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Jessica L Metcalf, Se Jin Song, James T Morton, Sophie Weiss, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Frédéric Joly, Claudia Feh, Pierre Taberlet, Eric Coissac, Amnon Amir, Eske Willerslev, Rob Knight, Valerie McKenzie, Ludovic Orlando
The mammal gut microbiome, which includes host microbes and their respective genes, is now recognized as an essential second genome that provides critical functions to the host. In humans, studies have revealed that lifestyle strongly influences the composition and diversity of the gastrointestinal microbiome. We hypothesized that these trends in humans may be paralleled in mammals subjected to anthropogenic forces such as domestication and captivity, in which diets and natural life histories are often greatly modified...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
José Esparza, Livia Schrick, Clarissa R Damaso, Andreas Nitsche
For almost 150 years after Edward Jenner had published the "Inquiry" in 1798, it was generally assumed that the cowpox virus was the vaccine against smallpox. It was not until 1939 when it was shown that vaccinia, the smallpox vaccine virus, was serologically related but different from the cowpox virus. In the absence of a known natural host, vaccinia has been considered to be a laboratory virus that may have originated from mutational or recombinational events involving cowpox virus, variola viruses or some unknown ancestral Orthopoxvirus...
November 11, 2017: Vaccine
Bo Xu, Guoli Sun, Xuemin Wang, Jingwei Lu, Ian J Wang, Zan Wang
BACKGROUND: Understanding how landscape factors, including suites of geographic and environmental variables, and both historical and contemporary ecological and evolutionary processes shape the distribution of genetic diversity is a primary goal of landscape and conservation genetics and may be particularly consequential for species involved in ecological restoration. In this study, we examine the factors that shape the distribution of genetic variation in a leguminous shrub (Caragana microphylla) important for restoration efforts on the Mongolian Plateau in China...
November 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Xiaokai Li, Rui Su, Wenting Wan, Wenguang Zhang, Huaizhi Jiang, Xian Qiao, Yixing Fan, Yanjun Zhang, Ruijun Wang, Zhihong Liu, Zhiying Wang, Bin Liu, Yuehui Ma, Hongping Zhang, Qianjun Zhao, Tao Zhong, Ran Di, Yu Jiang, Wei Chen, Wen Wang, Yang Dong, Jinquan Li
Inner Mongolia and Liaoning cashmere goats are two outstanding Chinese multipurpose breeds that adapt well to the semi-arid temperate grassland. These two breeds are characterized by their soft cashmere fibers, thus making them great models to identify genomic regions that are associated with cashmere fiber traits. Whole-genome sequencing of 70 cashmere goats produced more than 5.52 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 710,600 short insertions and deletions. Further analysis of these genetic variants showed some population-specific molecular markers for the two cashmere goat breeds that are otherwise phenotypically similar...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tatsuya Nishi, Gerelmaa Ulziibat, Buyantogtokh Khanui, Odonchimeg Myagmarsuren, Kazuki Morioka, Makoto Yamakawa, Katsuhiko Fukai
We report the whole-genome sequence of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) O/MOG/BU/2-7/2015 isolated in Mongolia in 2015. This virus is closely related to isolates identified in Southeast Asia in 2015 and is classified under the O/ME-SA/Ind-2001d lineage. This is the first detection of an FMDV of this lineage in Mongolia.
November 9, 2017: Genome Announcements
Tianxiang Hao, Ling Song, Keith Goulding, Fusuo Zhang, Xuejun Liu
Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has been shown to decrease biodiversity and change nutrient cycles in terrestrial ecosystems. However, our understanding of ecological responses to chronic N addition and ecological recovery from N enrichment to grassland is limited. Here we present evidence from an 11-year grassland experiment with a range of N addition rates (0, 30, 60, 120, 240, and 480 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) ) in Inner Mongolia, China. Chronic N addition led to a reduction in species richness, Shannon Diversity Index and soil pH, and an increase in aboveground biomass, foliar N and soil mineral N...
November 7, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Justin Kitzes, Eric Berlow, Erin Conlisk, Karlheinz Erb, Katsunori Iha, Neo Martinez, Erica A Newman, Christoph Plutzar, Adam B Smith, John Harte
Although most conservation efforts address the direct, local causes of biodiversity loss, effective long-term conservation will require complementary efforts to reduce the upstream economic pressures, such as demands for food and forest products, which ultimately drive these downstream losses. Here, we present a wildlife footprint analysis that links global losses of wild birds to consumer purchases across 57 economic sectors in 129 regions. The United States, India, China, and Brazil have the largest regional wildlife footprints, while per-person footprints are highest in Mongolia, Australia, Botswana, and the United Arab Emirates...
September 2017: Conservation Letters
Shuping Zhang, Xianglong Xu, Weiwei Wang, Wenyu Yang, Wei Liang
Within year individual variation in the timing of seasonal reproduction within wild bird populations in highly seasonal environments can be pronounced, but the molecular and physiological mechanisms responsible for this variation are unclear. We investigated the relationship between Clock gene poly-Q length, activation of the HPG endocrine axis, and the timing of breeding behavior, in a wild population of the Asian short-toed lark (Calandrella cheleensis) in Inner Mongolia, China. Six variants of Clock gene poly-Q alleles were identified in this population...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Munkhnasan Lamchin, Woo-Kyun Lee, Seong Woo Jeon, Sonam Wangyel Wang, Chul Hee Lim, Cholho Song, Minjun Sung
Satellite data has been used to ascertain trends and correlations between climate change and vegetation greenness in Asia. Our study utilized 33-year (1982-2014) AVHRR-GIMMS (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer - Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies) NDVI3g and CRU TS (Climatic Research Unit Time Series) climate variable (temperature, rainfall, and potential evapotranspiration) time series. First, we estimated the overall trends for vegetation greenness, climate variables and analyzed trends during summer (April to October), winter (November to March), and the entire year...
October 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Xiang Zhou, Yasushi Yamaguchi, Sanjiwana Arjasakusuma
Distinguishing the vegetation dynamics induced by anthropogenic factors and identifying the major drivers can provide crucial information for designing actionable and practical countermeasures to restore degraded grassland ecosystems. Based on the residual trend (RESTREND) method, this study distinguished the vegetation dynamics induced by anthropogenic factors from the effects of climate variability on the Mongolian Plateau during 1993-2012 using vegetation optical depth (VOD) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which measure vegetation water content in aboveground biomass and chlorophyll abundance in canopy cover respectively; afterwards, the major drivers within different agricultural zones and socio-institutional periods were identified by integrating agricultural statistics with statistical analysis techniques...
October 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Junfang Zhao, Feiyu Pu, Yunpeng Li, Jingwen Xu, Ning Li, Yi Zhang, Jianping Guo, Zhihua Pan
Understanding the regional relationships between climate change and crop production will benefit strategic decisions for future agricultural adaptation in China. In this study, the combined effects of climatic factors on spring wheat phenophase and grain yield over the past three decades in Inner Mongolia, China, were explored based on the daily climate variables from 1981-2014 and detailed observed data of spring wheat from 1981-2014. Inner Mongolia was divided into three different climate type regions, the eastern, central and western regions...
2017: PloS One
Troy Sternberg, Mona Edwards
In Asian deserts environmental and anthropomorphic dust is a significant health risk to rural populations. Natural sources in dry landscapes are exacerbated by human activities that increase the vulnerability to dust and dust-borne disease vectors. Today in Central and Inner Asian drylands, agriculture, mining, and rapid development contribute to dust generation and community exposure. Thorough review of limited dust investigation in the region implies but does not quantify health risks. Anthropogenic sources, such as the drying of the Aral Sea, highlight the shifting dust dynamics across the Central EurAsian steppe...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yanyun Zhao, Yong Ding, Xiangyang Hou, Frank Yonghong Li, Wenjun Han, Xiangjun Yun
Soil represents the largest terrestrial organic carbon pool. To address global climate change, it is essential to explore the soil organic carbon storage patterns and their controlling factors. We investigated the soil organic carbon density (SOCD) in 48 grassland sites along the Eurasian steppe eastern transect (ESET) region, which covers the Inner Mongolia grassland subregion and Mongolia grasslands subregion. Specifically, we analyzed the SOCD in the top 30 cm soil layer and its relationships with climatic variables, soil texture, grazing intensity and community biomass productivity...
2017: PloS One
Zheng Bao Zhu, Xin Feng Huangfu, Chong Ke Zhong, Yi Peng Zhou, Yun Fan Tian, Batu Buren, Tian Xu, Ai Li Wang, Hong Mei Li, Ming Zhi Zhang, Yong Hong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the combined effect of a family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and high serum C-reactive protein (CRP) on the stroke incidence in an Inner Mongolian population in China. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted from June 2002 to July 2012, with 2,544 participants aged 20 years and over from Inner Mongolia, China. We categorized participants into four groups based on the family history of CVD and CRP levels. RESULTS: We adjusted for age; sex; smoking; drinking; hypertension; body mass index; waist circumference; and blood glucose, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels...
September 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
Y Tan, Y Zhang, Z-J Huo, X-R Zhou, B-P Pang
Galeruca daurica (Joannis) is a new outbreak pest in the Inner Mongolia grasslands in northern China. Heat shock protein 10 and 60 (Hsp10 and Hsp60) genes of G. daurica, designated as GdHsp10 and GdHsp60, were cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends techniques. Sequence analysis showed that GdHsp10 and GdHsp60 encoded polypeptides of 104 and 573 amino acids, respectively. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis clearly revealed that the amino acids of GdHsp10 and GdHsp60 had high homology and were clustered with other Hsp10 and Hsp60 genes in insects which are highly relative with G...
October 30, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Natasja van Schoor, Paul Lips
Vitamin D deficiency occurs all over the world, mainly in the Middle East, China, Mongolia, and India. This article focuses on the vitamin D status in adults. Risk groups include older persons, pregnant women, and non-Western immigrants. Adequate vitamin D status, defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D greater than 50 nmol/L, is present in less than 50% of the world population, at least in winter. Preventative strategies, such as increasing fish consumption, fortification of foods, use of vitamin D supplements, and advice for moderate sunlight exposure, are warranted...
December 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
Xinghu Qin, Kun Hao, Jingchuan Ma, Xunbing Huang, Xiongbing Tu, Md Panna Ali, Barry R Pittendrigh, Guangchun Cao, Guangjun Wang, Xiangqun Nong, Douglas W Whitman, Zehua Zhang
While ecological adaptation in insects can be reflected by plasticity of phenotype, determining the causes and molecular mechanisms for phenotypic plasticity (PP) remains a crucial and still difficult question in ecology, especially where control of insect pests is involved. Oedaleus asiaticus is one of the most dominant pests in the Inner Mongolia steppe and represents an excellent system to study phenotypic plasticity. To better understand ecological factors affecting grasshopper phenotypic plasticity and its molecular control, we conducted a full transcriptional screening of O...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Piotr Wegierek, Dagmara Żyła, Agnieszka Homan, Chenyang Cai, Diying Huang
Recently, we are witnessing an increased appreciation for the importance of the fossil record in phylogenetics and testing various evolutionary hypotheses. However, this approach brings many challenges, especially for such a complex group as aphids and requires a thorough morphological analysis of the extinct groups. The extinct aphid family Szelegiewicziidae is supposed to be one of the oviparous lineages in aphid evolution. New material from the rock fossil deposits of Shar Teg (Upper Jurassic of Mongolia), Baissa (Lower Cretaceous of Siberia-Russia), and Burmese amber (Upper Cretaceous of Myanmar) allowed us to undertake a more detailed examination of the morphological features and carry out an analysis of the taxonomical composition and evolution of the family...
October 24, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
X X Du, H Yang, H J Zhang, L A Li, W S Fan, Y G Meng
Objective: To compare the dose, clinical efficacy and acute adverse reactions of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) combined with three-dimensional brachytherapy (3D-BT) in the treatment of concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy for advanced stage cervical cancer patients. Methods: Data collection was performed from January 2011 to November 2015 in Chinese PLA General Hospital and Inner Mongolia Cancer Hospital. All 89 patients with advanced stage (Ⅱ b-Ⅲ b) cervical cancer were treated by pelvic radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy, 46 cases of them received IMRT and 3D-BT (IMRT group) , 43 cases received 3D-CRT and 3D-BT (3D-CRT group) , along with cisplatin chemotherapy...
October 25, 2017: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
Peng-Fei Qiao, Guang-Ming Niu
OBJECTIVE: To detect resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) changes and their relationships with the clinical curative effect of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) for complex partial seizures (CPS) in epilepsy patients using the fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF). METHODS: rfMRI data from 14 CPS patients enrolled between June 2015 and June 2016 in Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University were retrospectively investigated and compared with findings from 14 healthy age-, gender-, handedness-, and education-matched subjects...
October 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
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