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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161855/global-dynamics-of-a-vector-host-epidemic-model-with-age-of-infection
#1
Yan-Xia Dang, Zhi-Peng Qiu, Xue-Zhi Li, Maia Martcheva
In this paper, a partial differential equation (PDE) model is proposed to explore the transmission dynamics of vector-borne diseases. The model includes both incubation age of the exposed hosts and infection age of the infectious hosts which describe incubation-age dependent removal rates in the latent period and the variable infectiousness in the infectious period, respectively. The reproductive number R0 is derived. By using the method of Lyapunov function, the global dynamics of the PDE model is further established, and the results show that the basic reproduction number R0 determines the transmission dynamics of vector-borne diseases: the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if R0 ≤ 1, and the endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if R0 > 1...
October 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159668/new-pulmonary-hypertension-model-in-conscious-dogs-to-investigate-pulmonary-selectivity-of-acute-pharmacological-interventions
#2
Thomas Mondritzki, Philip Boehme, Lena Schramm, Julia Vogel, Ilka Mathar, Peter Ellinghaus, Peter Kolkhof, Erwin Bischoff, Jörg Hüser, Wilfried Dinh, Peter Sandner, Hubert Truebel
PURPOSE: Testing of investigational drugs in animal models is a critical step in drug development. Current models of pulmonary hypertension (PH) have limitations. The most relevant outcome parameters such as pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) are measured invasively which requires anesthesia of the animal. We developed a new canine PH model in which pulmonary vasodilators can be characterized in conscious dogs and lung selectivity can be assessed non-invasively. METHODS: Telemetry devices were implanted to measure relevant hemodynamic parameters in conscious dogs...
November 20, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158340/effects-of-black-raspberry-on-dibenzo-a-l-pyrene-diol-epoxide-induced-dna-adducts-mutagenesis-and-tumorigenesis-in-the-mouse-oral-cavity
#3
Kun-Ming Chen, Joseph B Guttenplan, Yuan-Wan Sun, Timothy Cooper, Nora Ae Shalaby, Wieslawa Kosinska, Gabrielle Benitez, Cesar Aliaga, Junjia Zhu, Jason Liao, Krishne Gowda, Shantu Amin, Gary Stoner, Karam El-Bayoumy
We previously showed that metabolic activation of the environmental and tobacco smoke constituent dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) to its active fjord region diol epoxide (DB[a,l]PDE) is required to induce DNA damage, mutagenesis and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the mouse oral cavity. In contrast to procarcinogens which were employed previously to induce SCC, DB[a,l]PDE does not require metabolic activation to exert its biological effects and thus, this study was initiated to examine, for the first time, whether black raspberry powder (BRB) inhibits post-metabolic processes such as DNA damage, mutagenesis and tumorigenesis...
November 20, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152042/selective-inhibitors-of-phosphodiesterase-4b-pde-4b-may-provide-a-better-treatment-for-cns-metabolic-autoimmune-and-inflammatory-diseases
#4
EDITORIAL
Ahmed F Abdel-Magid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151951/potential-synergistic-effect-of-phosphodiesterase-inhibitors-with-chemotherapy-in-lung-cancer
#5
Kalliopi Domvri, Konstantinos Zarogoulidis, Nikolaos Zogas, Paul Zarogoulidis, Savvas Petanidis, Konstantinos Porpodis, Efrosini Kioseoglou, Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt
Purpose: Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and novel therapeutic approaches targeting crucial pathways are urgently needed to improve its treatment. Differentiation-based therapeutics (Methylxanthines) and phosphodiesterase inhibitors (type 4 and 5), have been implicated in cancer treatment. Our objectives were to capture any potential anti-tumor effect of these drug combinations with chemotherapeutic agents in vitro. Methods: Theophylline as Methylxanthines, Roflumilast as phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) inhibitor and Sildenafil as phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor are the drugs that we combined with the chemotherapeutic agents (Docetaxel, Cisplatin and Carboplatin) in vitro...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151623/fast-interior-point-solution-of-quadratic-programming-problems-arising-from-pde-constrained-optimization
#6
John W Pearson, Jacek Gondzio
Interior point methods provide an attractive class of approaches for solving linear, quadratic and nonlinear programming problems, due to their excellent efficiency and wide applicability. In this paper, we consider PDE-constrained optimization problems with bound constraints on the state and control variables, and their representation on the discrete level as quadratic programming problems. To tackle complex problems and achieve high accuracy in the solution, one is required to solve matrix systems of huge scale resulting from Newton iteration, and hence fast and robust methods for these systems are required...
2017: Numer Math (Heidelb)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145710/testosterone-replacement-in-transgenic-sickle-cell-mice-controls-priapic-activity-and-upregulates-pde5-expression-and-enos-activity-in-the-penis
#7
B Musicki, S Karakus, W Akakpo, F H Silva, J Liu, H Chen, B R Zirkin, A L Burnett
Sickle cell disease (SCD)-associated priapism is characterized by decreased nitric oxide (NO) signaling and downregulated phosphodiesterase (PDE)5 protein expression and activity in the penis. Priapism is also associated with testosterone deficiency, but molecular mechanisms underlying testosterone effects in the penis in SCD are not known. Given the critical role of androgens in erection physiology and NO synthase (NOS)/PDE5 expression, we hypothesized that testosterone replacement to eugonadal testosterone levels reduces priapism by reversing impaired endothelial (e)NOS activity and molecular abnormalities involving PDE5...
November 16, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132351/therapeutic-efficacy-of-pentoxifylline-on-proteinuria-and-renal-progression-an-update
#8
REVIEW
Yung-Ming Chen, Wen-Chih Chiang, Shuei-Liong Lin, Tun-Jun Tsai
Blood pressure control with renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade has remained the gold standard for treating patients with proteinuric chronic kidney disease (CKD) up to date. Nevertheless, RAS blockade slows but does not halt the progression of kidney disease, thus highlighting the need to search for additional therapeutic approaches. The nonselective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor pentoxifylline (PTX) is an old drug that exhibits prominent anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-fibrotic activities both in vitro and in vivo...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130985/heptamethoxyflavone-reduces-phosphodiesterase-activity-and-t-cell-growth-in-vitro
#9
Yui Hamada, Mitsunari Nakajima, Kazuna Tsuzuki, Yoshiaki Amakura, Morio Yoshimura, Satoshi Okuyama, Yoshiko Furukawa
In a previous study, we reported that interleukin-4 production was reduced in spleen cells of mice administered 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF), which is a polymethoxyflavone found at high concentrations in the peel of various citrus fruits. In this study, we investigated the function of HMF on the growth of T cells cultured from the spleens of mice. HMF decreased the reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) by anti-CD3/CD28 antibody-stimulated mouse spleen cells...
November 8, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130179/differential-equations-models-to-study-quorum-sensing
#10
Judith Pérez-Velázquez, Burkhard A Hense
Mathematical models to study quorum sensing (QS) have become an important tool to explore all aspects of this type of bacterial communication. A wide spectrum of mathematical tools and methods such as dynamical systems, stochastics, and spatial models can be employed. In this chapter, we focus on giving an overview of models consisting of differential equations (DE), which can be used to describe changing quantities, for example, the dynamics of one or more signaling molecule in time and space, often in conjunction with bacterial growth dynamics...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129027/factors-affecting-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitor-and-placebo-in-treatment-for-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression
#11
Hwa Yeon Sun, Bora Lee, Jae Heon Kim
PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the real benefit and safety of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE 5I) for benign prostatic hyperplasia/lower urinary tract symptoms (BPH/LUTS) by determining the affecting factors and to overcome the previous meta-analysis studies. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of improvements in LUTS using International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), voiding subscore of IPSS (voiding IPSS), storage subscore of IPSS (storage IPSS), quality of life (QoL), maximal urinary flow rate (Qmax), and post-voided residual volume (PVR), and also investigated adverse events and relevant withdrawal rate...
November 11, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128622/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-pharmacological-interventions-for-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-a-network-meta-analysis
#12
Hongjing Lin, Mupeng Wang, Ying Yu, Zeyu Qin, Xin Zhong, Jiahui Ma, Fangbo Zhao, Xueli Zhang
PURPOSE: This network meta-analysis (NMA) is designed to compare the efficacy and tolerability of various therapies and combinations for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). METHOD: We conducted a systematic search in databases PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library. Treatment efficacy and tolerability were compared by synthesizing direct and indirect evidence. The surface under the curve ranking area was utilized to rank multiple interventions. RESULT: A total of 43 randomized clinical trials were included in our NMA...
November 8, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127396/infrared-single-photon-detector-based-on-optical-up-converter-at-1550%C3%A2-nm
#13
Peng Bai, Y H Zhang, W Z Shen
High performance single photon detector at the wavelength of 1550 nm has drawn wide attention and achieved vast improvement due to its significant application in quantum information, quantum key distribution, as well as cosmology. A novel infrared up-conversion single photon detector (USPD) at 1550 nm was proposed to work in free-running regime based on the InGaAs/ InP photodetector (PD)- GaAs/AlGaAs LED up-converter and Si single photon avalanche diode (SPAD). In contrast to conventional In0.53Ga0.47As SPAD, the USPD can suppress dark count rate and afterpulsing efficiently without sacrificing the photon detection efficiency (PDE)...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124020/mutual-effects-of-stratification-and-mixed-convection-on-williamson-fluid-flow-under-stagnation-region-towards-an-inclined-cylindrical-surface
#14
Khalil Ur Rehman, Abid Ali Khan, M Y Malik, Usman Ali
We have found that few attempts are reported on Williamson fluid flow yields by an inclined cylindrical surface. To be more specific, Williamson fluid flow regime characteristics under stagnation point region especially when it is manifested with mutual interaction of double stratification and mixed convection effects are not proposed as yet. Therefore, we have considered stagnation point mixed convection Williamson fluid flow brought by an inclined cylinder in the presence of temperature and concentration stratification phenomena...
2017: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123207/atropine-augments-cardiac-contractility-by-inhibiting-camp-specific-phosphodiesterase-type-4
#15
Ruwan K Perera, Thomas H Fischer, Michael Wagner, Matthias Dewenter, Christiane Vettel, Nadja I Bork, Lars S Maier, Marco Conti, Juergen Wess, Ali El-Armouche, Gerd Hasenfuß, Viacheslav O Nikolaev
Atropine is a clinically relevant anticholinergic drug, which blocks inhibitory effects of the parasympathetic neurotransmitter acetylcholine on heart rate leading to tachycardia. However, many cardiac effects of atropine cannot be adequately explained solely by its antagonism at muscarinic receptors. In isolated mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes expressing a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP biosensor, we confirmed that atropine inhibited acetylcholine-induced decreases in cAMP. Unexpectedly, even in the absence of acetylcholine, after G-protein inactivation with pertussis toxin or in myocytes from M2- or M1/3-muscarinic receptor knockout mice, atropine increased cAMP levels that were pre-elevated with the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122629/long-term-cilostazol-administration-prevents-age-related-decline-of-hippocampus-dependent-memory-in-mice
#16
Shuichi Yanai, Hideki Ito, Shogo Endo
Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are enzymes that hydrolyze and inactivate 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and/or 3', 5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). The regulation of intracellular signaling pathways mediated by cyclic nucleotides is imperative to synaptic plasticity and memory in animals. Because PDEs play an important role in this regulation, PDE inhibitors are considered as candidate compounds for treating cognitive and memory disorders. In the present study, we tested whether cilostazol, a selective PDE3 inhibitor, prevents the cognitive deterioration that occurs during the course of normal aging in mice...
November 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118014/exercise-training-reduces-intrahepatic-lipid-in-people-with-and-people-without-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver
#17
Bram Brouwers, Vera B Schrauwen-Hinderling, Tomas Jelenik, Anne Gemmink, Lauren M Sparks, Bas Havekes, Yvonne Bruls, Dennis Dahlmans, Michael Roden, Matthijs K C Hesselink, Patrick Schrauwen
Exercise training reduces intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content in people with elevated liver fat content. It is unclear, however, whether exercise training reduces IHL content in people with normal liver fat content. Here, we measured the effect of exercise training on IHL content in people with and people without non-alcohol fatty liver. We further measured changes in insulin sensitivity and hepatic energy metabolism. Eleven males with non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and 11 BMI-matched individuals without non-alcoholic fatty liver (CON) completed a 12-week supervised exercise training program...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113064/inhibition-of-cyclic-adenosine-monophosphate-specific-phosphodiesterase-by-various-food-plant-derived-phytotherapeutic-agents
#18
Teresa Röhrig, Olga Pacjuk, Silvia Hernández-Huguet, Johanna Körner, Katharina Scherer, Elke Richling
Background: Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) play a major role in the regulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)- and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-mediated pathways. Their inhibitors exhibit anti-inflammatory, vasodilatory and antithrombotic effects. Therefore, consumption of foods with PDE-inhibiting potential may possess beneficial influence on the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Four plant extracts (Arbutus unedo, Camellia sinensis, Cynara scolymus, Zingiber officinale) with promising ingredient profiles and physiological effects were tested for their ability to inhibit cAMP-specific PDE in vitro in a radioactive assay...
November 4, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111458/low-functional-programming-of-the-creb-bdnf-trkb-pathway-mediates-cognitive-impairment-in-male-offspring-after-prenatal-dexamethasone-exposure
#19
Wanting Dong, Dan Xu, Zewen Hu, Xia He, Zijing Guo, Zhexiao Jiao, Ying Yu, Hui Wang
Adverse intrauterine environments can increase susceptibility to neuropsychiatric diseases that are related to cognitive impairment. In this study, we observed the cognitive impairment of male offspring rats after prenatal dexamethasone exposure (PDE) and explored the associated intrauterine programming mechanism. Pregnant Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with 0.2mg/kgd dexamethasone from gestational day 9 (GD9) to GD20. A cohort of the pregnant rat group was sacrificed on GD20, and the male fetal rats were collected...
October 27, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107754/long-term-effects-of-prenatal-drug-exposure-on-the-neural-correlates-of-memory-at-encoding-and-retrieval
#20
Fengji Geng, Betty Jo Salmeron, Thomas J Ross, Maureen M Black, Tracy Riggins
The objective of the current study was to examine what stage of memory (encoding or retrieval) may be compromised in adolescents with a history of prenatal drug exposure (PDE) and how the effects of PDE on memory ability are substantiated at the neural level. To achieve this goal, we examined memory performance and associated brain activations in adolescents with and without a history of PDE via event-related fMRI during encoding and retrieval. Consistent with previous studies, we found that PDE subjects remembered fewer items than community comparison subjects...
October 28, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
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