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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457123/general-anesthesia-with-propofol-for-ovarian-teratoma-excision-associated-with-anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-encephalitis
#1
Masami Sato, Hiroaki Yasumoto, Toshiyuki Arai
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder caused by production of anti-NMDAR antibodies that is often associated with ovarian teratoma and exhibits various manifestations including psychiatric symptoms, seizures, hypoventilation, and autonomic nerve instability. Patients with this disorder who receive early surgical tumor resection along with immunotherapy have better outcome than the rest of the patients. To establish an anesthetic plan, it is important to understand the pharmacological interaction between the anesthetic agents and the disabled NMDAR, because NMDAR is one of the major sites of action for commonly-used anesthetic agents...
2018: JA Clin Rep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456348/efficacy-of-dexmedetomidine-as-an-adjuvant-to-local-anesthetic-agent-in-scalp-block-and-scalp-infiltration-to-control-postcraniotomy-pain-a-double-blind-randomized-trial
#2
Shankar Vallapu, Nidhi Bidyut Panda, Navneh Samagh, Neerja Bharti
Context: Scalp infiltration and scalp block are being used to manage postcraniotomy pain. Dexmedetomidine has been successfully used as an adjuvant in regional anesthesia. The study was intended to compare whether addition of dexmedetomidine prolonged the duration of analgesia as well as to compare the two techniques. Aims: The primary objective was to assess whether addition of dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine prolonged the duration of analgesia. The secondary objective was to compare between scalp nerve block and scalp infiltration as techniques for pain relief...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455376/human-urine-extract-cell-differentiation-agent-2-protects-pc12-cells-from-serum-deprivation-induced-apoptosis-accompanied-with-priming-of-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-activation-and-differentiation-induction
#3
Chih-Jung Yao, Shuang-En Chuang, Ya-Yu Yang, Gi-Ming Lai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of human urine extract cell differentiation agent 2 (CDA-2) by the model of serum deprivation-induced apoptosis of PC12 cells and study the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Apoptosis of PC12 cells was induced by serum deprivation. CDA-2 at doses of 0.5-4 mg/mL was used to treat the serum-deprived PC12 cells. The cellular viability was measured by sulforhodamine B binding assay and the cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometer...
February 17, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454886/development-of-neuropathology-following-soman-poisoning-and-medical-countermeasures
#4
REVIEW
Trond Myhrer, Espen Mariussen, Pål Aas
Nerve agent-induced seizures can cause varying degrees of neuropathology depending on level of poisoning and duration of seizing. The intention of this review was to validate a novel approach for establishing effective treatment regimens against soman poisoning. Identification of seizure controlling sites in the forebrain of rats poisoned by soman was made by means of lesions, and the anticonvulsive properties of a number of relevant drugs were tested by microinfusions into the identified areas. By using these procedures, procyclidine emerged as the most potent drug...
February 15, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454364/cyclosporine-a-does-not-prevent-second-eye-involvement-in-leber-s-hereditary-optic-neuropathy
#5
Stéphanie Leruez, Christophe Verny, Dominique Bonneau, Vincent Procaccio, Guy Lenaers, Patrizia Amati-Bonneau, Pascal Reynier, Clarisse Scherer, Adriana Prundean, Christophe Orssaud, Xavier Zanlonghi, Marie-Bénédicte Rougier, Caroline Tilikete, Dan Miléa
BACKRGROUND: Evaluation of the efficacy of oral cyclosporine A as a prophylactic agent in preventing second-eye involvement in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) in a prospective, open-label, non-randomized, multicenter pilot study. Only LHON patients aged 18 years or more, with confirmed primary mitochondrial DNA mutations and strictly unilateral optic neuropathy occurring within 6 months prior to enrolment, were included in the study. All these patients, receiving treatment with oral cyclosporine (Neoral®, Novartis) at 2...
February 17, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436643/neuroprotective-effect-of-lurasidone-via-antagonist-activities-on-histamine-in-a-rat-model-of-cranial-nerve-involvement
#6
Baoming He, Liang Yu, Suping Li, Fei Xu, Lili Yang, Shuai Ma, Yi Guo
Cranial nerve involvement frequently involves neuron damage and often leads to psychiatric disorder caused by multiple inducements. Lurasidone is a novel antipsychotic agent approved for the treatment of cranial nerve involvement and a number of mental health conditions in several countries. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of lurasidone by antagonist activities on histamine was investigated in a rat model of cranial nerve involvement. The antagonist activities of lurasidone on serotonin 5‑HT7, serotonin 5‑HT2A, serotonin 5‑HT1A and serotonin 5‑HT6 were analyzed, and the preclinical therapeutic effects of lurasidone were examined in a rat model of cranial nerve involvement...
February 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435796/retinal-single-layer-analysis-with-optical-coherence-tomography-shows-inner-retinal-layer-thinning-in-huntington-s-disease-as-a-potential-biomarker
#7
Duygu Gulmez Sevim, Metin Unlu, Murat Gultekin, Cagatay Karaca
PURPOSE: There have been ongoing clinical trials of therapeutic agents in Huntington's disease (HD) which requires development of reliable biomarkers of disease progression. There have been studies in the literature with conflicting results on the involvement of retina in HD, and up to date there is not a study evaluating the single retinal layers in HD. We aimed to evaluate the specific retinal changes in HD and their usability as potential disease progression markers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with automatic segmentation to measure peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness and the thickness and volume of retinal layers in foveal scans of 15 patients with HD and 15 age- and sex-matched controls...
February 12, 2018: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435762/establishment-of-a-myelinating-co-culture-system-with-a-motor-neuron-like-cell-line-nsc-34-and-an-adult-rat-schwann-cell-line-ifrs1
#8
Shizuka Takaku, Hideji Yako, Naoko Niimi, Tomoyo Akamine, Daiji Kawanami, Kazunori Utsunomiya, Kazunori Sango
Co-culture models of neurons and Schwann cells have been utilized for the study of myelination and demyelination in the peripheral nervous system; in most of the previous studies, however, these cells were obtained by primary culture with embryonic or neonatal animals. A spontaneously immortalized Schwann cell line IFRS1 from long-term cultures of adult Fischer rat peripheral nerves has been shown to retain fundamental ability to myelinate neurites in co-cultures with adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurons and nerve growth factor-primed PC12 cells...
February 12, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435524/an-esipt-fluorescent-probe-and-a-nanofiber-platform-for-selective-and-sensitive-detection-of-a-nerve-gas-mimic
#9
Liyan Chen, Hyerim Oh, Di Wu, Myung Hwa Kim, Juyoung Yoon
An ESIPT based fluorescent probe, containing a hydroxyphenyl-benzothiazole fluorophore and an oxime reaction site, serves as a selective probe for a nerve gas mimic, diethyl cyanophosphonate (DECP), in solutions and the gas phase. The probe exhibits more than a 60-fold fluorescence enhancement in the presence of the target, has a limit of detection of 1.3 nM and displays high selectivity toward DECP over closely related substances, including sulfur mustard stimulants and other nerve agent mimics. Moreover, composite nanofibers with relatively low concentrations of the probe (0...
February 13, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434480/a-rare-presentation-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#10
Navneet K Singh, Alexander J Sweidan, Sarah Strube, Ignacio Carrillo-Nunez
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) are a set of demyelinating disorders that primarily target the optic nerves and the spinal cord. Previously thought to be a subset of multiple sclerosis (MS), now is recognized as a distinct entity. We present a 59-year-old female patient who was admitted for acute upper and lower extremity weakness. The patient had woken up from sleep with sudden onset of weakness. Patient was initially diagnosed with a right hemispheric stroke; however, magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine later performed showed abnormal enhancement from C2-C4, representing transverse myelitis...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434277/three-dimensional-3d-tetra-culture-brain-on-chip-platform-for-organophosphate-toxicity-screening
#11
Youngmi Koo, Brian T Hawkins, Yeoheung Yun
Organophosphate-based compounds (OPs) represent a significant threat to warfighters (nerve agents) and civilian populations (pesticides). There is a pressing need to develop in vitro brain models that correlate to the in vivo brain to rapidly study OPs for neurotoxicity. Here we report on a microfluidic-based three-dimensional, four-cell tissue construct consisting of 1) a blood-brain barrier that has dynamic flow and membrane-free culture of the endothelial layer, and 2) an extracellular matrix (ECM)-embedded tissue construct with neuroblastoma, microglia, and astrocytes...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432799/mitochondrial-protein-s-nitrosation-protects-against-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-denervation-at-neuromuscular-junction-in-skeletal-muscle
#12
Rebecca J Wilson, Joshua C Drake, Di Cui, Bevan M Lewellen, Carleigh C Fisher, Mei Zhang, David F Kashatus, Lisa A Palmer, Michael P Murphy, Zhen Yan
Deterioration of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) integrity and function is causal to muscle atrophy and frailty, ultimately hindering quality of life and increasing the risk of death. In particular, NMJ is vulnerable to ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury when blood flow is restricted followed by restoration. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism(s) and hence the lack of effective interventions. New evidence suggests that mitochondrial oxidative stress plays a causal role in IR injury, which can be precluded by enhancing mitochondrial protein S-nitrosation (SNO)...
February 9, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430446/models-of-disuse-muscle-atrophy-therapeutic-implications-in-critically-ill-patients
#13
REVIEW
Esther Barreiro
Skeletal muscle weakness is common in the intensive care units (ICU). Approximately 50% of patients under mechanical ventilation for more than 7 days show signs of ICU-acquired muscle weakness. In these patients, muscle weakness may be the result of axonal polyneuropathy, myopathy or a combination of both. The commonest risk factors in patients with ICU-acquired weakness (AW) are the severity and duration of the systemic inflammatory response, duration of the stay in the ICU and of mechanical ventilation, hyperglycemia, hypoalbuminemia, parenteral nutrition, and administration of corticosteroids and of neuromuscular blocking agents...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429258/-clinical-features-of-chronic-relapsing-inflammatory-optic-neuropathy
#14
C Meng, C T Lai, Q L Yang, L Liu, J W Wang
Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics and prognosis of chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy (CRION). Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted. Clinical features, disease course, prognosis and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients with CRION who were admitted to Department of Neurology between 2014 and 2016 were reviewed and analyzed. Results: Totally, there were 27 patients (10 males and 17 females), with an age range of 17-59 years. The disease duration was between 40 days and 8 years...
February 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427084/rosmarinic-acid-mitigates-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-spinal-glial-activation-in-oxaliplatin-induced-peripheral-neuropathy
#15
Aparna Areti, Prashanth Komirishetty, Anil Kumar Kalvala, Karthika Nellaiappan, Ashutosh Kumar
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a dose-limiting complication which develops as a consequence of treatment with chemotherapeutic agents like oxaliplatin and is a mainstay of therapy for colorectal cancer. Ever since CIPN was identified, understanding its exact pathomechanisms remains a clinical challenge. The role of mitochondrial dysfunction and glial cell activation has surfaced in the etiology of CIPN. Rosmarinic acid (RA), a known mitoprotectant exerts neuroprotection against the oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in various disease conditions...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424931/calcium-signalling-in-the-acinar-environment-of-the-exocrine-pancreas-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#16
Oleksiy Gryshchenko, Julia V Gerasimenko, Shuang Peng, Oleg V Gerasimenko, Ole H Petersen
Physiological Ca 2+ signals in pancreatic acinar cells control fluid and enzyme secretion, whereas excessive Ca 2+ signals induced by pathological agents induce destructive processes leading to acute pancreatitis. Ca 2+ signals in the peri-acinar stellate cells may also play a role in the development of acute pancreatitis. In this study, we have explored Ca 2+ signalling in the different cell types to be found in the acinar environment of the pancreatic tissue. We have, for the first time, recorded depolarization-evoked Ca 2+ signals in pancreatic nerves and shown that whereas acinar cells receive a functional cholinergic innervation, there is no evidence for functional innervation of the stellate cells...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424522/self-assembled-tetrahedral-dna-nanostructures-promote-neural-stem-cell-proliferation-and-neuronal-differentiation
#17
Wenjuan Ma, Xiaoru Shao, Dan Zhao, Qianshun Li, Mengting Liu, Tengfei Zhou, Xueping Xie, Chenchen Mao, Yuxin Zhang, Yunfeng Lin
Stem cell-based therapy is considered a promising approach for repair of nervous tissues. Neural stem cells (NSCs) cannot proliferate or differentiate efficiently; hence, different biomaterials have been explored to improve NSCs proliferation and differentiation. However, these agents either had low bioavailability or poor biocompatibility. In this work, our group investigated the effects of tetrahedral DNA nanostructures (TDNs), a novel DNA biological material, on the self-renew and differentiation of neuroectodermal (NE-4C) stem cells...
February 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423951/early-calp2-expression-and-microglial-activation-are-potential-inducers-of-spinal-il-6-upregulation-and-bilateral-pain-following-motor-nerve-injury
#18
Shao-Xia Chen, Shao-Kun Wang, Pei-Wen Yao, Guang-Jie Liao, Xiao-Dong Na, Yong-Yong Li, Wei-An Zeng, Xian-Guo Liu, Ying Zang
Previous work from our laboratory showed that motor nerve injury by lumbar 5 ventral root transection (L5-VRT) led to interleukin-6 (IL-6) overexpression in bilateral spinal cord, and that intrathecal administration of IL-6 neutralizing antibody delayed the induction of mechanical allodynia in bilateral hind paws. However, early events and upstream mechanisms underlying spinal IL-6 expression following L5-VRT require elucidation. The model of L5-VRT was used to induce neuropathic pain, which was assessed with von Frey hairs and the plantar tester in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422528/epothilone-b-speeds-corneal-nerve-regrowth-and-functional-recovery-through-microtubule-stabilization-and-increased-nerve-beading
#19
Hanqing Wang, Chengju Xiao, Dong Dong, Cuipei Lin, Yunxia Xue, Jun Liu, Mingjuan Wu, Jingxin He, Ting Fu, Hongwei Pan, Xinwei Jiao, Dingli Lu, Zhijie Li
The successful restoration of corneal innervation and function after a corneal injury is a clinically challenging issue. Structural and functional recovery after a nerve injury involves a complex series of steps in which microtubules play a key role. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of epothilone B (EpoB), a microtubule-stabilizing agent, on corneal innervation and the functional recovery of the corneal nerve in mice after corneal epithelial abrasion. The pretreatment of mice with EpoB has a remarkable effect on the stabilization of beta-III tubulin, as demonstrated by substantial increases in the visualization of beta-III tubulin, nerve beading, corneal reinnervation, and reaction to stimuli...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420427/the-price-we-pay-for-radical-curative-pelvic-exenterations-prevalence-and-management-of-pain
#20
Jessica Shao-Yeung Lim, Cherry E Koh, Hannah Liu, Michael J Solomon, Charlotte S H Johnstone
BACKGROUND: Pelvic exenterations are extensive surgical procedures for locally advanced or recurrent malignancies of the pelvis. However, this is often at the cost of significant morbidity due to perioperative pain, which has been poorly studied. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to review perioperative pain management in patients undergoing pelvic exenteration. DESIGN: This is a retrospective review of patients undergoing pelvic exenteration between January 2013 and December 2014...
March 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
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