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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531645/judgment-of-moral-and-social-transgression-in-schizophrenia
#1
Jonathan McGuire, Martin Brüne, Robyn Langdon
INTRODUCTION: Despite evidence of pervasive social-cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, little is known of moral cognition in this population. While recent research indicates that impairment of explicit moral reasoning is explained by these individuals' other cognitive deficits, their capacities for basic moral judgment are unknown. METHODS: 45 people with schizophrenia and 27 healthy controls completed the Moral-Conventional Distinction Task: a classic task that assesses judgment of violations of moral or social convention on permissibility, severity, and authority-contingence...
May 4, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530686/mind-your-myco-robes
#2
Ellen P Neff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530346/-seeds-of-mindfulness-in-the-desert-preliminary-results-from-a-clinical-trial-in-the-mindfulness-clinic-mental-health-center-beer-sheva
#3
Lee Tibi Cohen, Keren Reiner Noy, Ayelet Shmulevich, Oded Arbel
INTRODUCTION: Mindfulness-based therapies are rooted in the Buddhist tradition, and promote cultivation of qualities such as open awareness, acceptance and compassion. While various studies have demonstrated the efficacy of integrating mindfulness in therapeutic practice for people suffering from clinical conditions such as depression and anxiety as well as the non-clinical population, this was rarely replicated in Israel. In the Mindfulness Clinic, located in the Mental Health Center, Beer Sheva, mindfulness workshops are now available for diverse populations dealing with various challenges such as daily stress, chronic pain, and depression...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529730/effect-of-low-versus-high-frequency-stimulation-on-freezing-of-gait-and-other-axial-symptoms-in-parkinson-patients-with-bilateral-stn-dbs-a-mini-review
#4
REVIEW
Tao Xie, Mahesh Padmanaban, Lisa Bloom, Ellen MacCracken, Breanna Bertacchi, Abraham Dachman, Peter Warnke
Some studies have shown that low frequency stimulation (LFS, most commonly 60 Hz), compared to high frequency stimulation (HFS, most commonly 130 Hz), has beneficial effects, short-term or even long-term, on improving freezing of gait (FOG) and other axial symptoms, including speech and swallowing function, in Parkinson disease (PD) patients with bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS). However, other studies failed to confirm this. It seems not clear what determines the difference in response to LFS...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529544/complementary-and-alternative-interventions-for-fatigue-management-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review
#5
Gang-Zhu Xu, Yan-Feng Li, Mao-De Wang, Dong-Yuan Cao
BACKGROUND: We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of complementary and alternative interventions for fatigue after traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: We searched multiple online sources including ClinicalTrials.gov, the Cochrane Library database, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, the Web of Science, AMED, PsychINFO, Toxline, ProQuest Digital Dissertations, PEDro, PsycBite, and the World Health Organization (WHO) trial registry, in addition to hand searching of grey literature...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529304/sebastian-kneipp-and-the-natural-cure-movement-of-germany-between-naturalism-and-modern-medicine
#6
Youkyung Ko
This study discusses the historical significance of the Natural Cure Movement of Germany, centering on the Kneipp Cure, a form of hydrotherapy practiced by Father Sebastian Kneipp (1821-1897). The Kneipp Cure rested on five main tenets: hydrotherapy, exercise, nutrition, herbalism, and the balance of mind and body. This study illuminates the reception of the Kneipp Cure in the context of the trilateral relationship among the Kneipp Cure, the Natural Cure Movement in general, and modern medicine. The Natural Cure Movement was ideologically based on naturalism, criticizing industrialization and urbanization...
December 2016: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529236/-all-in-the-day-s-work-cold-war-doctoring-and-its-discontents-in-william-burroughs-s-i-naked-lunch-i
#7
Michael Jarvis
In Naked Lunch, the institutions and practices of science and medicine, specifically with regard to psychiatry/psychology, are symptoms of a bureaucratic system of control that shapes, constructs, defines, and makes procrustean alterations to both the mind and body of human subjects. Using sickness and junk (or heroin) as convenient metaphors for both a Cold War binary mentality and the mandatory consumption of twentieth-century capitalism, Burroughs presents modern man as fundamentally alienated from any sense of a personal self...
2017: Literature and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529122/shared-decision-making-a-buzz-word-in-the-netherlands-the-pace-quickens-towards-nationwide-implementation%C3%A2
#8
Trudy van der Weijden, Heleen Post, Paul L P Brand, Haske van Veenendaal, Ton Drenthen, Linda Aj van Mierlo, Peep Stalmeier, Olga C Damman, Anne Stiggelbout
Currently, shared decision making (SDM) is on the agenda among target patient representative groups, policy makers and professional bodies. Although the International Conference for Shared Decision Making (ISDM) 2011 generated a positive boost, hesitation was also felt among Dutch clinicians, who are challenged by many new tasks. No hesitation is seen among the majority of patients, opting mostly for the SDM model. We haven't reached these patients' needs fully yet, given disappointing research data on patients' experiences and professional behaviour...
May 18, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529006/validation-of-a-next-generation-sequencing-pipeline-for-the-molecular-diagnosis-of-multiple-inherited-cancer-predisposing-syndromes
#9
Paula Paulo, Pedro Pinto, Ana Peixoto, Catarina Santos, Carla Pinto, Patrícia Rocha, Isabel Veiga, Gabriela Soares, Catarina Machado, Fabiana Ramos, Manuel R Teixeira
Despite the growing knowledge of the genetic background behind the cancers that occur in a context of hereditary predisposition, personal or family cancer history may not be clear enough to support directional gene testing. Defined targeted next-generation sequencing gene panels allow identification of the causative disease mutations of multigene syndromes and differential diagnosis for syndromes with phenotypically overlapping characteristics. Herein, we established a next-generation sequencing analysis pipeline for the molecular diagnosis of multiple inherited cancer predisposing syndromes using the commercially available target sequencing panel TruSight Cancer...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528015/the-mediating-effect-of-mindful-non-reactivity-in-exposure-based-cognitive-behavior-therapy-for-severe-health-anxiety
#10
Erik Hedman, Hugo Hesser, Erik Andersson, Erland Axelsson, Brjánn Ljótsson
Exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of severe health anxiety, but little is known about mediators of treatment effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate mindful non-reactivity as a putative mediator of health anxiety outcome using data from a large scale randomized controlled trial. We assessed mindful non-reactivity using the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire-Non-Reactivity scale (FFMQ-NR) and health anxiety with the Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI)...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527534/austerity-and-the-sector-wide-approach-to-health-the-mozambique-experience
#11
James Pfeiffer, Sarah Gimbel, Baltazar Chilundo, Stephen Gloyd, Rachel Chapman, Kenneth Sherr
Fiscal austerity policies imposed by the IMF have reduced investments in social services, leaving post-independence nations like Mozambique struggling to recover from civil war and high disease burden. By 2000, a sector-wide approach (SWAp) was promoted to maximize aid effectiveness. 'Like-minded' bilateral donors, from Europe and Canada, promoted a unified approach to health sector support focusing on joint planning, common basket funding, and streamlined monitoring and evaluation to improve sector coordination, amplify country ownership, and build sustainable health systems...
May 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527330/home-practice-in-mindfulness-based-cognitive-therapy-and-mindfulness-based-stress-reduction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-participants-mindfulness-practice-and-its-association-with-outcomes
#12
Christine E Parsons, Catherine Crane, Liam J Parsons, Lone Overby Fjorback, Willem Kuyken
Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) emphasize the importance of mindfulness practice at home as an integral part of the program. However, the extent to which participants complete their assigned practice is not yet clear, nor is it clear whether this practice is associated with positive outcomes. For this systematic review and meta-analysis, searches were performed using Scopus and PubMed for studies published through to the end of 2015, reporting on formal home practice of mindfulness by MBSR or MBCT participants...
May 10, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527316/effects-of-contextual-relevance-on-pragmatic-inference-during-conversation-an-fmri-study
#13
Wangshu Feng, Yue Wu, Catherine Jan, Hongbo Yu, Xiaoming Jiang, Xiaolin Zhou
Contextual relevance, which is vital for understanding conversational implicatures (CI), engages both the frontal-temporal language and theory-of-mind networks. Here we investigate how contextual relevance affects CI processing and regulates the connectivity between CI-processing-related brain regions. Participants listened to dialogues in which the level of contextual relevance to dialogue-final utterance (reply) was manipulated. This utterance was either direct, indirect but relevant, irrelevant with contextual hint, or irrelevant with no contextual hint...
May 17, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527073/mindfulness-and-pharmacological-prophylaxis-have-comparable-effect-on-biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-clinical-indexes-in-chronic-migraine-with-medication-overuse-results-at-12%C3%A2-months-after-withdrawal
#14
Licia Grazzi, Domenico D'Amico, Alberto Raggi, Matilde Leonardi, Emilio Ciusani, Elena Corsini, Giovanni D'Andrea, Andrea Bolner, Francisco Salgado-García, Frank Andrasik, Emanuela Sansone
Chronic migraine (CM) is a disabling condition arising from a complex mixture of interconnected biological, psychological and social factors, and is often associated with medication overuse (MO). Mindfulness is emerging as a helpful treatment for pain, and one study showed that the longitudinal 12 months' course of CM-MO patients that attended mindfulness-based treatment alone was similar to that of patients receiving medical prophylaxis alone; in this study, we describe the course of biomarkers of inflammation...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526867/aberrant-functional-connectivity-in-depression-as-an-index-of-state-and-trait-rumination
#15
David Rosenbaum, Alina Haipt, Kristina Fuhr, Florian B Haeussinger, Florian G Metzger, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Andreas J Fallgatter, Anil Batra, Ann-Christine Ehlis
Depression has been shown to be related to a variety of aberrant brain functions and structures. Particularly the investigation of alterations in functional connectivity (FC) in major depressive disorder (MDD) has been a promising endeavor, since a better understanding of pathological brain networks may foster our understanding of the disease. However, the underling mechanisms of aberrant FC in MDD are largely unclear. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) we investigated FC in the cortical parts of the default mode network (DMN) during resting-state in patients with current MDD...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526466/-comparison-of-three-different-insertion-techniques-with-lma-unique%C3%A2-in-adults-results-of-a-randomized-trial
#16
Merih Eglen, Bahar Kuvaki, Ferim Günenç, Sule Ozbilgin, Semih Küçükgüçlü, Ebru Polat, Emel Pekel
BACKGROUND: The triple airway maneuver insertion technique allowed faster insertion of the LMA. This study compared three different insertion techniques of the laryngeal mask airway-Unique™. METHODS: One hundred and eighty ASA I-II patients aged 18-65 years were included into the study. Patients were randomly allocated to the standard, rotational and triple airway maneuver (triple) group. In the standard group (n=60), the LMA (Laryngeal Mask Airway) was inserted with digital intraoral manipulation...
May 16, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526464/-transient-horner-s-syndrome-after-single-shot-paravertebral-block
#17
Birzat Emre Gölboyu, Mürsel Ekinci, Pınar Karaca Baysal, Ayşe Nur Yeksan, Erkan Cem Çelik, Zeynep Bilgi, Murat Aksun
BACKGROUND: Thoracic paravertebral block can provide analgesia for unilateral chest surgery and is associated with a low complication rate. Horner syndrome also referred to as oculosympathetic paresis, is a classic neurologic constellation of ipsilateral blepharoptosis, pupillary miosis, and facial anhidrosis resulting from disruption of the sympathetic pathway supplying the head, eye, and neck. CASE REPORT: We present a patient with an ipsilateral transient Horner syndrome after ultrasound guided single shot of 15mL 0...
May 17, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526013/human-biomonitoring-from-an-environmental-justice-perspective-supporting-study-participation-of-women-of-turkish-and-moroccan-descent
#18
Bert Morrens, Elly Den Hond, Greet Schoeters, Dries Coertjens, Ann Colles, Tim S Nawrot, Willy Baeyens, Stefaan De Henauw, Vera Nelen, Ilse Loots
BACKGROUND: Environmental justice research shows how socially disadvantaged groups are more exposed and more vulnerable to environmental pollution. At the same time, these groups are less represented and, thus, less visible in biomedical studies. This socioeconomic participation bias is a form of environmental injustice within research practice itself. METHODS: We designed, implemented and evaluated a targeted recruitment strategy to enhance the participation of socially disadvantaged pregnant women in a human biomonitoring study in Belgium...
May 19, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525960/the-behavioral-and-neural-signatures-of-distinct-conceptions-of-fairness
#19
Laura Niemi, Emily Wasserman, Liane Young
Adhering to standard procedures (impartiality), returning favors (reciprocity), or giving based on individuals' needs (charity) may all be considered moral and/or fair ways to allocate resources. However, these allocation behaviors may be perceived as differently motivated, and their moral evaluation may make different demands on theory of mind (ToM)-the capacity to process information about mental states, including motives. In Studies 1-2, we examined participants' moral judgments of allocations based on (a) impartiality, (b) reciprocity, (c) charity, and (d) unspecified criteria as depicted in vignettes, as well as participants' perceptions of allocators' motivations...
May 19, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525587/assessing-the-psychedelic-after-glow-in-ayahuasca-users-post-acute-neurometabolic-and-functional-connectivity-changes-are-associated-with-enhanced-mindfulness-capacities
#20
Frederic Sampedro, Mario de la Fuente Revenga, Marta Valle, Natalia Roberto, Elisabet Domínguez-Clavé, Matilde Elices, Luís Eduardo Luna, José Alexandre S Crippa, Jaime E C Hallak, Draulio B de Araujo, Pablo Friedlander, Steven A Barker, Enrique Álvarez, Joaquim Soler, Juan C Pascual, Amanda Feilding, Jordi Riba
Background: Ayahuasca is a plant tea containing the psychedelic 5-HT2A agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and harmala monoamine-oxidase inhibitors. Acute administration leads to neurophysiological modifications in brain regions of the default mode network (DMN), purportedly through a glutamatergic mechanism. Post-acutely, ayahuasca potentiates mindfulness capacities in volunteers, and induces rapid and sustained antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant patients. However, the mechanisms underlying these fast and maintained effects are poorly understood...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
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