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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215276/removal-of-nerve-agent-simulants-from-water-using-light-responsive-molecular-baskets
#1
Sarah E Border, Radoslav Z Pavlovic, Lei Zhiquan, Jovica D Badjic
We found that molecular baskets 1-3, with amino acids at their rim, undergo photoinduced decarboxylations to give baskets 4-6 forming a solid precipitate in water. Furthermore, organophosphonates 7-9 (OP), akin in size and shape to G-type nerve agents, form inclusion complexes with baskets 1-3 (K = 6-2243 M-1). Light irradiation (300 nm) of an aqueous solution of 1-3⊂OP led to the formation of precipitate containing an OP compound thereby amounting to a novel strategy for light-induced sequestration of nerve agents or, perhaps, other targeted compounds...
December 7, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212232/the-effects-of-fk1706-on-nerve-regeneration-and-bladder-function-recovery-following-an-end-to-side-neurorrhaphy-in-rats
#2
Wansheng Gao, Xiangfei He, Yunlong Li, Jianguo Wen
Background: Immunophilin ligands are neuroregenerative agents binding to FK506 binding proteins, by which stimulate recovery of neurons in a variety of injury nerves. FK1706 is a novel immunophilin ligand which has neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects but without immunosuppressive activity. At present, most reports about FK1706 in ameliorating nerve injury and functional recovery are limited to cavernous nerve injury and erectile function recovery. This study aimed to demonstrate the effects of FK1706 on nerve regeneration and bladder function recovery following an end-to-side neurorrhaphy in rat models...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210293/phosphatidylcholine-attenuated-docetaxel-induced-peripheral-neurotoxicity-in-rats
#3
Sung Tae Kim, Eun Jung Kyung, Jung Sook Suh, Ho Sung Lee, Jun Ho Lee, Soo In Chae, Eon Sub Park, Yoon Hee Chung, Jinhyung Bae, Tae Jin Lee, Won Mo Lee, Uy Dong Sohn, Ji Hoon Jeong
Docetaxel is a taxane chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of breast cancer, prostate cancer and gastric cancer, but several side effects such as peripheral neurotoxicity could occur. The present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic potential of phosphatidylcholine (PC) on docetaxel-induced peripheral neurotoxicity. Rats were randomly divided into three groups and treated for 4 weeks. Behavioral tests were conducted to measure the effects of PC on docetaxel-induced decreases in mechanical & thermal nociceptive threshold...
December 6, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207652/iqca-tavv-to-explore-the-effect-of-p-selectin-gpiib-iiia-il-2-il-6-and-il-8-on-deep-venous-thrombosis
#4
Jianhui Wu, Haimei Zhu, Guodong Yang, Yuji Wang, Yaonan Wang, Shurui Zhao, Ming Zhao, Shiqi Peng
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) associates with considerable morbidity, functional disability and mortality. Due to the lack of suitable inhibitor the correlation of various factors in DVT onset remains unknown. In this context we analyzed the structure of anti-platelet aggregation agent, P-selectin down-regulator, GPIIb/IIIa down-regulator and anti-inflammatory agent, thereby designed N-(3S-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carbonyl)- Thr-Ala-Arg-Gly-Asp(Val)-Val (IQCA-TAVV) as an inhibitor of DVT to receive evaluations...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204722/preparation-of-ngf-encapsulated-chitosan-nanoparticles-and-its-evaluation-on-neuronal-differentiation-potentiality-of-canine-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#5
Bhabesh Mili, Kinsuk Das, Ajay Kumar, A C Saxena, Praveen Singh, Srikanta Ghosh, Sadhan Bag
Sustained and controlled release of neurotrophic factors in target tissue through nanomaterial based delivery system could be a better strategy for nerve tissue regeneration. The present study aims to prepare the nerve growth factor (NGF) encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles (NGF-CNPs) and its evaluation on neuronal differentiation potentiality of canine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (cBM-MSCs). The NGF-CNPs were prepared by ionotropic gelation method with tripolyphosphate (TPP) as an ionic cross-linking agent...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204306/facial-palsy-after-embolization-of-dural-arteriovenous-fistula-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Luana Antunes Maranha Gatto, Fernando Saurin, Gelson Luis Koppe, Zeferino Demartini
Background: Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF) are unusual intracranial vascular malformations consisting of anomalous connections between meningeal arteries and dural sinuses or the veins that pass through them. They have variable clinical presentation and prognosis, which depend on their location and venous hemodynamics. Treatment is based on the closure of the abnormal connections, which is usually conducted via arterial and/or transvenous endovascular techniques. Case Description: We present a male patient who complained of headaches and left-sided pulsatile tinnitus due to DAVF from the external carotid artery branches draining directly into the ipsilateral sigmoid sinus...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202042/relative-impact-of-complement-receptors-cd21-35-cr2-1-on-scrapie-pathogenesis-in-mice
#7
Sarah J Kane, Eric Swanson, Elizabeth O Gordon, Savannah Rocha, Heather R Bender, Luke R Donius, Adriano Aguzzi, Jonathan P Hannan, Mark D Zabel
Complement receptors 1 and 2 (CR1/2 or CD35/CD21) recognize complement-opsonized antigens to initiate innate and adaptive immunity, respectively. CD35 stimulates phagocytosis on macrophages and antigen presentation on follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). CD21 helps activate B cells as part of the B cell coreceptor with CD19 and CD81. Differential splicing of transcripts from the mouse Cr2 gene generates isoforms with both shared and unique complement binding capacities and cell-type expression. In mouse models, genetic depletion of Cr2 causes either a delay or complete prevention of prion disease, but the relative importance of CD35 versus CD21 in promoting prion disease remains unknown...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201079/docking-studies-synthesis-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-novel-oximes-based-on-nitrones-as-reactivators-of-inhibited-acetylcholinesterase
#8
Seyed Ayoub Hosseini, Abolghasem Moghimi, Maryam Iman, Firoz Ebrahimi
Acetylcholinesterase has important role in synaptic cleft. It breaks down the acetylcholineat cholinergic synapsesand terminates the cholinergic effects. Some chemical agents like organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) including nerve agents and pesticides react with acetylcholinesteraseirreversibly. They inhibit normal biological enzyme action and result in accumulation of acetylcholineand show toxic effects andcholinergic symptoms. The process of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition can be reversed by a nucleophilic agent to dephosphorylate and reactivate the enzyme...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200666/prevention-of-memory-impairment-and-neurotrophic-factors-increased-by-lithium-in-wistar-rats-submitted-to-pneumococcal-meningitis-model
#9
Lutiana R Simões, Roberta R E S Abreu, Jaqueline S Generoso, Jéssica A Goularte, Allan Collodel, Vijayasree Vayalanellore Giridharan, Anitha Christy Sigamani Arumanayagam, Samira S Valvassori, João Quevedo, Tatiana Barichello
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lithium on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) expression in the hippocampus and on memory in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. The mood-stabilizer lithium is known as a neuroprotective agent with many effects on the brain. In this study, animals received either artificial cerebrospinal fluid or Streptococcus pneumoniae suspension at a concentration of 5 × 109 CFU/mL...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197566/local-subcutaneous-injection-of-chlorogenic-acid-inhibits-the-nociceptive-trigeminal-spinal-nucleus-caudalis-neurons-in-rats
#10
Kaede Kakita, Hirona Tsubouchi, Mayu Adachi, Shiori Takehana, Yoshihito Shimazu, Mamoru Takeda
Acute administration of chlorogenic acid (CGA) in vitro was recently shown to modulate potassium channel conductance and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in the primary sensory neurons; however, in vivo peripheral effects of CGA on the nociceptive mechanical stimulation of trigeminal neuronal activity remains to be determined. The present study investigated whether local administration of CGA in vivo attenuates mechanical stimulation-induced excitability of trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis neuronal (SpVc) activity in rats...
November 29, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196712/effects-of-neuroactive-agents-on-axonal-growth-and-pathfinding-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-generated-from-human-stem-cells
#11
Tadashi Yokoi, Taku Tanaka, Emiko Matsuzaka, Fuminobu Tamalu, Shu-Ichi Watanabe, Sachiko Nishina, Noriyuki Azuma
We recently established a novel method for generating functional human retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from human induced pluripotent cells (hiPSCs). Here, we confirmed that RGCs can also be generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We investigated the usefulness of human RGCs with long axons for assessing the effects of chemical agents, such as the neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor (NGF), and the chemorepellent factors, semaphorin 3 A (SEMA3A) and SLIT1. The effects of direct and local administration of each agent on axonal projection were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time imaging, in which the filopodia of the growth cone served as an excellent marker...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191802/peripheral-neuropathy-induced-by-microtubule-targeted-chemotherapies-insights-into-acute-injury-and-long-term-recovery
#12
Krystyna M Wozniak, James J Vornov, Ying Wu, Ying Liu, Valentina A Carozzi, Virginia Rodriquez-Menendez, Elisa Ballarini, Paola Alberti, Eleonora Pozzi, Sara Semperboni, Brett M Cook, Bruce A Littlefield, Kenichi Nomoto, Krista Condon, Sean Eckley, Christopher DesJardins, Leslie Wilson, Mary Ann Jordan, Stuart C Feinstein, Guido Cavaletti, Michael Polydefkis, Barbara S Slusher
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a major cause of disability in cancer survivors. CIPN investigations in preclinical model systems have focused on either behaviors or acute changes in nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and amplitude, but greater understanding of the underlying nature of axonal injury and its long-term processes is needed as cancer patients live longer. In this study, we used multiple independent endpoints to systematically characterize CIPN recovery in mice exposed to the anti-tubulin cancer drugs eribulin (ERIB), ixabepilone (IXA), paclitaxel (PACLI) or vinorelbine (VINO) at maximal tolerated doses...
November 30, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191791/electrophysiological-investigation-of-the-effect-of-structurally-different-bispyridinium-non-oxime-compounds-on-human-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-activity-an-in-vitro-structure-activity-analysis
#13
Corinna Scheffel, Karin V Niessen, Sebastian Rappenglück, Klaus T Wanner, Horst Thiermann, Franz Worek, Thomas Seeger
Organophosphorus compounds, including nerve agents and pesticides, exert their toxicity through irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) resulting in an accumulation of acetylcholine and functional impairment of muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Current therapy comprises oximes to reactivate AChE and atropine to antagonize effects induced by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Nicotinic malfunction leading to depression of the central and peripheral respiratory system is not directly treated calling for alternative therapeutic interventions...
November 27, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190644/structural-analysis-of-human-glycoprotein-butyrylcholinesterase-using-atomistic-molecular-dynamics-the-importance-of-glycosylation-site-asn241
#14
Austen Bernardi, Karl N Kirschner, Roland Faller
Human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is a glycoprotein capable of bioscavenging toxic compounds such as organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. For commercial production of BChE, it is practical to synthesize BChE in non-human expression systems, such as plants or animals. However, the glycosylation profile in these systems is significantly different from the human glycosylation profile, which could result in changes in BChE's structure and function. From our investigation, we found that the glycan attached to ASN241 is both structurally and functionally important due to its close proximity to the BChE tetramerization domain and the active site gorge...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189126/recent-advances-for-the-synthesis-of-selenium-containing-small-molecules-as-potent-antitumor-agents
#15
Qi Miao, Jinyi Xu, Aijun Lin, Xiaoming Wu, Liang Wu, Weijia Xie
Selenium-containing small molecules have attracted considerable attention of chemical and medicinal researchers owing to their various biological activities, such as antitumor effects, cardiovascular protection, antibacterial or antiviral effects, immunoregulation and nerve protection, among which the most promising area is antineoplasm. In the past several decades, different kinds of organoselenium compounds, such as selenides, seleno(iso)cyanates, substituted selenoureas, selenious esters and Se-containing heterocycles have been reported as candidates of anti-cancer agents...
November 29, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183815/bioscavenger-is-effective-as-a-delayed-therapeutic-intervention-following-percutaneous-vx-poisoning-in-the-guinea-pig
#16
T M Mann, M E Price, C L Whitmore, R L Perrott, T R Laws, R R McColm, E R Emery, J E H Tattersall, A C Green, H Rice
The prolonged systemic exposure that follows skin contamination with low volatility nerve agents, such as VX, requires treatment to be given over a long time due to the relatively short half-lives of the therapeutic compounds used. Bioscavengers, such as butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), have been shown to provide effective post-exposure protection against percutaneous nerve agent when given immediately on signs of poisoning and to reduce reliance on additional treatments. In order to assess the benefits of administration of bioscavenger at later times, its effectiveness was assessed when administration was delayed for 2h after the appearance of signs of poisoning in guinea-pigs challenged with VX (4×LD50)...
November 25, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180561/notalgia-paresthetica-relieved-by-cervical-traction
#17
Rhonda Low, Leah A Swanson, David L Swanson
Notalgia paresthetica is a syndrome of unilateral, chronic pruritis that is associated with burning pain, paresthesia, numbness, and hyperesthesia localized to the medial and inferior scapula. The condition does not respond to anti-inflammatory drugs or traditional antipruritic agents and has variable responses to numerous other reported pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies. Although the etiology is thought to be nerve impingement, neurologic and musculoskeletal causes are often not considered in the differential diagnosis...
November 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180286/the-estimation-of-oxime-efficiency-is-affected-by-the-experimental-design-of-phosphylated-acetylcholinesterase-reactivation
#18
Nikolina Maček Hrvat, Tamara Zorbaz, Goran Šinko, Zrinka Kovarik
Reactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an essential enzyme in neurotransmission, is a key point in the treatment of acute poisoning by nerve agents and pesticides, which structurally belong to organophosphorus compounds (OP). Due to the high diversity of substituents on the phosphorous atom, there is a variety of OP-AChE conjugates deriving from AChE inhibition, and therefore not only is there no universal reactivator efficient enough for the most toxic OPs, but for some nerve agents there is still a lack of any reactivator at all...
November 24, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179036/bilateral-facial-nerve-palsies-secondary-to-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy-following-adalimumab-treatment
#19
Anthony Yao, Helen Chan, Richard A L Macdonell, Neil Shuey, Jwu Jin Khong
PURPOSE: Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) presents uncommonly with cranial nerve involvement with ophthalmological implications. METHODS: We report the case of a 37year-old man who developed CIDP which manifested as progressive and relapsing bilateral facial nerve palsy with lagophthalmos and exposure keratopathy, in the setting of treatment of Crohn's disease with the anti-TNF-alpha agent adalimumab. RESULTS: Symptoms gradually improved over the course of several months following withdrawal of adalimumab and treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and oral prednisolone...
November 22, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177587/intranasal-therapy-to-stop-status-epilepticus-in-prehospital-settings
#20
REVIEW
John Benfield, Alberto Musto
Status epilepticus (SE) is a medical emergency characterized by uncontrolled, prolonged seizures with rapid and widespread neuronal damage. Patients that suffer from longer episodes of SE are more likely to have poorer clinical outcomes and a higher cost of healthcare. Understanding novel molecular mechanisms that regulate inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission that initiate SE and the necessary medical infrastructure to stop SE could help identify targets for early intervention. Intranasal administration of benzodiazepines may shorten the time between initiation and cessation of seizures when compared to other routes of administration...
November 25, 2017: Drugs in R&D
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