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Optic disc detection

Min Hee Suh, Linda M Zangwill, Patricia Isabel C Manalastas, Akram Belghith, Adeleh Yarmohammadi, Felipe A Medeiros, Alberto Diniz-Filho, Luke J Saunders, Robert N Weinreb
PURPOSE: To investigate factors associated with dropout of the parapapillary deep retinal layer microvasculature assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in glaucomatous eyes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-one eyes from 71 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients with β-zone parapapillary atrophy (βPPA) enrolled in the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study. METHODS: Parapapillary deep-layer microvasculature dropout was defined as a complete loss of the microvasculature located within the deep retinal layer of the βPPA from OCTA-derived optic nerve head vessel density maps by standardized qualitative assessment...
October 18, 2016: Ophthalmology
Omer Karti, Ozlem Nalbantoglu, Saygin Abali, Selma Tunc, Behzat Ozkan
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between the obesity and optical coherence tomography (OCT) parameters. METHODS: We studied 54 obese and 33 non-obese children and adolescents. Obesity was defined as BMI higher than 95th percentile (BMI SDS > 1.64). OCT measurements were performed in all participants. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were compared with OCT parameters of 174 eyes. RESULTS: In obese children, in all quadrants retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses were significantly lower than non-obese children, and also ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thicknesses in inferior and superiortemporal quadrants were significantly lower in the obese group...
October 7, 2016: International Ophthalmology
Saraí M Torres Delgado, David J Kinahan, Fralett Suárez Sandoval, Lourdes Albina Nirupa Julius, Niamh A Kilcawley, Jens Ducrée, Dario Mager
Typical Lab-on-a-Disc (LoaD) platforms cannot make a continuous measurement while the disc is spinning; this drawback means that the disc usually must be stopped and aligned with a sensor. This can result in measurement errors in time-dependent assays along with inaccuracies due to liquid displacement and bubble formation in the absence of a stabilising centrifugal field. This paper presents a novel concept for a wirelessly electrified-Lab-on-a-Disc (eLoaD) platform that allows continuous measurement of experimental parameters while the disc is spinning...
October 5, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Todd E Scheetz, Ben Faga, Lizette Ortega, Ben R Roos, Mae O Gordon, Michael A Kass, Kai Wang, John H Fingert
PURPOSE: Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a major cause of blindness and visual disability. Several genetic risk factors for POAG and optic nerve features have been identified. We measured the relative risk for glaucoma that these factors contribute to participants in the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS). DESIGN: Comparative series. PARTICIPANTS: One thousand fifty-seven of 1636 participants (65%) of the OHTS were enrolled in this genetics ancillary study...
October 1, 2016: Ophthalmology
Samuel Weng, Xiaochun Li, Yunchao Li, Hua-Zhong Yu
Beyond their essential applications in portable data storage for the past 30 years, optical discs and corresponding recording/reading technologies have been extensively explored with the ultimate goal of creating novel analytical tools for on-site chemical analysis and point-of-care (POC) medical diagnosis. In particular, the disc media (CD, DVD, and BD) are proven to be inexpensive and versatile substrate materials for the preparation of various biochips and microfluidic systems; conventional computer drives and disc players are widely adapted for biochip signal reading and microscopic imaging...
September 27, 2016: Analyst
Adel Galal Zaky, Ahmed Tarek Yassin, Saber Hamed El Sayid
OBJECTIVE: To assess the role and diagnostic effectiveness of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and short wave-automated perimetry (SWAP) to distinguish between normal, glaucoma suspects, and surely diagnosed glaucomatous eye. BACKGROUND: Changes in the optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) often precede the appearance of visual field defect with standard automated perimetry. Unfortunately, RNFL defect can be difficult to identify during clinical examination...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
J Ahn, I S Yun, H G Yoo, J-J Choi, M Lee
PurposeTo evaluate a progression-detecting algorithm for a new automated matched alternation flicker (AMAF) in glaucoma patients.MethodsOpen-angle glaucoma patients with a baseline mean deviation of visual field (VF) test>-6 dB were included in this longitudinal and retrospective study. Functional progression was detected by two VF progression criteria and structural progression by both AMAF and conventional comparison methods using optic disc and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) photography. Progression-detecting performances of AMAF and the conventional method were evaluated by an agreement between functional and structural progression criteria...
September 23, 2016: Eye
Roberta Rosas Petrocinio, Elga Dias Gomes
BACKGROUND: High altitude retinopathy (HAR) includes a number of diseases related to high altitude such as acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE). High altitude retinopathy is mainly characterized by retinal hemorrhages, usually sparing the macular region, a condition specifically known as high altitude retinal hemorrhages (HARH). The pathogenesis of HARH is unclear. Many studies show that lack of oxygen causes an inadequate autoregulation of retinal circulation, causing vascular incompetence...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Sayaka Akaike, Koju Kamoi, Mari Tezuka, Daisuke Tomizawa, Ryoichi Yoshimura, Masatoshi Takagi, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui
BACKGROUND: Myeloid/NK cell precursor acute leukemia (MNKL) is a rare type of leukemia, and ocular complications have not previously been reported. We now report a patient with MNKL who developed intraocular infiltrates during follow-up. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 13-year-old boy diagnosed with MNKL developed left eye pain 3 months after starting treatment. Examination of the left eye revealed a visual acuity of counting fingers at 20 cm, ciliary hyperemia, small corneal keratic precipitates, hypopyon, grade 4 vitreous opacities, and an obscured fundus...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sinan Onal, Xin Chen, Veeresh Satamraju, Maduka Balasooriya, Humeyra Dabil-Karacal
Detecting the position of retinal structures, including the fovea center and macula, in retinal images plays a key role in diagnosing eye diseases such as optic nerve hypoplasia, amblyopia, diabetic retinopathy, and macular edema. However, current detection methods are unreliable for infants or certain ethnic populations. Thus, a methodology is proposed here that may be useful for infants and across ethnicities that automatically localizes the fovea center and segments the macula on digital fundus images. First, dark structures and bright artifacts are removed from the input image using preprocessing operations, and the resulting image is transformed to polar space...
July 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
Mohammad Alshayeji, Suood Abdulaziz Al-Roomi, Sa'ed Abed
Diabetic retinopathy is one of the primary causes of vision loss worldwide. Early detection of the condition is critical for providing adequate treatment of this ailment to prevent vision loss. This detection is achieved by processing retinal fundus images. A key step in detecting diabetic retinopathy is identifying the optic disc in these images. The optic disc is similar in color and contrast to the exudates that indicate diabetic retinopathy. Hence, the optic disc has to be removed from the fundus image before exudates can be detected...
September 16, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Anani P Toshev, Julia Lamparter, Norbert Pfeiffer, Esther M Hoffmann
PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic performance and evaluate diagnostic agreement for early glaucoma detection between a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (CSLO) and a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-five eyes of 55 open-angle glaucoma patients and 42 eyes of 42 healthy control subjects were enrolled in this observational, cross-sectional study. All participants underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examination, visual field testing, and optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer imaging by CSLO (HRT3) and SD-OCT (Spectralis OCT)...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Glaucoma
Francisco Pérez Bartolomé, Jose María Martínez de la Casa, Irene Camacho Bosca, Federico Sáenz-Francés, Soledad Aguilar Munoa, Alberto Martín Juan, Julian Garcia-Feijoo
PURPOSE: To examine interrelations between corneal biomechanics, ocular biometric variables and optic disc size (ODS), lamina cribosa depth (LCD) or thickness (LCT) in a healthy population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional case-control study, the following measurements were made in 81 eyes of 81 participants: axial length, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and central corneal thickness using the optical biometer Lenstar LS900; and corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), Goldman-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg), and corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc) using the Ocular Response Analyzer...
September 14, 2016: Seminars in Ophthalmology
V Prokosch, D C Dragnea, S Pitz
Optic disc oedema describes blurred optic disc margins. It describes an unspecific clinical sign with various possible underlying causal mechanisms. The correct diagnosis and the detection of the underlying disease is however of special clinical importance. This article summarizes the most important differential diagnoses and gives advice to find the correct diagnosis.
September 13, 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Xing-Kang He, Dan Liu, Lei-Min Sun
BACKGROUND: Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) is generally considered as a precancerous condition, a related risk factor for intestinal-type gastric cancer. However, an accurate endoscopic diagnosis of IM is a clinical challenge. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (CLE) is a newly technique that can provide real-time magnified images and visualize tissues at cellular or subcellular levels. The aim of this study is to clarify the diagnostic value of CLE in detection of IM in patients at high risk of gastric cancer...
2016: BMC Gastroenterology
Edita Dervisevic, Suzana Pavljasevic, Almir Dervisevic, Sanja Sefic Kasumovic
INTRODUCTION: Glaucoma is the most common optic neuropathy which is characterized by progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells, the excavation of the optic nerve head, associated with defects in the visual field. It is not a disease, but the final result of united and yet completely unidentified cellular and subcellular processes and effects of many factors responsible for changes in retinal ganglion cells leading to their accelerated apoptosis. METHODS: This is a prospective-retrospective, comparative, randomized clinical trial that included 150 patients, 97 were female and 53 male...
June 2016: Medical Archives
Min Hee Suh, Linda M Zangwill, Patricia Isabel C Manalastas, Akram Belghith, Adeleh Yarmohammadi, Felipe A Medeiros, Alberto Diniz-Filho, Luke J Saunders, Siamak Yousefi, Robert N Weinreb
PURPOSE: To investigate whether vessel density assessed by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) is reduced in glaucomatous eyes with focal lamina cribrosa (LC) defects. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 82 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study (DIGS) with and without focal LC defects (41 eyes of 41 patients in each group) matched by severity of visual field (VF) damage...
August 31, 2016: Ophthalmology
Julian Zilly, Joachim M Buhmann, Dwarikanath Mahapatra
We present a novel method to segment retinal images using ensemble learning based convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures. An entropy sampling technique is used to select informative points thus reducing computational complexity while performing superior to uniform sampling. The sampled points are used to design a novel learning framework for convolutional filters based on boosting. Filters are learned in several layers with the output of previous layers serving as the input to the next layer. A softmax logistic classifier is subsequently trained on the output of all learned filters and applied on test images...
August 23, 2016: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
S Becker, U Popp, C Greiner
Tribology is the science of interacting surfaces in relative motion. Processes like the transition from static to dynamic friction are fast and complex, especially as the contacting interface is buried. A direct view at the interface, in order to gain a deeper understanding of the interaction between the materials, is therefore of great interest. The reciprocating optical in situ tribometer introduced here observes the interface of two contacting materials (one of them being optical transparent) with a high-speed camera, taking up to 230 000 frames per second...
August 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Yuri Seo, Min Kim, Jin Hyoung Kim, Jae Jun Park, Sung Chul Lee
PURPOSE: To report a case of central retinal vein occlusion without macular edema associated with ulcerative colitis and its novel treatment with intravitreal dexamethasone. CASE REPORT: A 40-year-old man with ulcerative colitis presented with sudden visual disturbances. An initial fundus examination showed subtle yellow-to-white patches within the inner retina of the right eye superotemporal to the fovea. There were intraretinal hemorrhages and cotton-wool spots within the superior vascular arcade and nasal to the optic disc...
August 24, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
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