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sarin gas

Alexey L Kaledin, Darren M Driscoll, Diego Troya, Daniel L Collins-Wildman, Craig L Hill, John R Morris, Djamaladdin G Musaev
The impact of ambient gas molecules (X), NO2 , CO2 and SO2 on the structure, stability and decontamination activity of Cs8 Nb6 O19 polyoxometalate was studied computationally and experimentally. It was found that Cs8 Nb6 O19 absorbs these molecules more strongly than it adsorbs water and Sarin (GB) and that these interactions hinder nerve agent decontamination. The impacts of diamagnetic CO2 and SO2 molecules on polyoxoniobate Cs8 Nb6 O19 were fundamentally different from that of NO2 radical. At ambient temperatures, weak coordination of the first NO2 radical to Cs8 Nb6 O19 conferred partial radical character on the polyoxoniobate and promoted stronger coordination of the second NO2 adsorbent to form a stable diamagnetic Cs8 Nb6 O19 /(NO2 )2 species...
February 28, 2018: Chemical Science
Young-Jun Lee, Jong-Gyu Kim, Joo-Hyung Kim, Jaesook Yun, Won Jun Jang
The detection and monitoring of colorless and odorless chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has become important due to the increasing threat of terrorist activities. To enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of CWAs a number of sensing materials have been developed, including the widely used polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). However, PVDF is limited by its low sensitivity and selectivity for many CWAs. In this study, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) was used as a sensing material for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) a simulant of sarin nerve gas...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Patricia Simon, Deepa Camenga, Meghan Morean, Grace Kong, Krysten W Bold, Dana A Cavallo, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
Among adolescents, low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with greater exposure to tobacco cigarette advertising and cigarette use. However, associations among SES, e-cigarette advertising and e-cigarette use are not well understood. This study examined exposure to e-cigarette advertisements as a mediator of the relationship between SES and adolescent e-cigarette use. Adolescents (N = 3473; 51% Female) from 8 high schools in Connecticut completed an anonymous survey in Spring 2015. Mediation analysis was used to examine whether the total number of sources of recent e-cigarette advertising exposure (e...
April 16, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Harald John, Marcel J van der Schans, Marianne Koller, Helma E T Spruit, Franz Worek, Horst Thiermann, Daan Noort
During the United Nations fact-finding mission to investigate the alleged use of chemical warfare agents in the Syrian Arab Republic in 2013, numerous tissues from a deceased female victim, who had displayed symptoms of cholinergic crisis, were collected. The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) authorized two specialized laboratories in the Netherlands and Germany for forensic analysis of these samples. Diverse modern mass spectrometry (MS)-based procedures in combination with either liquid chromatography (LC) or gas chromatography (GC) separation were applied...
2018: Forensic Toxicology
Alex R Baker, Maria Kanakidou, Katye E Altieri, Nikos Daskalakis, Gregory S Okin, Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Frank Dentener, Mitsuo Uematsu, Manmohan M Sarin, Robert A Duce, James N Galloway, William C Keene, Arvind Singh, Lauren Zamora, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Shih-Chieh Hsu, Shital S Rohekar, Joseph M Prospero
Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) emissions to the atmosphere have increased significantly the deposition of nitrate (NO3 - ) and ammonium (NH4 + ) to the surface waters of the open ocean, with potential impacts on marine productivity and the global carbon cycle. Global-scale understanding of the impacts of N deposition to the oceans is reliant on our ability to produce and validate models of nitrogen emission, atmospheric chemistry, transport and deposition. In this work, ~2900 observations of aerosol NO3 - and NH4 + concentrations, acquired from sampling aboard ships in the period 1995 - 2012, are used to assess the performance of modelled N concentration and deposition fields over the remote ocean...
2017: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Yunnan Fang, Mitra Akbari, Lauri Sydänheimo, Leena Ukkonen, Manos M Tentzeris
This work describes a facile, mild and general wet chemical method to change the material and the geometry of inkjet-printed interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) thus drastically enhancing the sensitivity of chemiresistive sensors. A novel layer-by-layer chemical method was developed and used to uniformly deposit semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-based sensing elements on a Kapton(®) substrate. Flexible chemiresistive sensors were then fabricated by inkjet-printing fine-featured silver IDEs on top of the sensing elements...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yonggang Yang, Donglin Li, Chaozheng Li, Yufang Liu, Kai Jiang
There is very little scientific understanding of photoexcitation effect on the adsorption properties of adsorbent. The adsorption of four hazardous gases (SARIN (propan-2-ylmethylphospho-nofluoridate), methyl dichlorophosphate (MDCP), trimethyl phosphate (TMP) and hydrogen sulfide (H2 S)) on silica surface is taken as target sample in this work. The adsorption energy order (MDCP<SARIN<TMP) in the ground state is consistent with the strength order of intermolecular hydrogen bond (inter-HB) between hydroxyl group of silica surface and hazardous gas, and the desorption order of the three gases in previous reports...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Xiao Shan, Jack C Vincent, Sue Kirkpatrick, Maurice D Walker, Mark R Sambrook, David C Clary
Theoretical and experimental results are presented for the pyrolytic decomposition of the nerve agent sarin (GB) in the gas phase. High-level quantum chemistry calculations are performed together with a semiclassical transition-state theory for describing quantum mechanical tunneling. The experimental and theoretical results for the temperature dependence of the survival times show very good agreement, as does the calculated and measured activation energy for thermal decomposition. The combined results suggest that the thermal decomposition of GB, for temperature ranging from 350 to 500 °C, goes through a pericyclic reaction mechanism with a transition state consisting of a six-membered ring structure...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Liang Qiang, Anand N Rao, Gustavo Mostoslavsky, Marianne F James, Nicole Comfort, Kimberly Sullivan, Peter W Baas
Gulf War illness (GWI), which afflicts at least 25% of veterans who served in the 1990-1991 war in the Persian Gulf, is thought to be caused by deployment exposures to various neurotoxicants, including pesticides, anti-nerve gas pills, and low-level nerve agents including sarin/cyclosarin. GWI is a multisymptom disorder characterized by fatigue, joint pain, cognitive problems, and gastrointestinal complaints. The most prominent symptoms of GWI (memory problems, poor attention/concentration, chronic headaches, mood alterations, and impaired sleep) suggest that the disease primarily affects the CNS...
May 16, 2017: Neurology
Daniel J Droste, Michael L Shelley, Jeffery M Gearhart, David M Kempisty
The use of nerve agents such as sarin is as much a threat today as any other time in our history. The events in Syria in 2013 are proof of this. "The Obama administration asserted Sunday for the first time that the Syrian government used the nerve gas sarin to kill more than 1,400 people (August 21, 2013) in the world's gravest chemical weapons attack in 25 years." With these recent events clear in our mind, we must focus on the horrific nature of these chemical agents to devise a strategy that will enable first responders to counteract these insidious chemicals...
2016: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Victor Grech, Dorota Zammit, Hagen Scherb
Males are usually born in excess of females. The sex ratio at birth (SR) is often expressed as the ratio of male to total births. A wide variety of factors have been shown to influence SR, including terrorist attacks, which have been shown to reduce SR. This paper reviews the effects on SR outcomes of the stressful events in France in 1968 (in association with the student and worker riots) and in Japan following the Aum Shinrikyo religious cult's attack on the Tokyo subway using sarin nerve gas in 1995. Both countries displayed seasonal variation in SR...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
Oh Seok Kwon, Chul Soon Park, Seon Joo Park, Seonmyeong Noh, Saerona Kim, Hye Jeong Kong, Joonwon Bae, Chang-Soo Lee, Hyeonseok Yoon
Organophosphates are powerful inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase, which is critical to nerve function. Despite continuous research for detecting the highly toxic organophosphates, a new and improved methodology is still needed. Herein we demonstrate simple-to-fabricate chemiresistive gas sensors using conducting-polymer polypyrrole (PPy) nanotube transducers, which are chemically specific and capable of recognizing sub-ppb concentrations (ca. 0.5 ppb) of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a simulant of nerve agent sarin...
2016: Scientific Reports
Hee Min Hwang, Eunhee Hwang, Doyoung Kim, Hyoyoung Lee
A novel gas sensor consisting of porous, non-stacked reduced graphene oxide (NSrGO)-heaxfluorohydoroxypropanyl benzene (HFHPB) nanosheets was successfully fabricated, allowing the detection of dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP), similar to sarin toxic gas. The HFHPB group was chemically grafted to the NSrGO via a diazotization reaction to produce NSrGO-HFHPB. The NSrGO-HFHPB 3D film has a mesoporous structure with a large pore volume and high surface area that can sensitively detect DMMP and concurrently selectively signal the DMMP through the chemically-attached HFHPB...
2016: Scientific Reports
Tamalika Ash, Tanay Debnath, Tahamida Banu, Abhijit Kumar Das
A mechanistic investigation has been carried out to explore all possible gas phase unimolecular isomerization as well as decomposition pathways of toxic organophosphorus compounds (OPCs), namely, sarin (GB) and soman (GD), which are better known as nerve agents. We have identified a total of 13 detoxication pathways for sarin, where the α-H, β-H, and γ-H take part in the H-transfer process. However, for soman, due to the presence of ω-H, three additional detoxication pathways are obtained, where the ω-H is involved in the H-transfer process...
September 19, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Estela Climent, Mustafa Biyikal, Kornelia Gawlitza, Tomáš Dropa, Martin Urban, Ana M Costero, Ramón Martínez-Máñez, Knut Rurack
Test strips that in combination with a portable fluorescence reader or digital camera can rapidly and selectively detect chemical warfare agents (CWAs) such as Tabun (GA), Sarin (GB), and Soman (GD) and their simulants in the gas phase have been developed. The strips contain spots of a hybrid indicator material consisting of a fluorescent BODIPY indicator covalently anchored into the channels of mesoporous SBA silica microparticles. The fluorescence quenching response allows the sensitive detection of CWAs in the μg m(-3) range in a few seconds...
August 1, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Weiwei Guo, Hongjin Lv, Kevin P Sullivan, Wesley O Gordon, Alex Balboa, George W Wagner, Djamaladdin G Musaev, John Bacsa, Craig L Hill
A wide range of chemical warfare agents and their simulants are catalytically decontaminated by a new one-dimensional polymeric polyniobate (P-PONb), K12 [Ti2 O2 ][GeNb12 O40 ]⋅19 H2 O (KGeNb) under mild conditions and in the dark. Uniquely, KGeNb facilitates hydrolysis of nerve agents Sarin (GB) and Soman (GD) (and their less reactive simulants, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP)) as well as mustard (HD) in both liquid and gas phases at ambient temperature and in the absence of neutralizing bases or illumination...
June 20, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
D L'Hermite, E Vors, T Vercouter, G Moutiers
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a laser-based optical technique particularly suited for in situ surface analysis. A portable LIBS instrument was tested to detect surface chemical contamination by chemical warfare agents (CWAs). Test of detection of surface contamination was carried out in a toxlab facility with four CWAs, sarin (GB), lewisite (L1), mustard gas (HD), and VX, which were deposited on different substrates, wood, concrete, military green paint, gloves, and ceramic. The CWAs were detected by means of the detection of atomic markers (As, P, F, Cl, and S)...
May 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Rafał Sokołowski, Tadeusz Płusa
Organophosphates are stable cholinesterases inhibitors (AChE). Inhibition of AChE activity leads to the accumulation of large amounts of acetylcholine and hyperactivity of the cholinergic system by stimulating acetylcholine receptors - muscarinic and nicotinic. This group included tabun, sarin, soman and VX gases. Exposure to gaseous form causes symptoms within a few seconds of exposure. This depends on the gas concentration in the atmosphere. The most sensitive organ is the eyes and the respiratory system...
September 2015: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Mieko Kanamori-Kataoka, Yasuo Seto
To establish adequate on-site solvent trapping of volatile chemical warfare agents (CWAs) from air samples, we measured the breakthrough volumes of CWAs on three adsorbent resins by an elution technique using direct electron ionization mass spectrometry. The trapping characteristics of Tenax(®) TA were better than those of Tenax(®) GR and Carboxen(®) 1016. The latter two adsorbents showed non-reproducible breakthrough behavior and low VX recovery. The specific breakthrough values were more than 44 (sarin) L/g Tenax(®) TA resin at 20°C...
September 4, 2015: Journal of Chromatography. A
Yin Long, Yang Wang, Xiaosong Du, Luhua Cheng, Penglin Wu, Yadong Jiang
A linear hydrogen-bond acidic (HBA) linear functionalized polymer (PLF), was deposited onto a bare surface acoustic wave (SAW) device to fabricate a chemical sensor. Real-time responses of the sensor to a series of compounds including sarin (GB), dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), mustard gas (HD), chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (2-CEES), 1,5-dichloropentane (DCP) and some organic solvents were studied. The results show that the sensor is highly sensitive to GB and DMMP, and has low sensitivity to HD and DCP, as expected...
2015: Sensors
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