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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549068/oligodendroglial-myelination-requires-astrocyte-derived-lipids
#1
Nutabi Camargo, Andrea Goudriaan, Anne-Lieke F van Deijk, Willem M Otte, Jos F Brouwers, Hans Lodder, David H Gutmann, Klaus-Armin Nave, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Huibert D Mansvelder, Roman Chrast, August B Smit, Mark H G Verheijen
In the vertebrate nervous system, myelination of axons for rapid impulse propagation requires the synthesis of large amounts of lipids and proteins by oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells. Myelin membranes are thought to be cell-autonomously assembled by these axon-associated glial cells. Here, we report the surprising finding that in normal brain development, a substantial fraction of the lipids incorporated into central nervous system (CNS) myelin are contributed by astrocytes. The oligodendrocyte-specific inactivation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), an essential coactivator of the transcription factor SREBP and thus of lipid biosynthesis, resulted in significantly retarded CNS myelination; however, myelin appeared normal at 3 months of age...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548249/m%C3%A3-ller-glial-cell-reactivation-in-xenopus-models-of-retinal-degeneration
#2
Rahul Langhe, Albert Chesneau, Gabriele Colozza, Magdalena Hidalgo, Divya Ail, Morgane Locker, Muriel Perron
A striking aspect of tissue regeneration is its uneven distribution among different animal classes, both in terms of modalities and efficiency. The retina does not escape the rule, exhibiting extraordinary self-repair properties in anamniote species but extremely limited ones in mammals. Among cellular sources prone to contribute to retinal regeneration are Müller glial cells, which in teleosts have been known for a decade to re-acquire a stem/progenitor state and regenerate retinal neurons following injury...
May 26, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546769/treatment-of-chronic-low-back-pain-new-approaches-on-the-horizon
#3
REVIEW
Nebojsa Nick Knezevic, Shane Mandalia, Jennifer Raasch, Ivana Knezevic, Kenneth D Candido
Back pain is the second leading cause of disability among American adults and is currently treated either with conservative therapy or interventional pain procedures. However, the question that remains is whether we, as physicians, have adequate therapeutic options to offer to the patients who suffer from chronic low back pain but fail both conservative therapy and interventional pain procedures before they consider surgical options such as discectomy, disc arthroplasty, or spinal fusion. The purpose of this article is to review the potential novel therapies that are on the horizon for the treatment of chronic low back pain...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546444/glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-gfap-is-a-novel-biomarker-for-the-prediction-of-autoimmune-diabetes
#4
Zhengda Pang, Akifumi Kushiyama, Jiao Sun, Takako Kikuchi, Hiroki Yamazaki, Yasuhiko Iwamoto, Hiroshi Koriyama, Shota Yoshida, Munehisa Shimamura, Masayoshi Higuchi, Tomohiro Kawano, Yoichi Takami, Hiromi Rakugi, Ryuichi Morishita, Hironori Nakagami
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is expressed in peri-islet Schwann cells as well as in glia cells and has been reported to be an autoantigen candidate for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We confirmed that the production of the autoantibodies GFAP and glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) was increased and inversely correlated with the concentration of secreted C peptide in female nonobese diabetic mice (T1DM model). Importantly, the development of T1DM in female nonobese diabetic mice at 30 wk of age was predicted by the positive GFAP autoantibody titer at 17 wk...
May 25, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546341/intra-generational-protein-malnutrition-impairs-temporal-astrogenesis-in-rat-brain
#5
Aijaz Ahmad Naik, Nisha Patro, Pankaj Seth, Ishan K Patro
The scanty information on astrogenesis following stressor effect, albeit imperative roles of astroglia in normal physiology and pathophysiology, incited us to assess temporal astrogenesis and astrocyte density in an intra-generational protein malnutrition (PMN) rat model. Standard immunohistochemical procedures for glial lineage markers and their intensity measurements and qRT-PCR studies were performed to reveal the spatio-temporal origin and density of astrocytes. Reduced A2B5+ glia restricted precursor population in ventricles and poor dissemination to cortex at embryonic days (E)11-14, low BLBP+ secondary radial glia in SVZ of E16 LP brains reflect compromised progenitor pooling...
May 25, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545252/cpg-and-non-cpg-methylation-in-epigenetic-gene-regulation-and-brain-function
#6
REVIEW
Hyun Sik Jang, Woo Jung Shin, Jeong Eon Lee, Jeong Tae Do
DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mark with important roles in genetic regulation. Methylated cytosines are found primarily at CpG dinucleotides, but are also found at non-CpG sites (CpA, CpT, and CpC). The general functions of CpG and non-CpG methylation include gene silencing or activation depending on the methylated regions. CpG and non-CpG methylation are found throughout the whole genome, including repetitive sequences, enhancers, promoters, and gene bodies. Interestingly, however, non-CpG methylation is restricted to specific cell types, such as pluripotent stem cells, oocytes, neurons, and glial cells...
May 23, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544974/cetuximab-modified-collagen-scaffold-directs-neurogenesis-of-injury-activated-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-for-acute-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#7
Xing Li, Yannan Zhao, Shixiang Cheng, Sufang Han, Muya Shu, Bing Chen, Xuyi Chen, Fengwu Tang, Nuo Wang, Yue Tu, Bin Wang, Zhifeng Xiao, Sai Zhang, Jianwu Dai
Studies have shown that endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) activated by spinal cord injury (SCI) primarily generate astrocytes to form glial scar. The NSCs do not differentiate into neurons because of the adverse microenvironment. In this study, we defined the activation timeline of endogenous NSCs in rats with severe SCI. These injury-activated NSCs then migrated into the lesion site. Cetuximab, an EGFR signaling antagonist, significantly increased neurogenesis in the lesion site. Meanwhile, implanting cetuximab modified linear ordered collagen scaffolds (LOCS) into SCI lesion sites in dogs resulted in neuronal regeneration, including neuronal differentiation, maturation, myelination, and synapse formation...
May 18, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542922/study-of-retinal-neurodegeneration-and-maculopathy-in-diabetic-meriones-shawi-a-particular-animal-model-with-human-like-macula
#8
Imane Hammoum, Maha Benlarbi, Ahmed Dellaa, Klaudia Szabó, Bulcsú Dékány, Dávid Csaba, Zsuzsanna Almási, Rozina I Hajdú, Rached Azaiz, Ridha Charefeddine, Ákos Lukáts, Rafika Benchouacha-Chekir
The purpose of this work was to evaluate a potentially useful animal model, Meriones shawi (M.sh) - developing metabolic X syndrome, diabetes and possessing a visual streak similar to human macula - in the study of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema (DME). Type 2 diabetes (T2D) was induced by high fat diet administration in M.sh. Body weights, blood glucose levels were monitored throughout the study. Diabetic retinal histopathology was evaluated 3 and 7 months after diabetes induction. Retinal thickness was measured, retinal cell types were labeled by immunohistochemistry and the number of stained elements were quantified...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542352/preconditioning-of-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-deferoxamine-increases-the-production-of-pro-angiogenic-neuroprotective-and-anti-inflammatory-factors-potential-application-in-the-treatment-of-diabetic-neuropathy
#9
Carolina Oses, Belén Olivares, Marcelo Ezquer, Cristian Acosta, Paul Bosch, Macarena Donoso, Patricio Léniz, Fernando Ezquer
Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is one of the most frequent and troublesome complications of diabetes mellitus. Evidence from diabetic animal models and diabetic patients suggests that reduced availability of neuroprotective and pro-angiogenic factors in the nerves in combination with a chronic pro-inflammatory microenvironment and high level of oxidative stress, contribute to the pathogenesis of DN. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of great interest as therapeutic agents for regenerative purposes, since they can secrete a broad range of cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542253/repurposing-the-anti-epileptic-drug-sodium-valproate-as-an-adjuvant-treatment-for-diffuse-intrinsic-pontine-glioma
#10
Clare L Killick-Cole, William G B Singleton, Alison S Bienemann, Daniel J Asby, Marcella J Wyatt, Lisa J Boulter, Neil U Barua, Steven S Gill
Targeting epigenetic changes in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) may provide a novel treatment option for patients. This report demonstrates that sodium valproate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), can increase the cytotoxicity of carboplatin in an additive and synergistic manner in DIPG cells in vitro. Sodium valproate causes a dose-dependent decrease in DIPG cell viability in three independent ex vivo cell lines. Furthermore, sodium valproate caused an increase in acetylation of histone H3. Changes in cell viability were consistent with an induction of apoptosis in DIPG cells in vitro, determined by flow cytometric analysis of Annexin V staining and assessment of apoptotic markers by western blotting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541444/blood-brain-barrier-pericyte-importance-in-malignant-gliomas-what-we-can-learn-from-stroke-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Sadhana Jackson, Ayman ElAli, Daniela Virgintino, Mark R Gilbert
The pericyte, a constitutive component of the central nervous system, is a poorly understood cell type that envelops the endothelial cell with the intended purpose of regulating vascular flow and endothelial cell permeability. Previous studies of pericyte function have been limited to a small number of disease processes such as ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Recently, publications have postulated a link between glioma stem cell differentiation and pericyte function. These studies suggest that there may be an important interaction of pericytes with tumor cells and other components of the tumor microenvironment in malignant primary glial neoplasms, most notably glioblastoma...
May 24, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540665/different-molecular-mechanisms-mediate-direct-or-glia-dependent-prion-protein-fragment-90-231-neurotoxic-effects-in-cerebellar-granule-neurons
#12
Stefano Thellung, Elena Gatta, Francesca Pellistri, Valentina Villa, Alessandro Corsaro, Mario Nizzari, Mauro Robello, Tullio Florio
Glia over-stimulation associates with amyloid deposition contributing to the progression of central nervous system neurodegenerative disorders. Here we analyze the molecular mechanisms mediating microglia-dependent neurotoxicity induced by prion protein (PrP)90-231, an amyloidogenic polypeptide corresponding to the protease-resistant portion of the pathological prion protein scrapie (PrP(Sc)). PrP90-231 neurotoxicity is enhanced by the presence of microglia within neuronal culture, and associated to a rapid neuronal [Ca(++)] i increase...
May 25, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540559/ceramide-and-s1p-signaling-in-embryonic-stem-cell-differentiation
#13
Guanghu Wang, Stefka D Spassieva, Erhard Bieberich
Bioactive sphingolipids are important regulators for stem cell survival and differentiation. Most recently, we have coined the term "morphogenetic lipids" for sphingolipids that regulate stem cells during embryonic and postnatal development. The sphingolipid ceramide and its derivative, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), can act synergistically as well as antagonistically on embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation. We show here simple as well as state-of-the-art methods to analyze sphingolipids in differentiating ES cells and discuss new protocols to use ceramide and S1P analogs for the guided differentiation of mouse ES cells toward neuronal and glial lineage...
May 25, 2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536635/the-regulatory-mechanisms-of-ng2-cspg4-expression
#14
REVIEW
Emmanuel Ampofo, Beate M Schmitt, Michael D Menger, Matthias W Laschke
Neuron-glial antigen 2 (NG2), also known as chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), is a surface type I transmembrane core proteoglycan that is crucially involved in cell survival, migration and angiogenesis. NG2 is frequently used as a marker for the identification and characterization of certain cell types, but little is known about the mechanisms regulating its expression. In this review, we provide evidence that the regulation of NG2 expression underlies inflammation and hypoxia and is mediated by methyltransferases, transcription factors, including Sp1, paired box (Pax) 3 and Egr-1, and the microRNA miR129-2...
2017: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536509/chronic-social-stress-time-dependently-affects-neuropathic-pain-related-cold-allodynia-and-leads-to-altered-expression-of-spinal-biochemical-mediators
#15
Glenn-Marie Le Coz, Julien Genty, Fernand Anton, Ulrike Hanesch
Clinical data have shown that chronic exposure to stress may be accompanied by an enhancement of inflammation-related pain sensitivity. In this context, little is however known on the impact of stress on neuropathic pain. In the present study we addressed this issue by combining the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model with an ongoing social stress (OSS) paradigm. Cold plate and von Frey tests were performed in 48 rats divided into four groups: OSS exposed to OSS, CCI subjected to chronic nerve constriction, OSS+CCI with a combination of neuropathy and stress and CON, a control group lacking any manipulation...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536505/new-tools-to-study-astrocyte-ca-2-signal-dynamics-in-brain-networks-in-vivo
#16
REVIEW
Gabriele Losi, Letizia Mariotti, Michele Sessolo, Giorgio Carmignoto
Sensory information processing is a fundamental operation in the brain that is based on dynamic interactions between different neuronal populations. Astrocytes, a type of glial cells, have been proposed to represent active elements of brain microcircuits that, through dynamic interactions with neurons, provide a modulatory control of neuronal network activity. Specifically, astrocytes in different brain regions have been described to respond to neuronal signals with intracellular Ca(2+) elevations that represent a key step in the functional recruitment of astrocytes to specific brain circuits...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535980/nogo-receptor-1-antagonization-in-combination-with-neurotrophin-4-5-is-not-superior-to-single-factor-treatment-in-promoting-survival-and-morphological-complexity-of-cultured-dopaminergic-neurons
#17
Stefanie Seiler, Stefano Di Santo, Sebastian Sahli, Lukas Andereggen, Hans Rudolf Widmer
Cell transplantation using ventral mesencephalic tissue is an experimental approach to treat Parkinson's disease. This approach is limited by poor survival of the transplants and the high number of dopaminergic neurons needed for grafting. Increasing the yield of dopaminergic neurons in donor tissue is of great importance. We have previously shown that antagonization of the Nogo-receptor 1 by NEP1-40 promoted survival of cultured dopaminergic neurons and exposure to neurotrophin-4/5 increased dopaminergic cell densities in organotypic midbrain cultures...
May 20, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535795/turtle-interacts-with-borderless-in-regulating-glial-extension-and-axon-ensheathment
#18
Yixu Chen, Scott Cameron, Wen-Tzu Chang, Yong Rao
Proper recognition between axons and glial processes is required for the establishment of axon ensheathment in the developing nervous system. Recent studies have begun to reveal molecular events underlying developmental control of axon-glia recognition. In our previous work, we showed that the transmembrane protein Borderless (Bdl) is specifically expressed in wrapping glia (WG), and is required for the extension of glial processes and the ensheathment of photoreceptor axons in the developing Drosophila visual system...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534946/differentiation-of-nestin%C3%A2-negative-human-hair-follicle-outer-root-sheath-cells-into-neurons-in%C3%A2-vitro
#19
Wei Wu, Xiao-Li Wu, Yu-Qing Ji, Zhen Gao
A specialized quiescent population of hair follicle stem cells, residing in the hair follicle outer root sheath cells (ORSCs), has previously demonstrated pluripotency for differentiation into neural stem cells (NSCs). A previous study indicated that nestin‑positive hair follicle ORSCs are able to differentiate into neurons. However, little has been reported on the isolation of nestin‑negative human ORSCs and whether they can successfully differentiate into neurons in vitro. In the present study, nestin‑positive ORSCs were significantly reduced with a prolonged incubation time in vitro...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534473/the-cost-of-communication-in-the-brain
#20
Brian A MacVicar, Leigh Wicki-Stordeur, Louis-Philippe Bernier
Imaging ATP in axons reveals that they rely on glucose from the blood and lactate produced by glial cells as sources of energy.
May 22, 2017: ELife
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