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Oidov Baatarkhuu, Hye Won Lee, Jacob George, Dashchirev Munkh-Orshikh, Baasankhuu Enkhtuvshin, Sosorbaram Ariunaa, Mohammed Eslam, Sang Hoon Ahn, Kwang-Hyub Han, Do Young Kim
Background/Aims: Mongolia has one of the highest hepatitis A, C, B and D infection incidences worldwide. We sought to investigate changes in the proportion of acute viral hepatitis types in Mongolia over the last decade. Methods: The cohort comprised 546 consecutive patients clinically diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis from January 2012 to December 2014 in Ulaanbaatar Hospital, Mongolia. A time trend analysis investigating the change in proportion of acute hepatitis A virus, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection among the cohort with respect to a previous published study was undertaken...
May 2, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
Chao Du, Pingping Zhao, Huirong Zhang, Ningning Li, Linlin Zheng, Yingchun Wang
Reaumuria trigyna (R. trigyna) is an endangered small shrub endemic to the Eastern Alxa-Western Ordos area in Inner Mongolia, China. Based on R. trigyna transcriptome data, the Group I WRKY transcription factor gene RtWRKY1 was cloned from R. trigyna. The full-length RtWRKY1 gene was 2100bp, including a 1261-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 573 amino acids. RtWRKY1 was mainly expressed in the stem and was induced by salt, cold stress, and ABA treatment. Overexpression of RtWRKY1 in Arabidopsis significantly enhanced the chlorophyll content, root length, and fresh weight of the transgenic lines under salt stress...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Yu Yu Dgebuadze, A N Mironovskii, B Mendsaikhan, Yu V Slyn'ko
The variability of osteological characters has been investigated in cyprinid fish of the genus Oreoleuciscus (Potanin Altai osman) from the river Zavkhan; this fish species is endemic for water bodies of Central Asia. Multivariate analysis of 13 quantitative parameters of the size of the cerebral and visceral skull and the pectoral girdle and the construction of ontogenetic channels allowed the detection of morphologically distinct forms in the fluvial habitats. The result obtained provides additional proof of the possibility of sympatric diversification of fish in river ecosystems...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
Wei Zhao, Zhongmin Hu, Shenggong Li, Qun Guo, Zhengjia Liu, Leiming Zhang
The biophysical effect of land use conversion plays a significant role in regulating climate change. Owing to albedo and evapotranspiration (ET) change, the effect of energy budget difference on land surface temperature (LST) is important but unclear among contrasting land use types, especially in temperate semi-arid regions. Based on moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, we compared the differences in albedo, ET, and LST between cropland and grassland (CR-GR), and between planted forest and grassland (PF-GR) in the Horqin Sandy Land of Inner Mongolia, an agro-pastoral ecotone of northern China...
May 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jan E Janecka, Jan E Janecka, Zhang Yu-Guang, Li Di-Qiang, Bariushaa Munkhtsog, Munkhtsog Bayaraa, Naranbaatar Galsandorj, Tshewang R Wangchuk, Dibesh Karmacharya, Thomas McCarthy, Juan Li, Lu Zhi, Kubanychbek Zhumabai Uulu, Ajay Gaur, Satish Kumar, B Kesav Kumar, Shafqat Hussain, Ghulam Muhammad, Matthew Jevit, Charlotte Hacker, Pamela Burger, Claudia Wultsch, Mary J Janecka, Kristofer Helgen, William J Murphy, Rodney Jackson
The snow leopard, Panthera uncia, is an elusive high-altitude specialist that inhabits vast, inaccessible habitat across Asia. We conducted the first range-wide genetic assessment of snow leopards based on noninvasive scat surveys. Thirty-three microsatellites were genotyped and a total of 683-bp of mitochondrial DNA sequenced in 70 individuals. Snow leopards exhibited low genetic diversity at microsatellites (AN = 5.8, HO = 0.433, HE = 0.568), virtually no mtDNA variation, and underwent a bottleneck in the Holocene (~8,000 years ago) coinciding with increased temperatures, precipitation, and upward treeline shift in the Tibetan Plateau...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Heredity
Xiaotian Xu, Hongyan Liu, Xu Liu, Zhaoliang Song, Wei Wang, Shuang Qiu
Influence of climate change on the grassland phenology has attracted more and more attentions of ecologists. Although dozens of studies have been conducted, there have been few records examining the phenology differences of grasslands with different plant species compositions. Using continuous photography and image processing methods, this study examined seasonal vegetation cover dynamics of grasslands along a degradation gradient to clarify the influence of vegetation composition on the dynamics of vegetation cover during growing season...
May 11, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
Oyun Chimeddamba, Emma Gearon, Samuel L Brilleman, Enkhjargal Tumenjargal, Anna Peeters
BACKGROUND: In Mongolia, mean waist circumference (WC) has increased dramatically over the last decade, however, it is unknown whether these increases have been greater than corresponding increases in weight. In this study we aimed to assess whether recent increases in WC were greater than expected from changes in weight in Mongolian adults. METHODS: We used data on 13260 Mongolian adults, aged between 18 and 64 years, who participated in one of three (2005, 2009, 2013) nationally representative cross-sectional surveys...
2017: BMC Obesity
Javkhlanbayar Dorjdagva, Enkhjargal Batbaatar, Mikael Svensson, Bayarsaikhan Dorjsuren, Burenjargal Batmunkh, Jussi Kauhanen
BACKGROUND: The entire population of Mongolia has free access to primary health care, which is fully funded by the government. It is provided by family health centers in urban settings. In rural areas, it is included in outpatient and inpatient services offered by rural soum (district) health centers. However, primary health care utilization differs across population groups. The aim of this study was to evaluate income-related inequality in primary health care utilization in the urban and rural areas of Mongolia...
May 8, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
Naranpurev Mendsaikhan, Davaa Gombo, Ganbold Lundeg, Christian Schmittinger, Martin W Dünser
BACKGROUND: While the capacities to care for and epidemiology of emergency and critically ill patients have been reported for secondary and tertiary level hospitals in Mongolia, no data exist for Mongolian primary level hospitals. METHODS: In this prospective, observational multicenter study, 74 primary level hospitals of Mongolia were included. We determined the capacities of these hospitals to manage medical emergencies. Furthermore, characteristics of patients presenting with potentially life-threatening emergencies to these hospitals were evaluated during a 6 month period...
May 8, 2017: BMC Emergency Medicine
H X Yan, Y Zhen
From 1947 to 1977, the education of Mongolian medicine was developed to a certain degree, in different levels and different forms with attribute of modern education. Through opening training school and class, the traditional Mongolian practitioners and its education are standardized and its levels elevated. In addition, by means of medical colleges and health schools, Mongolian medical talents of different types at different levels were cultivated. All of them were at the forefront of the development of Mongolian medicine later...
March 28, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Shi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Medical History
F Mao, Y Y Jiang, W L Dong, N Ji, J Q Dong
Objective: To understand the 'backward' provinces and the relatively poor work among the construction of National Demonstration Area, so as to promote communication and future visions among different regions. Methods: Methods on Cluster analysis were used to compare the development of National Demonstration Area in different provinces, including the coverage of National Demonstration Area and the scores of non-communicable disease (NCDs) prevention and control work based on a standardized indicating system...
April 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Otgontuya Dugee, Enkhtuya Munaa, Ariuntuya Sakhiya, Ajay Mahal
Although there is increased recognition of the global challenge posed by noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), translating that awareness into resources for action requires better data than typically available in low- and middle-income countries. One middle-income country that does have good-quality information is Mongolia. Using detailed administrative data from Mongolia and supplementary survey-based information, we estimated public spending on four NCDs in Mongolia and reached four main conclusions. First, Mongolia's public spending patterns on NCDs are similar to NCD spending observed in countries with much higher per capita incomes...
May 1, 2017: Health Affairs
Zuber Ismael Hassan, Azad Abdullah Meerkhan, Belgees Boufana, Abdullah A Hama, Bayram Dawod Ahmed, Wijdan Mohammed Salih Mero, Serra Orsten, Maria Interisano, Edoardo Pozio, Adriano Casulli
Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus s.s. is a major public health problem in Iraqi Kurdistan with a reported surgical incidence of 6.3 per 100,000 Arbil inhabitants. A total of 125 Echinococcus isolates retrieved from sheep, goats and cattle were used in this study. Our aim was to determine species/genotypes infecting livestock in Iraqi Kurdistan and examine intraspecific variation and population structure of Echinococcus granulosus s.s. in this region and relate it to that of other regions worldwide...
April 27, 2017: Acta Tropica
Sylvain Richoz, Andre Baldermann, Andreas Frauwallner, Mathias Harzhauser, Gudrun Daxner-Höck, Dietmar Klammer, Werner E Piller
The Valley of Lakes is approximately a 500-km elongate depression in Central Mongolia, where Eocene to Miocene continental sediments are long known for their outstanding fossil richness. The palaeontological record of this region is an exceptional witness for the evolution of mammalian communities during the Cenozoic global cooling and regional aridification. In order to precisely elucidate the climatic evolution of the region, we studied the mostly siliciclastic sediments with several levels of paleosols for their sedimentology, mineralogy, major and trace element composition and δ(13)C and δ(18)O composition...
2017: Paleobiodivers Paleoenviron
Mathias Harzhauser, Gudrun Daxner-Höck, Margarita A Erbajeva, Paloma López-Guerrero, Olivier Maridet, Adriana Oliver, Werner E Piller, Ursula B Göhlich, Reinhard Ziegler
The Taatsiin Gol Basin in Mongolia is a key area for understanding the evolution and dispersal of Central Asian mammal faunas during the Oligocene and early Miocene. After two decades of intense fieldwork, the area is extraordinarily well sampled and taxonomically well studied, yielding a large dataset of 19,042 specimens from 60 samples. The specimens represent 176 species-level and 99 genus-level taxa comprising 135 small mammal species and 47 large mammals. A detailed lithostratigraphy and new magnetostratigraphic and radiometric datings provide an excellent frame for these biotic data...
2017: Paleobiodivers Paleoenviron
Gudrun Daxner-Höck, Demchig Badamgarav, Rinchen Barsbold, Baatarjav Bayarmaa, Margarita Erbajeva, Ursula Bettina Göhlich, Mathias Harzhauser, Eva Höck, Volker Höck, Niiden Ichinnorov, Yondon Khand, Paloma López-Guerrero, Olivier Maridet, Thomas Neubauer, Adriana Oliver, Werner Piller, Khishigjav Tsogtbaatar, Reinhard Ziegler
Cenozoic sediments of the Taatsiin Gol and TaatsiinTsagaan Nuur area are rich in fossils that provide unique evidence of mammal evolution in Mongolia. The strata are intercalated with basalt flows. (40)Ar/(39)Ar data of the basalts frame the time of sediment deposition and mammal evolution and enable a composite age chronology for the studied area. We investigated 20 geological sections and 6 fossil localities of Oligocene and early Miocene deposits from this region. Seventy fossil beds yielded more than 19,000 mammal fossils...
2017: Paleobiodivers Paleoenviron
Paloma López-Guerrero, Olivier Maridet, Gudrun Daxner-Höck
We describe the remains of Aralocricetodon Bendukidze, 1993; Bagacricetodon Gomes Rodrigues et al., 2012; Eocricetodon Wang, 2007; Witenia de Bruijn et al., 2003 and Paracricetodon Schaub, 1925 (Cricetidae, Rodentia, Mammalia) from the Taatsiin Gol and Taatsiin Tsagaan Nuur areas (Mongolia). The studied material (comprising 128 teeth) stems from 9 localities and 23 fossil layers spanning a time interval from ∼33 to ∼24 Ma (early to late Oligocene) and covering the biozones from A to C1. The general dental pattern between the species from the early and late Oligocene differed...
2017: Paleobiodivers Paleoenviron
Olivier Maridet, Gudrun Daxner-Höck, Paloma López-Guerrero, Ursula B Göhlich
The present publication reports new discoveries of Oligocene and early Miocene aplodontid rodents from the Taatsiin Gol area (Valley of Lakes) in Mongolia. The fossil aplodontids recovered in this area are mainly composed of dental remains, some fragmentary jaws plus one partially preserved skull. Aplodontid rodents have been found from the early Oligocene (local biozone A) to the early middle Miocene (local biozone D). Altogether, eight taxa belonging to five genera have been identified in the investigated deposits: Ninamys arboraptus, Ninamys kazimierzi, Promeniscomys cf...
2017: Paleobiodivers Paleoenviron
Margarita Erbajeva, Bayarmaa Baatarjav, Gudrun Daxner-Höck, Lawrence J Flynn
The genus Sinolagomys is an early representative of the family Ochotonidae, appearing first in the late early Oligocene of Central Asia. It is known in China from Shargaltein Tal, Taben Buluk, Ulan Tatal, and northern Junggaria, and a few specimens from Tatal Gol, Mongolia have been published. For most occurrences, the genus is not represented by many specimens. Extensive studies in the Valley of Lakes, Central Mongolia, have produced a large number of sinolagomyin fossils spanning at least 10 million years and belonging to five species: Sinolagomys kansuensis, Sinolagomys major, Sinolagomys gracilis, Sinolagomys ulungurensis, and Sinolagomys badamae sp...
2017: Paleobiodivers Paleoenviron
Kazuhiro Nakayama, Jun Ohashi, Kazuhisa Watanabe, Lkagvasuren Munkhtulga, Sadahiko Iwamoto
Mongols, the founders of the largest continental empire in history, successfully adapted to the harsh environments of Inner Asia through nomadic pastoralism. Considerable interest exists in ascertaining whether genetic adaptation also contributed to the Mongols' success, and dissecting the genome diversity of present-day populations in Mongolia can help address this question. To this end, we determined the genotypes of nearly 2.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 96 unrelated Mongolian individuals in Ulaanbaatar city, and performed genome-wide scans for population-specific positive selection...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
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