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sarin gas

Daniel J Droste, Michael L Shelley, Jeffery M Gearhart, David M Kempisty
The use of nerve agents such as sarin is as much a threat today as any other time in our history. The events in Syria in 2013 are proof of this. "The Obama administration asserted Sunday for the first time that the Syrian government used the nerve gas sarin to kill more than 1,400 people (August 21, 2013) in the world's gravest chemical weapons attack in 25 years." With these recent events clear in our mind, we must focus on the horrific nature of these chemical agents to devise a strategy that will enable first responders to counteract these insidious chemicals...
April 2016: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Victor Grech, Dorota Zammit, Hagen Scherb
Males are usually born in excess of females. The sex ratio at birth (SR) is often expressed as the ratio of male to total births. A wide variety of factors have been shown to influence SR, including terrorist attacks, which have been shown to reduce SR. This paper reviews the effects on SR outcomes of the stressful events in France in 1968 (in association with the student and worker riots) and in Japan following the Aum Shinrikyo religious cult's attack on the Tokyo subway using sarin nerve gas in 1995. Both countries displayed seasonal variation in SR...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Oh Seok Kwon, Chul Soon Park, Seon Joo Park, Seonmyeong Noh, Saerona Kim, Hye Jeong Kong, Joonwon Bae, Chang-Soo Lee, Hyeonseok Yoon
Organophosphates are powerful inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase, which is critical to nerve function. Despite continuous research for detecting the highly toxic organophosphates, a new and improved methodology is still needed. Herein we demonstrate simple-to-fabricate chemiresistive gas sensors using conducting-polymer polypyrrole (PPy) nanotube transducers, which are chemically specific and capable of recognizing sub-ppb concentrations (ca. 0.5 ppb) of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a simulant of nerve agent sarin...
2016: Scientific Reports
Hee Min Hwang, Eunhee Hwang, Doyoung Kim, Hyoyoung Lee
A novel gas sensor consisting of porous, non-stacked reduced graphene oxide (NSrGO)-heaxfluorohydoroxypropanyl benzene (HFHPB) nanosheets was successfully fabricated, allowing the detection of dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP), similar to sarin toxic gas. The HFHPB group was chemically grafted to the NSrGO via a diazotization reaction to produce NSrGO-HFHPB. The NSrGO-HFHPB 3D film has a mesoporous structure with a large pore volume and high surface area that can sensitively detect DMMP and concurrently selectively signal the DMMP through the chemically-attached HFHPB...
2016: Scientific Reports
Tamalika Ash, Tanay Debnath, Tahamida Banu, Abhijit Kumar Das
A mechanistic investigation has been carried out to explore all possible gas phase unimolecular isomerization as well as decomposition pathways of toxic organophosphorus compounds (OPCs), namely, sarin (GB) and soman (GD), which are better known as nerve agents. We have identified a total of 13 detoxication pathways for sarin, where the α-H, β-H, and γ-H take part in the H-transfer process. However, for soman, due to the presence of ω-H, three additional detoxication pathways are obtained, where the ω-H is involved in the H-transfer process...
September 19, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Estela Climent, Mustafa Biyikal, Kornelia Gawlitza, Tomáš Dropa, Martin Urban, Ana M Costero, Ramón Martínez-Máñez, Knut Rurack
Test strips that in combination with a portable fluorescence reader or digital camera can rapidly and selectively detect chemical warfare agents (CWAs) such as Tabun (GA), Sarin (GB), and Soman (GD) and their simulants in the gas phase have been developed. The strips contain spots of a hybrid indicator material consisting of a fluorescent BODIPY indicator covalently anchored into the channels of mesoporous SBA silica microparticles. The fluorescence quenching response allows the sensitive detection of CWAs in the μg m(-3) range in a few seconds...
August 1, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Weiwei Guo, Hongjin Lv, Kevin P Sullivan, Wesley O Gordon, Alex Balboa, George W Wagner, Djamaladdin G Musaev, John Bacsa, Craig L Hill
A wide range of chemical warfare agents and their simulants are catalytically decontaminated by a new one-dimensional polymeric polyniobate (P-PONb), K12 [Ti2 O2 ][GeNb12 O40 ]⋅19 H2 O (KGeNb) under mild conditions and in the dark. Uniquely, KGeNb facilitates hydrolysis of nerve agents Sarin (GB) and Soman (GD) (and their less reactive simulants, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP)) as well as mustard (HD) in both liquid and gas phases at ambient temperature and in the absence of neutralizing bases or illumination...
June 20, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
D L'Hermite, E Vors, T Vercouter, G Moutiers
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a laser-based optical technique particularly suited for in situ surface analysis. A portable LIBS instrument was tested to detect surface chemical contamination by chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Test of detection of surface contamination was carried out in a toxlab facility with four CWAs, sarin (GB), lewisite (L1), mustard gas (HD), and VX, which were deposited on different substrates, wood, concrete, military green paint, gloves, and ceramic. The CWAs were detected by means of the detection of atomic markers (As, P, F, Cl, and S)...
May 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rafał Sokołowski, Tadeusz Płusa
Organophosphates are stable cholinesterases inhibitors (AChE). Inhibition of AChE activity leads to the accumulation of large amounts of acetylcholine and hyperactivity of the cholinergic system by stimulating acetylcholine receptors - muscarinic and nicotinic. This group included tabun, sarin, soman and VX gases. Exposure to gaseous form causes symptoms within a few seconds of exposure. This depends on the gas concentration in the atmosphere. The most sensitive organ is the eyes and the respiratory system...
September 2015: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Mieko Kanamori-Kataoka, Yasuo Seto
To establish adequate on-site solvent trapping of volatile chemical warfare agents (CWAs) from air samples, we measured the breakthrough volumes of CWAs on three adsorbent resins by an elution technique using direct electron ionization mass spectrometry. The trapping characteristics of Tenax(®) TA were better than those of Tenax(®) GR and Carboxen(®) 1016. The latter two adsorbents showed non-reproducible breakthrough behavior and low VX recovery. The specific breakthrough values were more than 44 (sarin) L/g Tenax(®) TA resin at 20°C...
September 4, 2015: Journal of Chromatography. A
Yin Long, Yang Wang, Xiaosong Du, Luhua Cheng, Penglin Wu, Yadong Jiang
A linear hydrogen-bond acidic (HBA) linear functionalized polymer (PLF), was deposited onto a bare surface acoustic wave (SAW) device to fabricate a chemical sensor. Real-time responses of the sensor to a series of compounds including sarin (GB), dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), mustard gas (HD), chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (2-CEES), 1,5-dichloropentane (DCP) and some organic solvents were studied. The results show that the sensor is highly sensitive to GB and DMMP, and has low sensitivity to HD and DCP, as expected...
2015: Sensors
Sarin Tadtong, Narisa Kamkaen, Rith Watthanachaiyingcharoen, Nijsiri Ruangrungsi
This study focused on characterization of the chemical components of an aromatherapy recipe. The formulation consisted of four blended essential oils; rosemary oil, eucalyptus oil, pine oil and lime oil (volume ratio 6 : 2 : 1 : 1). The single and combination essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analysis of GC-MS data revealed that several components exist in the mixture. The five most important components of the blended essential oils were 1,8-cineole (35.6 %), α-pinene (11...
June 2015: Natural Product Communications
Hisayuki Nagashima, Tomohide Kondo, Tomoki Nagoya, Toru Ikeda, Naoko Kurimata, Shohei Unoke, Yasuo Seto
A field-portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (Hapsite ER system) was evaluated for the detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in the vapor phase. The system consisted of Tri-Bed concentrator gas sampler (trapping time: 3s(-1)min), a nonpolar low thermal-mass capillary gas chromatography column capable of raising temperatures up to 200°C, a hydrophobic membrane-interfaced electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometer evacuated by a non-evaporative getter pump for data acquisition, and a personal computer for data analysis...
August 7, 2015: Journal of Chromatography. A
Zhengfei Dai, Guotao Duan, Zhenxing Cheng, Lei Xu, Tie Li, Guangqiang Liu, Hongwen Zhang, Yue Li, Weiping Cai
A reversible janus gas redox transition was discovered in the trace Sarin sensing process using an ethanol-aged nanoporous SnO2 micro-chemiresistor, which was reliable to realize the identification of Sarin from other gases and even its simulant. This sensor also endows a rather low detection threshold of 6 ppb to Sarin.
May 11, 2015: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Takafumi Satoh, Shintaro Kishi, Hisayuki Nagashima, Masumi Tachikawa, Mieko Kanamori-Kataoka, Takao Nakagawa, Nobuyoshi Kitagawa, Kenichi Tokita, Soichiro Yamamoto, Yasuo Seto
The ion mobility behavior of nineteen chemical warfare agents (7 nerve gases, 5 blister agents, 2 lachrymators, 2 blood agents, 3 choking agents) and related compounds including simulants (8 agents) and organic solvents (39) was comparably investigated by the ion mobility spectrometry instrument utilizing weak electric field linear drift tube with corona discharge ionization, ammonia doping, purified inner air drift flow circulation operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Three alkyl methylphosphonofluoridates, tabun, and four organophosphorus simulants gave the intense characteristic positive monomer-derived ion peaks and small dimer-derived ion peaks, and the later ion peaks were increased with the vapor concentrations...
March 20, 2015: Analytica Chimica Acta
Tomoko Imasaka, Totaro Imasaka
Excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and vacuum-ultraviolet/deep-ultraviolet absorption spectra were calculated for nerve agents, such as sarin, soman, VX, tabun, mustard gas, and analogs. We used time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) methods that included B3LYP combined with basis sets of cc-pVDZ and cc-pVTZ, and ωB97XD with cc-pVTZ. The vertical ionization energies were also calculated for these compounds, in order to collect additional information relative to the optimal pathways for multiphoton ionization in mass spectrometry...
2014: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Sameh El Sayed, Lluís Pascual, Alessandro Agostini, Ramón Martínez-Máñez, Félix Sancenón, Ana M Costero, Margarita Parra, Salvador Gil
The synthesis, characterization and sensing features of a novel probe 1 for the selective chromogenic recognition of diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), a sarin and soman mimic, in 99:1 (v/v) water/acetonitrile and in the gas phase is reported. Colour modulation is based on the combined reaction of phosphorylation of 1 and fluoride-induced hydrolysis of a silyl ether moiety. As fluoride is a specific reaction product of the reaction between DFP and the -OH group, the probe shows a selective colour modulation in the presence of this chemical...
August 2014: ChemistryOpen
Rahul Sharma, Bhanushree Gupta, Namrata Singh, J R Acharya, Kamil Musilek, Kamil Kuca, Kallol Kumar Ghosh
Organophosphate (OP) pesticides and nerve agents are responsible for suicidal and accidental poisonings. The acute toxicity of nerve agents leads to progressive inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by phosphylation of serine residue at the active site of gorge. The recent massive destruction of Syrian civilians by nerve gas sarin, has again renewed the research attention of global science fraternity towards nerve agents, their mode of action and most prominently their therapeutic treatment. This review is principally focused on nerve agent intoxication...
2015: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Jan-Christoph Wolf, Martin Schaer, Peter Siegenthaler, Renato Zenobi
A novel active capillary dielectric barrier discharge plasma ionization (DBDI) technique for mass spectrometry is applied to the direct detection of 13 chemical warfare related compounds, including sarin, and compared to secondary electrospray ionization (SESI) in terms of selectivity and sensitivity. The investigated compounds include an intact chemical warfare agent and structurally related molecules, hydrolysis products and/or precursors of highly toxic nerve agents (G-series, V-series, and "new" nerve agents), and blistering and incapacitating warfare agents...
January 6, 2015: Analytical Chemistry
Stamatios Giannoukos, Boris Brkić, Stephen Taylor, Neil France
A man-portable membrane inlet mass spectrometer has been built and tested to detect and monitor characteristic odors emitted from the human body and also from threat substances. In each case, a heated membrane sampling probe was used. During human scent monitoring experiments, data were obtained for inorganic gases and volatile organic compounds emitted from human breath and sweat in a confined space. Volatile emissions were detected from the human body at low ppb concentrations. Experiments with compounds associated with narcotics, explosives, and chemical warfare agents were conducted for a range of membrane types...
February 2015: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
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