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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205223/abdominal-adiposity-is-not-a-mediator-of-the-protective-effect-of-mediterranean-diet-on-colorectal-cancer
#1
Francesca Fasanelli, Daniela Zugna, Maria Teresa Giraudo, Vittorio Krogh, Sara Grioni, Salvatore Panico, Amalia Mattiello, Giovanna Masala, Saverio Caini, Rosario Tumino, Graziella Frasca, Veronica Sciannameo, Fulvio Ricceri, Carlotta Sacerdote
Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) has a preventive effect on colorectal cancer (CRC). Several biological mechanisms have been hypothesized to explain this effect, but the involvement of clinical mediators has not been experimentally proven. We examined the role of abdominal adiposity (i.e. waist-to-hip ratio, WHR) as a potential mediator of the relationship between the MD and CRC in the Italian centres of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. We evaluated the effect of the Italian Mediterranean Index (IMI) on WHR and of WHR on CRC risk...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204955/inactivation-of-non-canonical-cyclic-nucleotides-hydrolysis-and-transport
#2
Erich H Schneider, Roland Seifert
This chapter addresses cNMP hydrolysis by phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and export by multidrug resistance associated proteins (MRPs). Both mechanisms are well-established for the canonical cNMPs, cAMP, and cGMP. Increasing evidence shows that non-canonical cNMPs (specifically cCMP, cUMP) are also PDE and MRP substrates. Hydrolysis of cUMP is achieved by PDE 3A, 3B, and 9A, which possibly explains the cUMP-degrading activities previously reported for heart, adipose tissue, and brain. Regarding cCMP, the only known "conventional" (class I) PDE that hydrolyzes cCMP is PDE7A...
February 16, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188872/pre-transplantation-31-p-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-for-quality-assessment-of-human-pancreatic-grafts-a-feasibility-study
#3
Lina Carlbom, Jan Weis, Lars Johansson, Olle Korsgren, Håkan Ahlström
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of using (31)P-MRS for objective non-invasive quality assessment of human pancreas grafts prior to transplantation or islet isolation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pancreata from 5 human donors, 3 males and 2 females, aged 49-78years, with body mass index (BMI) 22-31kg/m(2), were included. Pancreata were perfused with histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution during procurement and stored in hypothermic condition (4°C) for 21-44h...
February 8, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186888/gamut-extension-for-cinema
#4
Syed Waqas Zamir, Javier Vazquez-Corral, Marcelo Bertalmio
Emerging display technologies are able to produce images with a much wider color gamut than those of conventional distribution gamuts for cinema and TV, creating an opportunity for the development of gamut extension algorithms (GEAs) that exploit the full color potential of these new systems. In this paper we present a novel GEA, implemented as a PDE-based optimization procedure related to visual perception models, that performs gamut extension by taking into account the analysis of distortions in hue, chroma and saturation...
February 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186120/dimerisation-induced-formation-of-the-active-site-and-the-identification-of-three-metal-sites-in-eal-phosphodiesterases
#5
Dom Bellini, Sam Horrell, Andrew Hutchin, Curtis W Phippen, Richard W Strange, Yuming Cai, Armin Wagner, Jeremy S Webb, Ivo Tews, Martin A Walsh
The bacterial second messenger cyclic di-3',5'-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a key regulator of bacterial motility and virulence. As high levels of c-di-GMP are associated with the biofilm lifestyle, c-di-GMP hydrolysing phosphodiesterases (PDEs) have been identified as key targets to aid development of novel strategies to treat chronic infection by exploiting biofilm dispersal. We have studied the EAL signature motif-containing phosphodiesterase domains from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteins PA3825 (PA3825(EAL)) and PA1727 (MucR(EAL))...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168320/intraoperative-identification-of-the-parathyroid-gland-with-a-fluorescence-detection-system
#6
Yoshiaki Shinden, Akihiro Nakajo, Hideo Arima, Kiyonori Tanoue, Munetsugu Hirata, Yuko Kijima, Kosei Maemura, Shoji Natsugoe
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative identification of the difficult-to-spot parathyroid gland is critical during surgery for thyroid and parathyroid disease. Recently, intrinsic fluorescence of the parathyroid gland was identified, and a new method was developed for intraoperative detection of the parathyroid with an original fluorescent detection apparatus. Here, we describe a method for intraoperative detection of the parathyroid using a ready-made photodynamic eye (PDE) system without any fluorescent dye or contrast agents...
February 6, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167453/the-role-of-%C3%AE-arrestin-2-on-fear-anxious-related-memory-in-a-rat-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder
#7
Jinlan Ding, Fang Han, Lili Wen, Bing Xiao, Yuxiu Shi
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be categorised as a disorder of dysregulated fear processing. In the formation and development of PTSD, whether fear/anxious-related memory is regulated by β-arrestin-2, and happened along the signal transduction pathways remains unknown. METHOD: We used single prolonged stress (SPS) as the animal model of PTSD. Next, elevated plus maze tests (EPM) was performed to examine fear/anxious memory- related behaviors...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165832/comparative-effects-of-alkaloid-extracts-from-aframomum-melegueta-alligator-pepper-and-aframomum-danielli-bastered-melegueta-on-enzymes-relevant-to-erectile-dysfunction
#8
Stephen A Adefegha, Ganiyu Oboh, Bathlomew M Okeke, Sunday I Oyeleye
Aframomum melegueta (alligator pepper (AP)) and Aframomum danielli (bastered melegueta (BM)) seeds have been known to improve sexual function in folkloric medicine. This study investigates the effects of AP and BM seeds' alkaloid extracts on the activities of enzymes (acetylcholinesterase (AChE), angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE), phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5), and arginase) relevant to erectile dysfunction (ED). Alkaloids from the seeds were prepared by the solvent extraction method and their interactions with AChE, ACE, PDE-5, and arginase were assessed...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163539/inhibition-by-tadalafil-of-contractility-of-isolated-nonpregnant-human-myometrium
#9
Sumalya Sen, Anitha Thomas, Saibal Das, Jayanta Kumar Dey, Abraham Peedicayil, Vinotha Thomas, Jacob Peedicayil
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the inhibitory effect of tadalafil on the contractility of isolated nonpregnant human myometrium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ability of tadalafil (25, 40, and 63 μM) to inhibit 55 mM KCl-induced contractility of isolated nonpregnant human myometrium was studied. The ability of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker glibenclamide (10 μM) and the calcium-sensitive potassium channel (BKCa) blocker iberiotoxin (100 nM) to reverse the inhibitory effect of 40 μM tadalafil on 55 mM KCl-induced myometrial contractility was also studied...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159622/the-discovery-complex-crystal-structure-and-recognition-mechanism-of-a-novel-natural-pde4-inhibitor-from-selaginella-pulvinata
#10
Yiyou Huang, Xin Liu, Deyan Wu, Guihua Tang, Zengwei Lai, Xuehua Zheng, Yin Sheng, Hai-Bin Luo
Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) is an important drug target for treatment of inflammation-related diseases. Till now, natural PDE4 inhibitors are rare and their co-crystal structures with PDE4 are hardly available. In the present study, selaginpulvilins K and L (1 and 2), two novel fluorene derivatives, were isolated from a traditional Chinese medicine Selaginella pulvinata and exhibited remarkable inhibition against phosphodiesterase-4D (PDE4D) at IC50 11 nM and 90 nM, respectively. Compound 1 also showed a good selectivity across PDE families with the selective fold ranging from 30 to 909...
January 31, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152479/inhibitor-of-phosphodiestearse-4-improves-memory-deficits-oxidative-stress-neuroinflammation-and-neuropathological-alterations-in-mouse-models-of-dementia-of-alzheimer-s-type
#11
Amit Kumar, Nirmal Singh
The study investigates the potential of Rolipram a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor in cognitive deficits induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 3mg/kg intracerebroventricularly) and natural ageing in mice. Morris water maze (MWM) test was employed to evaluate learning and memory of the animals. Extent of oxidative stress was measured by estimating the levels of brain glutathione (GSH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). Brain acetylcholinestrase (AChE) activity was also estimated. The brain activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured as a marker of inflammation...
January 30, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150511/investigation-of-pde5-pde6-and-pde5-pde11-selective-potent-tadalafil-like-pde5-inhibitors-using-combination-of-molecular-modeling-approaches-molecular-fingerprint-based-virtual-screening-protocols-and-structure-based-pharmacophore-development
#12
Gülru Kayık, Nurcan Ş Tüzün, Serdar Durdagi
The essential biological function of phosphodiesterase (PDE) type enzymes is to regulate the cytoplasmic levels of intracellular second messengers, 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and/or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). PDE targets have 11 isoenzymes. Of these enzymes, PDE5 has attracted a special attention over the years after its recognition as being the target enzyme in treating erectile dysfunction. Due to the amino acid sequence and the secondary structural similarity of PDE6 and PDE11 with the catalytic domain of PDE5, first-generation PDE5 inhibitors (i...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139692/control-of-neuropeptide-expression-by-parallel-activity-dependent-pathways-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#13
Teresa Rojo Romanos, Jakob Gramstrup Petersen, Roger Pocock
Monitoring of neuronal activity within circuits facilitates integrated responses and rapid changes in behavior. We have identified a system in Caenorhabditis elegans where neuropeptide expression is dependent on the ability of the BAG neurons to sense carbon dioxide. In C. elegans, CO2 sensing is predominantly coordinated by the BAG-expressed receptor-type guanylate cyclase GCY-9. GCY-9 binding to CO2 causes accumulation of cyclic GMP and opening of the cGMP-gated TAX-2/TAX-4 cation channels; provoking an integrated downstream cascade that enables C...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139123/biomonitoring-dna-adducts-of-cooked-meat-carcinogens-in-human-prostate-by-nano-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-tandem-mass-spectrometry-identification-of-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-4-5-b-pyridine-dna-adduct
#14
Shun Xiao, Jingshu Guo, Byeong Hwa Yun, Peter W Villalta, Suprita Krishna, Resha Tejpaul, Paari Murugan, Christopher J Weight, Robert J Turesky
Epidemiologic studies have reported an association between frequent consumption of well-done cooked meats and prostate cancer risk. However, unambiguous physiochemical markers of DNA damage from carcinogens derived from cooked meats, such as DNA adducts, have not been identified in human samples to support this paradigm. We have developed a highly sensitive nano-LC-Orbitrap MS (n) method to measure DNA adducts of several carcinogens originating from well-done cooked meats, tobacco smoke, and environmental pollution, including 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP)...
December 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138877/linear-and-weakly-nonlinear-stability-analyses-of-turing-patterns-for-diffusive-predator-prey-systems-in-freshwater-marsh-landscapes
#15
Li Zhang, Fan Zhang, Shigui Ruan
We study a diffusive predator-prey model describing the interactions of small fishes and their resource base (small invertebrates) in the fluctuating freshwater marsh landscapes of the Florida Everglades. The spatial model is described by a reaction-diffusion system with Beddington-DeAngelis functional response. Uniform bound, local and global asymptotic stability of the steady state of the PDE model under the no-flux boundary conditions are discussed in details. Sufficient conditions on the Turing (diffusion-driven) instability which induces spatial patterns in the model are derived via linear analysis...
January 30, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132040/erectile-dysfunction-as-a-predictor-of-cardiovascular-disease
#16
Sh Janjgava, T Doliashvili
Endothelial dysfunction precedes the clinical stage of atherosclerotic disease and is recognized as an additional risk factor when detecting symptomatic patients. Endothelial function is largely mediated by nitric oxide, and this vasodilatory mechanism is also responsible for the venous and arterial dilatation required to obtain and maintain an erection. The physiological effects and clinical aspects of sexual function have been extensively studied and reported in patients who have angina or who have experienced a myocardial infarction and in those who have undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery or heart transplant...
December 2016: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131559/pyridoxine-dependent-epilepsy-a-novel-mutation-in-a-tunisian-child
#17
T Ben Younes, I Kraoua, H Benrhouma, F Nasrallah, N Ben Achour, H Klaa, A Hassen-Rouissi, C Drissi, J-F Benoist, I Ben Youssef-Turki
Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disease characterized by seizures in neonates or infants, which is unresponsive to antiepileptic drugs but controlled by pyridoxine. Without prompt treatment, continued seizures and severe encephalopathy result. Mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene encoding α-amino-adipic semialdehyde (α-AASA) dehydrogenase (antiquitin) have been identified as the cause of PDE. We report on a novel ALDH7A1 mutation in a Tunisian child with PDE.
January 25, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124739/the-regulation-of-transient-receptor-potential-canonical-4-trpc4-channel-by-phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitor-via-the-cyclic-guanosine-3-5-monophosphate
#18
Jinhong Wie, SeungJoo Jeong, Misun Kwak, Jongyun Myeong, MeeRee Chae, Jong Kwan Park, Sung Won Lee, Insuk So
The transient receptor potential (TRP) protein superfamily consists of a diverse group of cation channels that bear structural similarities to the fruit fly Drosophila TRP. The TRP superfamily is distinct from other groups of ion channels in displaying a large diversity in ion selectivity, modes of activation, and physiological functions. Classical TRP (transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC)) channels are activated by stimulation of Gq-PLC-coupled receptors and modulated by phosphorylation. The cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-PKG pathway is involved in the regulation of TRPC3 and TRPC6 channels...
January 26, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124077/long-term-treatment-effects-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#19
Apollos Besse, Thomas Lepoutre, Samuel Bernard
We propose and analyze a simplified version of a partial differential equation (PDE) model for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) derived from an agent-based model proposed by Roeder et al. This model describes the proliferation and differentiation of leukemic stem cells in the bone marrow and the effect of the drug Imatinib on these cells. We first simplify the PDE model by noting that most of the dynamics occurs in a subspace of the original 2D state space. Then we determine the dominant eigenvalue of the corresponding linearized system that controls the long-term behavior of solutions...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123846/phosphodiesterase-5-inhibition-suppresses-colonic-inflammation-induced-tumorigenesis-via-blocking-the-recruitment-of-mdsc
#20
Shiyong Lin, Jing Wang, Lihui Wang, Jing Wen, Yandong Guo, Weiguang Qiao, Jieqiong Zhou, Guoliang Xu, Fachao Zhi
Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) is a major isoform of cGMP phosphodiesterase in diverse tissues and plays a critical role in regulating intracellular cGMP concentrations. However, the distribution and expression of PDE-5 in colitis-related colon cancer was still unclear, not even the function and mechanism. Western blotting and ELISA were performed to detect colonic PDE-5 expression in AOM/DSS-induced tumorigenesis model. Sildenafil, a specific PDE-5 inhibitor, was used to treat AOM/DSS-induced and AOM-induced colonic tumorigenesis model and DSS-induced colitis model...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
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