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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338622/phosphodiesterase-inhibitors-as-a-therapeutic-approach-to-neuroprotection-and-repair
#1
REVIEW
Eric P Knott, Mazen Assi, Sudheendra N R Rao, Mousumi Ghosh, Damien D Pearse
A wide diversity of perturbations of the central nervous system (CNS) result in structural damage to the neuroarchitecture and cellular defects, which in turn are accompanied by neurological dysfunction and abortive endogenous neurorepair. Altering intracellular signaling pathways involved in inflammation and immune regulation, neural cell death, axon plasticity and remyelination has shown therapeutic benefit in experimental models of neurological disease and trauma. The second messengers, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP), are two such intracellular signaling targets, the elevation of which has produced beneficial cellular effects within a range of CNS pathologies...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337525/phosphodiesterase-1b-pde1b-knockout-mice-are-resistant-to-forced-swim-and-tail-suspension-induced-immobility-and-show-upregulation-of-pde10a
#2
Jillian R Hufgard, Michael T Williams, Matthew R Skelton, Olivera Grubisha, Filipa M Ferreira, Helen Sanger, Mary E Wright, Tracy M Reed-Kessler, Kurt Rasmussen, Ronald S Duman, Charles V Vorhees
RATIONALE: Major depressive disorder is a leading cause of suicide and disability. Despite this, current antidepressants provide insufficient efficacy in more than 60% of patients. Most current antidepressants are presynaptic reuptake inhibitors; postsynaptic signal regulation has not received as much attention as potential treatment targets. OBJECTIVES: We examined the effects of disruption of the postsynaptic cyclic nucleotide hydrolyzing enzyme, phosphodiesterase (PDE) 1b, on depressive-like behavior and the effects on PDE1B protein in wild-type (WT) mice following stress...
March 23, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330503/caffeine-modulates-glucocorticoid-induced-expression-of-ctgf-in-lung-epithelial-cells-and-fibroblasts
#3
Markus Fehrholz, Kirsten Glaser, Christian P Speer, Silvia Seidenspinner, Barbara Ottensmeier, Steffen Kunzmann
BACKGROUND: Although caffeine and glucocorticoids are frequently used to treat chronic lung disease in preterm neonates, potential interactions are largely unknown. While anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids are well defined, their impact on airway remodeling is less characterized. Caffeine has been ascribed to positive effects on airway inflammation as well as remodeling. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, CCN2) plays a key role in airway remodeling and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants...
March 23, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316997/sildenafil-can-affect-innate-and-adaptive-immune-system-in-both-experimental-animals-and-patients
#4
REVIEW
Monika Kniotek, Agnieszka Boguska
Sildenafil, a type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor (PDE5-I), is primarily used for treating erectile dysfunction. Sildenafil inhibits the degradation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) by competing with cGMP for binding site of PDE5. cGMP is a secondary messenger activating protein kinases and a common regulator of ion channel conductance, glycogenolysis, and cellular apoptosis. PDE5 inhibitors (PDE-Is) found application in cardiology, nephrology, urology, dermatology, oncology, and gynecology. Positive result of sildenafil treatment is closely connected with its immunomodulatory effects...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306551/master-equations-and-the-theory-of-stochastic-path-integrals
#5
Markus F Weber, Erwin Frey
This review provides a pedagogic and self-contained introduction to master equations and to their representation by path integrals. Since the 1930s, master equations have served as a fundamental tool to understand the role of fluctuations in complex biological, chemical, and physical systems. Despite their simple appearance, analyses of master equations most often rely on low-noise approximations such as the Kramers-Moyal or the system size expansion, or require ad-hoc closure schemes for the derivation of low-order moment equations...
April 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306529/in-vitro-inhibition-of-phosphodiesterase-5-and-arginase-activities-from-rat-penile-tissue-by-two-nigerian-herbs-hunteria-umbellata-and-anogeissus-leiocarpus
#6
Ganiyu Oboh, Adeniyi Abiodun Adebayo, Ayokunle Olubode Ademosun, Aline August Boligon
BACKGROUND: Anogeissus leiocarpus and Hunteria umbellata have been reportedly used in traditional medicine for the management of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, the scientific basis for their use has not been well established. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of water extractable phytochemicals of H. umbellata and A. leiocarpus on phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) and arginase as well as pro-oxidants induced lipid peroxidation in rat penile tissue...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302718/a-unique-choanoflagellate-enzyme-rhodopsin-with-cyclic-nucleotide-phosphodiesterase-activity
#7
Kazuho Yoshida, Satoshi P Tsunoda, Leonid S Brown, Hideki Kandori
Photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (PAC) and guanylyl cyclase rhodopsin (Rh-GC) increase the concentrations of intracellular cyclic nucleotides upon illumination, serving as promising second-generation tools in optogenetics. To broaden arsenal of such tools, it is desirable to have light-activatable enzymes which can decrease cyclic nucleotide concentrations in cells. Here, we report on an unusual microbial rhodopsin which may be able to meet the demand. It is found in the choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta and contains a C-terminal cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) domain...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302034/co-morbid-erectile-dysfunction-ed-and-antidepressant-treatment-in-a-patient-a-management-challenge
#8
Maszaidi Zainol, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Shaiful Ismail, Muhammad Hizri Hatta, Najwa Baharudin, Arun Ravindran
Across the globe, antidepressants (AD) and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5i) are commonly prescribed psychopharmacological agents for patients with co-morbid mental-health problem and sexual dysfunction (SD). The serotonergic and/or noradrenergic ADs, although is an effective agent are not without SD side-effects, especially erectile dysfunction (ED). ED is an inability to achieve, or maintain an erection for satisfactory sexual intercourse during the phases of male's sexual arousal. It is recognized as an important reason why non-adherence to treatment was observed in patients who are on AD...
March 15, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299329/angiotensin-1-7-downregulates-diabetes-induced-cgmp-phosphodiesterase-activation-in-rat-corpus-cavernosum
#9
Gursev S Dhaunsi, Mariam Yousif, Batoul Makki, Saghir Akhtar, Ibrahim F Benter
Molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects of angiotensin-(1-7), Ang-(1-7), in diabetes-related complications, including erectile dysfunction, remain unclear. We examined the effect of diabetes and/or Ang-(1-7) treatment on vascular reactivity and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterase (PDE) in corpus cavernosum. Male Wistar rats were grouped as (1) control, (2) diabetic (streptozotocin, STZ, treated), (3) control + Ang-(1-7), and (4) diabetic + Ang-(1-7). Following 3 weeks of Ang-(1-7) treatment subsequent to induction of diabetes, rats were sacrificed...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297420/thin-film-cdte-detector-for-microdosimetric-study-of-radiation-dose-enhancement-at-gold-tissue-interface
#10
Nava Raj Paudel, Diana Shvydka, E Ishmael Parsai
Presence of interfaces between high and low atomic number (Z) materials, often encountered in diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy, leads to radiation dose perturbation. It is characterized by a very narrow region of sharp dose enhancement at the interface. A rapid falloff of the dose enhancement over a very short distance from the interface makes the experimental dosimetry nontrivial. We use an in-house-built inexpensive thin-film Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) photodetector to study this effect at the gold-tissue interface and verify our experimental results with Monte Carlo (MC) modeling...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287988/output-feedback-based-boundary-control-of-uncertain-coupled-semilinear-parabolic-pde-using-neurodynamic-programming
#11
Behzad Talaei, Sarangapani Jagannathan, John Singler
In this paper, neurodynamic programming-based output feedback boundary control of distributed parameter systems governed by uncertain coupled semilinear parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs) under Neumann or Dirichlet boundary control conditions is introduced. First, Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation is formulated in the original PDE domain and the optimal control policy is derived using the value functional as the solution of the HJB equation. Subsequently, a novel observer is developed to estimate the system states given the uncertain nonlinearity in PDE dynamics and measured outputs...
March 6, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285196/influence-of-surfactants-and-humic-acids-on-artemia-franciscana-s-embryonic-phospho-metabolite-profile-as-measured-by-31-p-nmr
#12
Rachel D Deese, Thomas K Weldeghiorghis, Benjamin J Haywood, Robert L Cook
Surfactants, such as triton X-100 (Tx-100), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) are known to be toxic to Artemia Franciscana (Artemia) - an organism, frequently used to monitor the health of the aquatic environment . The phospho-metabolite profile of a living organism is often indicative of imbalances that may have been caused by environmental stressors, such as surfactants. This study utilizes i n vivo(31)P NMR to monitor temporal changes in the phospho-metabolite profile of Artemia caused by Tx-100, CPC, and SDS and the ability of humic acid (HA) to mitigate the toxicity of these surfactants...
February 27, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282240/pseudoxanthoma-elasticum-like-papillary-dermal-elastolysis
#13
Venus Valbuena, Dalal Assaad, Jensen Yeung
BACKGROUND: Pseudoxanthoma elasticum-like papillary dermal elastolysis (PXE-PDE), a rare acquired elastolytic disorder, occurs in postmenopausal, elderly women and is characterized by soft, white-yellow papules that localize on the neck and supraclavicular regions and often coalesce into cobblestone plaques. It has no systemic involvement and is histologically distinct from the clinically similar inherited pseudoxanthoma elasticum. CASE SUMMARY: A 64-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 2-year history of multiple, asymptomatic soft yellow 1- to 2-mm papules on her neck, which were increasing in number...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280902/ginsenoside-rg5-attenuates-hepatic-glucagon-response-via-suppression-of-succinate-associated-hif-1%C3%AE-induction-in-hfd-fed-mice
#14
Na Xiao, Meng-Die Lou, Yi-Tong Lu, Le-Le Yang, Qun Liu, Baolin Liu, Lian-Wen Qi, Ping Li
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Ginsenosides regulate glucose homeostasis. This study investigated the effect of ginsenoside Rg5 (Rg5) on the hepatic glucagon response, focusing on the regulation of metabolism. METHODS: Mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) showed increased hepatic glucose production (HGP). We observed the effects of Rg5 on hepatic fatty acid oxidation and glucagon response. The regulation of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4B by succinate was also investigated in hepatocytes...
March 9, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279454/comparison-and-validation-of-two-mathematical-models-for-the-impact-of-mass-drug-administration-on-ascaris-lumbricoides-and-hookworm-infection
#15
Luc E Coffeng, James E Truscott, Sam H Farrell, Hugo C Turner, Rajiv Sarkar, Gagandeep Kang, Sake J de Vlas, Roy M Anderson
The predictions of two mathematical models of the transmission dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm infection and the impact of mass drug administration (MDA) are compared, using data from India. One model has an age structured partial differential equation (PDE) deterministic framework for the distribution of parasite numbers per host and sexual mating. The second model is an individual-based stochastic model. Baseline data acquired prior to treatment are used to estimate key transmission parameters, and forward projections are made, given the known MDA population coverage...
March 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278484/boundary-control-of-linear-uncertain-1-d-parabolic-pde-using-approximate-dynamic-programming
#16
Behzad Talaei, Sarangapani Jagannathan, John Singler
This paper develops a near optimal boundary control method for distributed parameter systems governed by uncertain linear 1-D parabolic partial differential equations (PDE) by using approximate dynamic programming. A quadratic surface integral is proposed to express the optimal cost functional for the infinite-dimensional state space. Accordingly, the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation is formulated in the infinite-dimensional domain without using any model reduction. Subsequently, a neural network identifier is developed to estimate the unknown spatially varying coefficient in PDE dynamics...
March 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267871/effect-of-bucladesine-pentoxifylline-and-h-89-as-cyclic-adenosine-monophosphate-analog-phosphodiesterase-and-protein-kinase-a-inhibitor-on-acute-pain
#17
Forouz Salehi, Mahshid Sadat Hosseini-Zare, Haleh Aghajani, Yalda Seyedi, Maryam Sadat Hosseini-Zare, Mohammad Sharifzadeh
The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and its dependent pathway on thermal nociception in a mouse model of acute pain. Here we studied the effect of H-89 (protein kinase A inhibitor), Bucladesine (Db-cAMP) (membrane permeable analog of cAMP) and pentoxifylline (PTX) (non-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor) on pain sensation. Different doses of H-89 (0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/100g), PTX (5, 10 and 20 mg/100g), and Db-cAMP (50, 100 and 300 nM/mouse) were administered intraperitoneally (I...
March 7, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263828/6-hydroxy-5-7-dimethoxy-flavone-suppresses-the-neutrophil-respiratory-burst-via-selective-pde4-inhibition-to-ameliorate-acute-lung-injury
#18
Yung-Fong Tsai, Tzu-Chi Chu, Wen-Yi Chang, Yang-Chang Wu, Fang-Rong Chang, Shun-Chin Yang, Tung-Ying Wu, Yu-Ming Hsu, Chun-Yu Chen, Shih-Hsin Chang, Tsong-Long Hwang
Over-activated neutrophils produce enormous oxidative stress and play a key role in the development of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. 6-Hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxy-flavone (UFM24), a flavone isolated from the Annonaceae Uvaria flexuosa, showed inhibitory effects on human neutrophil activation and salutary effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. UFM24 potently inhibited superoxide anion (O2(•-)) generation, reactive oxidants, and CD11b expression, but not elastase release, in N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine (fMLF)-activated human neutrophils...
March 3, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261470/using-a-multiscale-image-processing-method-to-characterize-the-periodic-growth-patterns-on-scallop-shells
#19
Qiang Xing, Tengda Wei, Zhihui Chen, Yangfan Wang, Yuan Lu, Shi Wang, Lingling Zhang, Zhenmin Bao
The fine periodic growth patterns on shell surfaces have been widely used for studies in the ecology and evolution of scallops. Modern X-ray CT scanners and digital cameras can provide high-resolution image data that contain abundant information such as the shell formation rate, ontogenetic age, and life span of shellfish organisms. We introduced a novel multiscale image processing method based on matched filters with Gaussian kernels and partial differential equation (PDE) multiscale hierarchical decomposition to segment the small tubular and periodic structures in scallop shell images...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258674/ibudilast-a-non%C3%A2-selective-phosphodiesterase-inhibitor-in-brain-disorders
#20
Joanna Schwenkgrub, Małgorzata Zaremba, Dagmara Mirowska-Guzel, Iwona Kurkowska-Jastrzębska
Ibudilast (IBD) is a non‑selective (3, 4, 10, 11) phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, used mainly as a bronchodilator for the treatment of bronchial asthma. PDE play a central role in cellular function (e.g. differentiation, synaptic plasticity and inflammatory response) by metabolizing cyclic nucleotides. The results from preclinical and clinical studies indicate that IBD has a broader range of action through suppression of pro‑inflammatory cytokines (IL‑6, IL‑1β, TNF‑α), toll‑like receptor 4 blockade (TLR‑4), inhibition of a macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), up‑regulation the anti‑inflammatory cytokine (IL‑10), and promotion of neurotrophic factors (GDNF, NGF, NT‑4)...
March 2, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
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