously affect gastrointestinal physiological movement behavior. The aim of the current study was to observe the change of gastric motility, as well as enteric glial cells (EGCs) in the stomach with different courses of vagal nerve transection in rats prior to and following synchronized dual pulse gastric electrical stimulation. The gastric emptying rates were measured to assess the gastric motility. The glial markers, containing calcium binding protein (S100B) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and double‑labeling immunofluorescence analysis...
April 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439892/cerebrospinal-fluid-cyto-chemokine-profile-during-acute-herpes-simplex-virus-induced-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis-and-in-chronic-neurological-sequelae
#20
Kavitha Kothur, Deepak Gill, Melanie Wong, Shekeeb S Mohammad, Sushil Bandodkar, Susan Arbunckle, Louise Wienholt, Russell C Dale
AIM: To examine the cytokine/chemokine profile of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during acute herpes simplex virus-induced N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) autoimmunity and in chronic/relapsing post-herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) neurological syndromes. METHOD: We measured longitudinal serial CSF cyto-/chemokines (n=34) and a glial marker (calcium-binding astroglial protein, S100B) in one patient during acute HSE and subsequent anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and compared the results with those from two patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis without preceding HSE...
April 25, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
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