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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776921/determining-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-coverage-required-for-indirect-protection-against-vaccine-type-pneumococcal-carriage-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-protocol-for-a-prospective-observational-study
#1
Jocelyn Chan, Cattram D Nguyen, Jana Y R Lai, Eileen M Dunne, Ross Andrews, Christopher C Blyth, Siddhartha Datta, Kim Fox, Rebecca Ford, Jason Hinds, Sophie La Vincente, Deborah Lehmann, Ruth Lim, Tuya Mungun, Paul N Newton, Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh, Willam S Pomat, Anonh Xeuatvongsa, Claire von Mollendorf, David A B Dance, Catherine Satzke, Kim Muholland, Fiona M Russell
INTRODUCTION: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) prevent disease through both direct protection of vaccinated individuals and indirect protection of unvaccinated individuals by reducing nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage and transmission of vaccine-type (VT) pneumococci. While the indirect effects of PCV vaccination are well described, the PCV coverage required to achieve the indirect effects is unknown. We will investigate the relationship between PCV coverage and VT carriage among undervaccinated children using hospital-based NP pneumococcal carriage surveillance at three sites in Asia and the Pacific...
May 18, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757089/potential-source-regions-of-air-pollutants-at-a-regional-background-station-in-northern-china
#2
Weiwei Pu, Xuefeng Shi, Lili Wang, Jing Xu, Zhiqiang Ma
Understanding the potential source regions of air pollutants and their relative contribution from surrounding areas are of great importance for air pollution control strategies in Northern China. Six years of measurement of air pollutants was conducted from 2005 to 2010 in Shangdianzi (SDZ) regional background station. During the study period, the annual average concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide and ozone (Ox ), and fine particle matter less than or equal to 2.5μm (PM2...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751442/the-effect-of-portable-hepa-filter-air-cleaners-on-indoor-pm-2-5-concentrations-and-second-hand-tobacco-smoke-exposure-among-pregnant-women-in-ulaanbaatar-mongolia-the-ugaar-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Prabjit Barn, Enkhjargal Gombojav, Chimedsuren Ochir, Bayarkhuu Laagan, Bolor Beejin, Gerel Naidan, Buyantushig Boldbaatar, Jargalsaikhan Galsuren, Tsogtbaatar Byambaa, Craig Janes, Patricia A Janssen, Bruce P Lanphear, Tim K Takaro, Scott A Venners, Glenys M Webster, Weiran Yuchi, Christopher D Palmer, Patrick J Parsons, Young Man Roh, Ryan W Allen
BACKGROUND: Portable HEPA filter air cleaners can reduce indoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ), but their use has not been adequately evaluated in high pollution settings. We assessed air cleaner effectiveness in reducing indoor residential PM2.5 and second hand smoke (SHS) exposures among non-smoking pregnant women in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. METHODS: We randomized 540 participants to an intervention group receiving 1 or 2 HEPA filter air cleaners or a control group receiving no air cleaners...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745149/-effects-of-grazing-and-mowing-on-macrofauna-communities-in-a-typical-steppe-of-inner-mongolia-china
#4
Xia Liu, Dong Zhao, Jian Wei Cheng, Hai Yan Chen, Xin Min Liu, Taogetao Baoyin, Frank Yonghong Li
The dynamic features of the ecosystem components under different human activities are fundamental for understanding the ecosystem change mechanisms and developing sustainable mana-gement system. For the vast temperate steppe ecosystems in northern China, there existed many studies on the effects of animal grazing and mowing on plant and soil microbial communities, but not the soil fauna communities. We investigated the soil macrofauna communities of a typical Inner Mongolia steppe grassland under 6 utilization treatments (1 full season grazing, 3 different seasonal grazing, 1 autumn mowing and 1 control of no grazing or mowing)...
June 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741051/-deuterium-isotope-characteristics-of-precipitation-infiltrated-in-the-west-ordos-desert-of-inner-mongolia-china
#5
Jie Chen, Qing Xu, De Qiang Gao, Ying Bin Ma, Bei Bei Zhang, Yu Guang Hao
Understanding the soil-profile temporal and spatial distribution of rainwater in arid and semiarid regions provides a scientific basis for the restoration and maintenance of degraded desert ecosystems in the West Ordos Desert of Inner Mongolia, China. In this study, the deuterium isotope (δD) value of rainwater, soil water, and groundwater were examined in the West Ordos Desert. The contribution of precipitation to soil water in each layer of the soil profile was calculated with two-end linear mixed model...
July 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730922/-application-of-isothermal-hpv-dna-amplification-test-in-cervical-cancer-screening
#6
L Wang, M Y Jiang, Y Qin, L Li, Z N Wu, T Y Li, T Wu, W Chen
Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of isothermal human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA amplification test as a primary screening test in the early detection of cervical cancer. Methods: From June to August 2016, 2, 774 women aged 30-64 years old from Inner Mongolia were recruited for cervical cancer screening. HPV DNA was detected by Isomega and cobas4800. INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra was served as a reference method for the cases whose results were inconsistent by using these two methods. Histological diagnosis was considered as a gold standard to estimate the effectiveness and accuracy of Isomega and cobas4800 for detecting CIN2 or greater...
April 23, 2018: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728621/migratory-whooper-swans-cygnus-cygnus-transmit-h5n1-virus-between-china-and-mongolia-combination-evidence-from-satellite-tracking-and-phylogenetics-analysis
#7
Shuhong Li, Weiyue Meng, Dongping Liu, Qiqi Yang, Lixia Chen, Qiang Dai, Tian Ma, Ruyi Gao, Wendong Ru, Yunfeng Li, Pengbo Yu, Jun Lu, Guogang Zhang, Huaiyu Tian, Hongliang Chai, Yanbing Li
In late 2014, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (hereafter HPAI) H5N1 outbreak infected whooper swans Cygnus cygnus wintering at the Sanmenxia Reservoir area, China, and raised concerns about migratory linkages between wintering and breeding grounds of whooper swans. In this study, 61 swans were satellite tracked from 2013 to 2016 to determine the spatial association of their migration routes and H5N1 outbreaks, and 3596 fecal samples were collected along the migration routes for virology testing. Swans departed the wintering grounds and migrated along the Yellow River, and flew over the Yin Mountains in China...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724202/anti-brucella-activity-of-caryopteris-mongolica-bunge-root-extract-against-brucella-melitensis-infection-in-mice
#8
Tsevelmaa N, Narangerel B, Odgerel O, Dariimaa D, Batkhuu J
BACKGROUND: The current treatment for human brucellosis requires a combination of antibiotics for long periods of time, and the reported incidence and prevalence of the disease vary widely in nomadic livestock of Mongolia. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo antibacterial activity of the C. mongolica root extract against B. melitensis. METHODS: In this study, we used of 6 groups of mice (n = 5). Five groups of BALB/c mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with the M16 strain of B...
May 3, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721268/effects-of-nitrogen-addition-and-mowing-on-rodent-damage-in-an-inner-mongolian-steppe
#9
Yinzhan Liu, Gaigai Ma, Zhiman Zan, Anqun Chen, Yuan Miao, Dong Wang, Renhui Miao
Rodent damage is a serious threat to sustainable management of grassland. The effects of nitrogen (N) deposition and grassland management on rodent damage have been scarcely studied. Here, we reported the effects of 2 years of N addition and mowing on burrow density and damage area of Citellus dauricus in a semiarid steppe in Inner Mongolia. N addition significantly aggravated, while mowing alleviated rodent damage in the grassland under study. Burrow density and damage area increased 2.8-fold and 4.7-fold, in N addition plots compared to the ambient N addition treatment, respectively...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721263/long-term-ecological-data-for-conservation-range-change-in-the-black-billed-capercaillie-tetrao-urogalloides-in-northeast-china-1970s-2070s
#10
Li Yang, Chao Zhang, Minhao Chen, Jingxin Li, Lei Yang, Zhaomin Huo, Shahid Ahmad, Xiaofeng Luan
Long-term ecological data can be an effective tool to help ecologists integrate future projections with historical contexts and provide unique insights into the long-term dynamics of endangered species. However, hampered by data limitations, including incomplete and spatially biased data, relatively few studies have used multidecadal datasets or have examined changes in biogeography from a historical perspective. The black-billed capercaillie ( Tetrao urogalloides ) is a large capercaillie (classified as Least Concern [LC] on the IUCN red list) that has undergone a dramatic decline in population during the late 20th century and is considered endangered...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720129/availability-affordability-and-costs-of-pediatric-medicines-in-mongolia
#11
Gereltuya Dorj, Bruce Sunderland, Tsetsegmaa Sanjjav, Gantuya Dorj, Byambatsogt Gendenragchaa
BACKGROUND: The Essential Medicines List for Children (EMLc) was developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to assist member countries to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The Government of Mongolia has adopted a National Essential Drug List (NEDL) with the seventh update published in 2014. The objective of this study was to determine the accessibility, availability and costs of essential pediatric medicines in Mongolia. METHODS: A standardized methodology developed by the WHO and Health Action International (HAI) was employed to conduct a study on the availability, costs and affordability of pediatric medicines in Mongolia...
May 2, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699044/-differences-on-geographic-distribution-of-rabies-virus-lineages-in-china
#12
Q Wang, M L Li, Y Chen, B Wang, X Y Tao, W Y Zhu
Objective: To study the lineages of rabies virus and the epidemic characteristics in different provincial populations of China, to provide information for the development of control and prevention measures in each respective provinces. Methods: Full length N and G genes and full-genome of epidemic strains of rabies virus collected in China were downloaded from GenBank and combined with newly sequenced strains by our lab. Each strain was classified under six lineages of China rabies by constructing phylogenetic trees based on the N or G sequences...
April 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696891/-effects-of-different-mulching-and-drip-irrigation-patterns-on-photosynthetic-characteristics-of-maize-leaves-in-the-hetao-irrigation-district-inner-mongolia-china
#13
Min Jie Hu, Liang Chao Jiang, Shou Zhong Li, Li Feng Zhou, Chuan Tong
Photosynthesis controls crop growth and yield, and differences in planting methods and soil moisture can significantly affect the photosynthetic characteristics of crops. Grain filling stage and milking stage are two important stages of maize from flowering to maturity, which are essential for maize grain formation and dry matter accumulation. The effects of different mulching and drip irrigation patterns on the photosynthetic characteristics and maize yield at grain filling and milking stages were investigated in a field experiment in the Hetao Irrigation District, Inner Mongolia...
December 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696073/a-cross-sectional-study-of-small-mammals-for-tick-borne-pathogen-infection-in-northern-mongolia
#14
Laura A Pulscher, Thomas C Moore, Luke Caddell, Lkhagvatseren Sukhbaatar, Michael E von Fricken, Benjamin D Anderson, Battsetseg Gonchigoo, Gregory C Gray
Background : Tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) are frequently studied in developed nations but are often neglected in emerging countries. In Mongolia, TBP research is especially sparse, with few research reports focusing upon human and domestic animal disease and tick ecology. However, little information exists on TBPs in small mammals. Methods : In this 2016 cross-sectional pilot study, we sought to uniquely study wildlife for TBPs. We live-trapped small mammals, and tested their whole blood, serum and ear biopsy samples for molecular or serological evidence of Borrelia spp...
2018: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695683/taxonomic-revision-of-the-genus-mesechinus-mammalia-erinaceidae-with-description-of-a-new-species
#15
Huai-Sen Ai, Kai He, Zhong-Zheng Chen, Jia-Qi Li, Tao Wan, Quan Li, Wen-Huan Nie, Jin-Huan Wang, Wei-Ting Su, Xue-Long Jiang
Hedgehogs in the genus Mesechinus (Family Erinaceidae), which include two currently recognized species (M. dauuricus and M. hughi), are distributed from northeast Mongolia to the upper Amur Basin in Russia and adjacent areas in northeast and northern China. In recent years, a population of Mesechinus hedgehogs was discovered from Mt. Gaoligong, southwestern Yunnan, China, far from the known distribution range of the genus. Furthermore, these hedgehogs are the only known population to be distributed at elevations higher than 2 100 m and in sympatry with gymnures...
April 25, 2018: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692141/-effects-of-grazing-and-mowing-on-extractable-carbon-and-nitrogen-in-typical-grassland-of-inner-mongolia-china
#16
Sha Sha Dun, Ji Rong Cao, Xiu Jia, Shuang Pang
Relying on a long term field manipulated grazing experiment of typical grassland in Inner Mongolia, China, we investigated the responses of soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, extractable carbon and nitrogen, and microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen to livestock grazing and grass mo-wing. The results showed that grazing decreased extractable organic carbon by 11.4%-37.1%, while mowing increased extractable organic carbon by 5.8%. Grazing and mowing increased extrac table nitrogen by 10%-340% and 10%-240%, respectively...
October 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690339/revision-of-the-gumilline-genus-nilionympha-with-a-new-species-from-the-middle-jurassic-of-china-neuroptera-osmylidae
#17
Qinghua Li, Dong Ren, Yongjie Wang
The poorly known genus Nilionympha Ren and Engel, 2007 in the subfamily of Gumillinae is updated and revised based on the reexamination of the type specimens and description of a new species Nilionympha shantouensis sp. nov. from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. A further comparison between Nilionympha and other gumilline genera is provided to corroborate the generic status according to the updated diagnostic characters of forewing. The species Nilionympha imperfecta Ren and Engel, 2007 is transferred to the genus of Enodinympha...
March 20, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690197/a-new-species-of-barbatula-from-the-headwaters-of-the-bulgan-river-in-western-mongolia-teleostei-nemacheilidae
#18
Artem M Prokofiev
Barbatula karabanowi, new species, is described from the upper Bulgan River drainage in Mongolia. It is most similar to B. dsapchynensis from the Zavhan River basin (Lake Valley, Mongolia). The new species is distinguished from this and all other species of Barbatula in Asia by a combination of characters, none of them unique: nostrils widely spaced; snout broad, ratio between maximum head width and width of snout at anterior nare 1.4-1.6; lips smooth, upper lip with a short incision; lower lip with short, well developed lateral lobes, mental lobes oval, lacking conical protrusions; scales absent or isolated scales present on the flank between dorsal- and caudal-fin bases; 42-44 vertebrae (usually 43); 75-88 lateral line pores on flank; paired fins with rounded tips; pigmentation pattern with densely set and partially fused irregularly shaped blotches and streaks...
April 10, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690115/a-new-species-and-key-to-all-known-species-of-the-genus-filchnerella-karny-1908-from-china-orthoptera-acridoidea-pamphagidae
#19
Cheng-Quan Cao, Xin-Jiang Li, Zhan Yin
The new species i.e. Filchnerella wuhaiensis sp. nov is described from Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. The new species is similar to Filchnerella helanshanensis Zheng, 1992, but differs from the latter by 21-segmented antennae, prozona of pronotum higher than metazona, length of tegmina 2.0 times maximum width, width of interspace of mesosternum 1.2 times length and lower margin of hind femur not red in male. A key to all species of the genus Filchnerella Karny, 1908 is given in this paper. Two genera Pseudotmethis Bey-Bienko, 1948 and Paratmethis Zheng He, 1996 are valid genus and not a synonym of Filchnerella Karny, 1908...
April 23, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689898/distribution-of-the-longhorned-beetle-callipogon-relictus-coleoptera-cerambycidae-in-northeast-asia
#20
Dae-Am Yi, Alexander V Kuprin, Yeon Jae Bae
The distribution of the longhorned beetle Callipogon (Eoxenus) relictus Semenov, 1899 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Northeast Asia was summarized for the first time, based on the examination of comprehensive material. Callipogon relictus is the only representative of the genus Callipogon in the Palearctic region. Its distribution ranges from Shanxi province (China) in the south, northward through the Korean Peninsula to Amur Oblast (Russia), and from Inner Mongolia (China) in the west to the coastal area of the Russian Far East...
January 2, 2018: Zootaxa
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