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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821767/identification-of-candidate-genes-for-devil-facial-tumour-disease-tumourigenesis
#1
Robyn L Taylor, Yiru Zhang, Jennifer P Schöning, Janine E Deakin
Devil facial tumour (DFT) disease, a transmissible cancer where the infectious agent is the tumour itself, has caused a dramatic decrease in Tasmanian devil numbers in the wild. The purpose of this study was to take a candidate gene/pathway approach to identify potentially perturbed genes or pathways in DFT. A fusion of chromosome 1 and X is posited as the initial event leading to the development of DFT, with the rearranged chromosome 1 material now stably maintained as the tumour spreads through the population...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811009/the-feasibility-of-sugammadex-for-general-anesthesia-and-facial-nerve-monitoring-in-patients-undergoing-parotid-surgery
#2
I-Cheng Lu, Pi-Ying Chang, Miao-Pei Su, Po-Nien Chen, Hsiu-Ya Chen, Feng-Yu Chiang, Che-Wei Wu
The use of neuromuscular blocking agent (NMBA) during anesthesia may interfere with facial nerve monitoring (FNM) during parotid surgery. Sugammadex has been reported to be an effective and safe reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block (NMB) during surgery. This study investigated the feasibility and clinical effectiveness of sugammadex for NMB reversal during FNM in Parotid surgery. Fifty patients undergoing parotid surgery were randomized allocated into conventional anesthesia group (Group C, n = 25) and sugammadex group (Group S, n = 25)...
August 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807775/the-potential-benefits-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-for-diabetic-retinopathy
#3
REVIEW
Baoying Pang, Huanran Zhou, Hongyu Kuang
For a long time, diabetic retinopathy (DR) has been one of the most severe complications of diabetes. The early treatment of DR is not clearly recognized. The additional benefit of hypoglycemic agents for DR has become a new research field. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) has been shown to be widely expressed in tissues including retina. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) have been generally used in the treatment of diabetic patients. Studies shows that GLP-1RA could inhibit nerve damage by decrease apoptosis of nerve cells and activation of glial cells...
August 11, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806257/orbital-hemangiopericytoma-in-68ga-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-hbed-cc-pet-ct
#4
Jochen Hammes, Carsten Kobe, Ute Hilgenberg, Wolfgang E Lieb, Alexander Drzezga
A 76-year-old man with biochemical relapse of prostate cancer underwent Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen PET/CT. Besides a local lymph node metastasis, a nodular structure inside the left orbit caudal to the optic nerve showed increased uptake. A metastasis in this location is unlikely. The subsequently performed MRI showed the structure being T1 hypointense, T2 indifferent, and strongly gadolinium contrast agent enhancing. Histopathologic examination after surgical removal identified the tumor as hemangiopericytoma, which rarely occurs in the orbit...
August 12, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803438/inhibitor-of-endocannabinoid-deactivation-protects-against-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-neurotoxic-effects-of-paraoxon
#5
Karen L G Farizatto, Sara A McEwan, Vinogran Naidoo, Spyros P Nikas, Vidyanand G Shukla, Michael F Almeida, Aaron Byrd, Heather Romine, David A Karanian, Alexandros Makriyannis, Ben A Bahr
The anticholinesterase paraoxon (Pxn) is related to military nerve agents that increase acetylcholine levels, trigger seizures, and cause excitotoxic damage in the brain. In rat hippocampal slice cultures, high-dose Pxn was applied resulting in a presynaptic vulnerability evidenced by a 64% reduction in synapsin IIb (syn IIb) levels, whereas the postsynaptic protein GluR1 was unchanged. Other signs of Pxn-induced cytotoxicity include the oxidative stress-related production of stable 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-protein adducts...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800217/engineering-antibody-reactivity-for-efficient-derivatization-to-generate-nav1-7-inhibitory-gptx-1-peptide-antibody-conjugates
#6
Kaustav Biswas, Thomas E Nixey, Justin K Murray, James R Falsey, Li Yin, Hantao Liu, Jacinthe Gingras, Brian E Hall, Brad Herberich, Jerry Ryan Holder, Hongyan Li, Joseph Ligutti, Min-Hwa Jasmine Lin, Dong Liu, Brian D Soriano, Marcus Soto, Linh Tran, Christopher M Tegley, Anrou Zou, Kannan Gunasekaran, Bryan D Moyer, Liz Doherty, Les P Miranda
The voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 is a genetically-validated pain target under investigation for the development of analgesics. A therapeutic with a less frequent dosing regimen would be of value for treating chronic pain, however functional NaV1.7 targeting antibodies are not known. In this report we describe NaV1.7 inhibitory peptide-antibody conjugates as an alternate construct for potential prolonged channel blockade through chemical derivatization of engineered antibodies. We previously identified NaV1...
August 11, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798922/practical-approach-to-the-patient-with-acute-neuromuscular-weakness
#7
REVIEW
Rajeev Nayak
Acute neuromuscular paralysis (ANMP) is a clinical syndrome characterized by rapid onset muscle weakness progressing to maximum severity within several days to weeks (less than 4 wk). Bulbar and respiratory muscle weakness may or may not be present. It is a common neurological emergency which requires immediate and careful investigations to determine the etiology because accurate diagnosis has significant impact on therapy and prognosis. Respiratory failure caused by neuromuscular weakness is considered as more critical than lung disease because its development may be insidious or subtle until sudden decompensation leads to life threatening hypoxia...
July 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795964/neuromuscular-monitoring-in-the-perioperative-period
#8
Glenn S Murphy
Neuromuscular monitoring devices were introduced into clinical practice in the 1970s. Qualitative neuromuscular monitors, or peripheral nerve stimulators, provide an electrical stimulus to a motor nerve and the response of corresponding muscle subjectively evaluated. A standard peripheral nerve stimulator provides several patterns of nerve stimulation, including train-of-four (TOF), double-burst, tetanic, and post-tetanic count. Qualitative (and quantitative) monitors are needed to determine onset of neuromuscular blockade, maintain the required depth of muscle relaxation during the surgical procedure, and assess an appropriate dose of reversal agent...
August 8, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783323/3d-printed-electrodes-for-detection-of-nitroaromatic-explosives-and-nerve-agents
#9
Cavin Tan, Muhammad Zafir Mohamad Nasir, Adriano Ambrosi, Martin Pumera
Three-dimensional (3D) printing has proven to be a versatile and useful technology for specialized applications in industry and also for scientific research. We demonstrate its potential use toward the electrochemical detection of nitroaromatic compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), and fenitrothion (FT). The detection of these compounds is of utmost importance in military and forensic applications. Stainless steel electrodes were fabricated by 3D printing, and the surface was electroplated with gold...
August 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782715/corticosterone-potentiates-dfp-induced-neuroinflammation-and-affects-high-order-diffusion-imaging-in-a-rat-model-of-gulf-war-illness
#10
Bang-Bon Koo, Lindsay T Michalovicz, Samanthan Calderazzo, Kimberly A Kelly, Kimberly Sullivan, Ronald J Killiany, James P O'Callaghan
Veterans of the 1991 Gulf War were potentially exposed to a variety of toxic chemicals, including sarin nerve agent and pesticides, which have been suspected to be involved in the development of Gulf War Illness (GWI). Several of these exposures cause a neuroinflammatory response in mice, which may serve as a basis for the sickness behavior-like symptoms seen in veterans with GWI. Furthermore, conditions mimicking the physiological stress experienced during the war can exacerbate this effect. While neuroinflammation has been observed post-exposure using animal models, it remains a challenge to evaluate neuroinflammation and its associated cellular and molecular changes in vivo in veterans with GWI...
August 4, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776686/contralateral-r1-and-r2-components-of-the-laryngeal-adductor-reflex-in-humans-under-general-anesthesia
#11
Catherine F Sinclair, Maria J Téllez, Oscar R Tapia, Sedat Ulkatan
OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate that under total intravenous general anesthesia (TIVA), the contralateral R1 (cRI) and contralateral R2 (cR2) components of the laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR) can be reliably elicited; to determine effects of topical anesthesia and inhalational anesthesia on the LAR; and to discuss how this technique may be utilized to continuously monitor the vagus nerve reflex arc. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. METHODS: Vocal fold mucosa was electrically stimulated via endotracheal tube surface-based electrodes to elicit a LAR...
August 4, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776308/susceptibility-to-soman-toxicity-and-efficacy-of-ly293558-against-soman-induced-seizures-and-neuropathology-in-10-month-old-male-rats
#12
James P Apland, Vassiliki Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Taiza H Figueiredo, Eric M Prager, Cara H Olsen, Maria F M Braga
Acute nerve agent exposure causes prolonged status epilepticus (SE), leading to death or long-term brain damage. We have previously demonstrated that LY293558, an AMPA/GluK1 kainate receptor antagonist, terminates SE induced by the nerve agent soman and protects from long-term brain damage, in immature rats and young-adult rats, even if administered with a relatively long latency from the time of exposure. However, susceptibility to the lethal consequences of SE increases with age, and mortality by SE induced by soman is substantially greater in older animals...
August 3, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772087/selective-percutaneous-controlled-radiofrequency-thermocoagulation-of-the-gasserian-ganglion-to-control-facial-pain-due-to-medication-related-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw
#13
Ayano Taniguchi, Keita Fukazawa, Toyoshi Hosokawa
BACKGROUND: Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is an important complication in patients treated with antiresorptive agents such as bisphosphonates and the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand inhibitor (denosumab). Treatment of MRONJ is extremely difficult, which makes it a distressing long-term complication. OBJECTIVES: We report a case of intractable facial pain due to MRONJ that was successfully controlled with selective percutaneous controlled radiofrequency thermocoagulation of the Gasserian ganglion...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768538/pulsed-radiofrequency-or-anterior-neurectomy-for-anterior-cutaneous-nerve-entrapment-syndrome-acnes-the-pulse-trial-study-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Robbert C Maatman, Monique A H Steegers, Oliver B A Boelens, Toine C Lim, Hans J van den Berg, Sandra A S van den Heuvel, Marc R M Scheltinga, Rudi M H Roumen
BACKGROUND: Some patients with chronic abdominal pain suffer from an anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES). This somewhat illusive syndrome is thought to be caused by the entrapment of end branches of the intercostal nerves residing in the abdominal wall. If ACNES is suspected, a local injection of an anesthetic agent may offer relief. If pain is recurrent following multiple-injection therapy, an anterior neurectomy entailing removal of the entrapped nerve endings may be considered...
August 2, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767470/loss-of-smell-and-taste-after-general-anesthesia-a-case-report
#15
Jason Joe Baker, Stina Öberg, Jacob Rosenberg
This case report describes a patient, who lost the ability to smell and taste after receiving a propofol-based general anesthesia for a laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair. Immediately after the procedure, the patient had anosmia (loss of smell), ageusia (loss of taste), and light dysphagia. Assessment by an otorhinolaryngologist and the results of a magnetic resonance imaging could not clarify the pathology behind these symptoms. Although there are several plausible explanations for the patient's anosmia and ageusia (eg, cerebral infarcts, nerve damage, chronic sinusitis), the most likely explanation is an uncommon adverse drug reaction to the anesthetic agents used during the procedure...
August 1, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766392/vagal-influences-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#16
S E Rasmussen, M Pfeiffer-Jensen, A M Drewes, A D Farmer, B W Deleuran, K Stengaard-Pedersen, B Brock, C Brock
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease with a prevalence of 0.5-1% in Western populations. Conventionally, it is treated with therapeutic interventions that include corticosteroids, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, and biological agents. RA exerts a significant socio-economic burden and despite the use of existing treatments some patients end up with disabling symptoms. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a brain-body interface that serves to regulate homeostasis by integrating the external environment with the internal milieu...
August 2, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766156/a-primer-on-nerve-agents-what-the-emergency-responder-anesthesiologist-and-intensivist-needs-to-know
#17
Keith Candiotti
PURPOSE: The purpose of this review article is to familiarize first responders, anesthesiologists, and intensivists with the medical management of patients exposed to nerve agents. SOURCE: This review is based on the current medical literature available to the general medical community. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nerve agents are some of the deadliest substances known to humanity. Though they kill primarily via muscle paralysis, which leads to respiratory arrest, these agents affect virtually every organ system in the body...
August 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765846/enhanced-enzymatic-activity-from-phosphotriesterase-trimer-gold-nanoparticle-bioconjugates-for-pesticide-detection
#18
John A Hondred, Joyce C Breger, Nate T Garland, Eunkeu Oh, Kimihiro Susumu, Scott A Walper, Igor L Medintz, Jonathan C Claussen
The rapid detection of organophosphates (OPs), a class of strong neurotoxins, is critically important for monitoring acute insecticide exposure and potential chemical warfare agent use. Herein, we improve the enzymatic activity of a phosphotriesterase trimer (PTE3), an enzyme that selectively recognizes OPs directly, by conjugation with distinctly sized (i.e., 5, 10, and 20 nm diameter) gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The number of enzymes immobilized on the AuNP was controlled by conjugating increasing molar ratios of PTE3 onto the AuNP surface via metal affinity coordination...
August 2, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762701/epilepsy-treatment-options
#19
REVIEW
Gerald Liu, Nicole Slater, Allen Perkins
The occurrence of a single seizure does not always require initiation of antiepileptic drugs. Risk of recurrent seizures should guide their use. In adults, key risk factors for recurrence are two unprovoked seizures occurring more than 24 hours apart, epileptiform abnormalities on electroencephalography, abnormal brain imaging, nocturnal seizures, or an epileptic syndrome associated with seizures. In children, key risk factors are abnormal electroencephalography results, an epileptic syndrome associated with seizures, severe head trauma, and cerebral palsy...
July 15, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754162/sensitization-of-asic3-by-proteinase-activated-receptor-2-signaling-contributes-to-acidosis-induced-nociception
#20
Jing Wu, Ting-Ting Liu, Yi-Mei Zhou, Chun-Yu Qiu, Ping Ren, Ming Jiao, Wang-Ping Hu
BACKGROUND: Tissue acidosis and inflammatory mediators play critical roles in pain. Pro-inflammatory agents trypsin and tryptase cleave and activate proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) expressed on sensory nerves, which is involved in peripheral mechanisms of inflammation and pain. Extracellular acidosis activates acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) to trigger pain sensation. Here, we show that a functional interaction of PAR2 and ASIC3 could contribute to acidosis-induced nociception...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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