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Toxoplasma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448521/immunization-with-toxoplasma-gondii-peroxiredoxin-1-induces-protective-immunity-against-toxoplasmosis-in-mice
#1
Ragab M Fereig, Yasuhiro Kuroda, Mohamad Alaa Terkawi, Motamed Elsayed Mahmoud, Yoshifumi Nishikawa
To develop a vaccine against Toxoplasma gondii, a vaccine antigen with immune-stimulating activity is required. In the present study, we investigated the immunogenicity and prophylactic potential of T. gondii peroxiredoxin 1 (TgPrx1). The TgPrx1 was detected in the ascitic fluid of mice 6 days postinfection, while specific antibody levels were low in the sera of chronically infected mice. Treatment of murine peritoneal macrophages with recombinant TgPrx1 triggered IL-12p40 and IL-6 production, but not IL-10 production...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446567/determination-of-a-key-antigen-for-immunological-intervention-to-target-the-latent-stage-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#2
Qila Sa, Eri Ochiai, Ashish Tiwari, Jeremi Mullins, Nilabh Shastri, Corinne Mercier, Marie-France Cesbron-Delauw, Yasuhiro Suzuki
Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, establishes a chronic infection by forming cysts preferentially in the brain. Up to one third of the human population worldwide is estimated to be chronically infected with this parasite. However, there is currently no drug effective against the cyst form of the parasite. In addition, the protective immunity against the cysts remains largely unknown. We analyzed the molecular mechanisms by which the immune system detects host cells harboring the cysts to eliminate the latent stage of the parasite using mice with the H-2(d) haplotype, which are genetically resistant to the infection...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442117/tuberculosis-toxoplasmosis-co-infection-in-egyptian-patients-a-reciprocal-impact
#3
Mervat Mashaly, Nairmen Nabih, Iman M Fawzy, Abeer A El Henawy
OBJECTIVE: To assess the concurrent toxoplasmosis infection in Egyptian TB patients and the impact of each infection on the other in terms of increased severity of TB or reactivation of latent Toxoplasma infection. METHODS: Three hundred suspected pulmonary TB cases were initially screened for TB using direct Ziehl Neelsen staining and Lowenstein Jensen culture of their sputa. Rifampicin resistance was detected by Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Control group of 30 age and sex-matched healthy individuals negative for TB was included for comparison...
March 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441952/management-of-suspected-primary-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-pregnant-women-in-norway-twenty-years-of-experience-of-amniocentesis-in-a-low-prevalence-population
#4
Gry Findal, Anne Helbig, Guttorm Haugen, Pål A Jenum, Babill Stray-Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Primary infection with Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy may pose a threat to the fetus. Women infected prior to conception are unlikely to transmit the parasite to the fetus. If maternal serology indicates a possible primary infection, amniocentesis for toxoplasma PCR analysis is performed and antiparasitic treatment given. However, discriminating between primary and latent infection is challenging and unnecessary amniocenteses may occur. Procedure-related fetal loss after amniocentesis is of concern...
April 26, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439500/chronic-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-exacerbates-secondary-polymicrobial-sepsis
#5
Maria C Souza, Denise M Fonseca, Alexandre Kanashiro, Luciana Benevides, Tiago S Medina, Murilo S Dias, Warrison A Andrade, Giuliano Bonfá, Marcondes A B Silva, Aline Gozzi, Marcos C Borges, Ricardo T Gazzinelli, José C Alves-Filho, Fernando Q Cunha, João S Silva
Sepsis is a severe syndrome that arises when the host response to an insult is exacerbated, leading to organ failure and frequently to death. How a chronic infection that causes a prolonged Th1 expansion affects the course of sepsis is unknown. In this study, we showed that mice chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii were more susceptible to sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Although T. gondii-infected mice exhibited efficient control of the bacterial burden, they showed increased mortality compared to the control groups...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438315/tgf-%C3%AE-1-improving-abnormal-pregnancy-outcomes-induced-by-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-regulating-nkg2d-dap10-and-killer-subset-of-decidual-nk-cells
#6
Xiaoyan Xu, Jian Zhang, Shaowei Zhan, Zhidan Li, Xianbing Liu, Haixia Zhang, Yuzhu Jiang, Xuemei Hu
Our current aim was to investigate whether injection of TGF-β1 played an important role in improving abnormal pregnancy outcomes with T. gondii infection and how the TGF-β1 regulated. Results showed that TGF-β1 exhibited improved pregnancy outcomes induced by T. gondii infection. dNK cytotoxicity was increased with T. gondii infection while decreased with TGF-β1 treatment. dNK cytotoxicity related NKG2D/DAP10 expression, perforin, granzyme, IFN-γ and killer subsets were all increased with T. gondii infection while decreased after TGF-β1 treatment...
April 18, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437182/first-report-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-common-quails-coturnix-coturnix-intended-for-human-consumption-in-three-provinces-of-northeastern-china
#7
Wei Cong, Wan-Bo Chi, Wu-Wen Sun, Xiao-Feng Shan, Yuan-Huan Kang, Qing-Feng Meng, Ai-Dong Qian
Common quails are nutritious food and are also used as medicine in some parts of the world. Until now, no information on Toxoplasma gondii infection in common quails intended for human consumption in China is available. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in common quails in six cities from Shandong, Liaoning, and Jilin provinces, China. Out of 620 common quails examined, 59 (9.52%) were seropositive for T. gondii by the modified agglutination test. T. gondii infection in male and female common quails was 8...
May 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436740/major-immunodominant-region-of-hepatitis-b-virus-core-antigen-as-a-delivery-vector-to-improve-the-immunogenicity-of-the-fusion-antigen-rop2-sag1-multiepitope-from-toxoplasma-gondii-in-mice
#8
Wenhuan Wang, Fangfang Feng, Jinhui Lv, Zixin Xie, Jun Chen, Lifang Zhang, Wenshu Li
To prepare the dominant multiepitope fusion antigen ROP2-SAG1 (RSmultiepitope) from Toxoplasma gondii in a prokaryotic system, the major immunodominant region (MIR) of the human hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg(MIR)) was used as a delivery vector. The gene encoding the RSmultiepitope was inserted into HBcAg(MIR), and rHBcAg(MIR)-RSmultiepitope was prepared, purified, and administered to BALB/c mice through intradermal injection. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis based on a multiepitope peptide facilitated the specific differentiation of sera obtained from mice immunized with the rHBcAg(MIR)-RSmultiepitope protein, and high titers (greater than 1:6,400) of specific anti-RSmultiepitope antibodies were obtained...
April 24, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436089/a-novel-dense-granule-protein-gra41-regulates-timing-of-egress-and-calcium-sensitivity-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#9
Kaice A LaFavers, Karla M Márquez-Nogueras, Isabelle Coppens, Silvia N J Moreno, Gustavo Arrizabalaga
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite with high seroprevalence in humans. Repeated lytic cycles of invasion, replication and egress drive both the propagation and the virulence of this parasite. Key steps in this cycle, including invasion and egress, depend on tightly regulated calcium fluxes and, while many of the calcium-dependent effectors have been identified, the factors that detect and regulate the calcium fluxes are mostly unknown. To address this knowledge gap, we used a forward genetic approach to isolate mutants resistant to extracellular exposure to the calcium ionophore A23187...
April 24, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435763/toxoplasma-infection-in-an-immunocompetent-host-possible-risk-of-living-with-multiple-cats
#10
Halis Kaan Akturk, David Sotello, Allen Ameri, Ahmed S Abuzaid, Ana Marcella Rivas, Priyanka Vashisht
A 32-year-old man presented with agitation, headache, and confusion. He was immunocompetent and had been living with multiple cats for many years. His vital signs were stable. He was afebrile. Multiple blood tests did not show any serious problem. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple ring-enhancing white matter lesions. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis did not show any signs of infection. Based on a presumptive diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, high-dose corticosteroid treatment was started. However, this caused worsening of the symptoms and increased the size of the lesions...
March 19, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434971/prevalence-and-genetic-characterization-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-badgers-melogale-moschata-in-southern-china-by-pcr-rflp
#11
Kai Chen, Si-Yang Huang, Jin-Lei Wang, Rong-Liang Hu, Qiu-Xia Yao, Shou-Feng Zhang, Xing-Quan Zhu, Quan Liu
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite which is able to infect almost all warm-blooded animals. There is no information about the prevalence and genetic characterization of T. gondii in badgers (Melogale moschata) in China. Here, a total of 367 badgers were captured from different cities in Jiangxi province, Southern China. Genomic DNA was extracted from brain tissues of each badgers, and 57 (15.45%) of them were positive for T. gondii by semi-nested PCR of the B1 gene. The positive DNA samples were typed at 11 genetic markers, including 10 nuclear loci (SAG1, 5'-SAG2 and 3'-SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1) and an apicoplast locus (Apico), with multilocus polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technology...
April 20, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434050/prevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-hiv-infected-patients-and-food-animals-and-direct-genotyping-of-t-gondii-isolates-southern-ghana
#12
Faustina Pappoe, Weisheng Cheng, Lin Wang, Yuanling Li, Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Samuel Victor Nuvor, Henock Ambachew, Xiaodong Hu, Qingli Luo, Deyong Chu, Yuanhong Xu, Jilong Shen
Toxoplasma gondii is of public health and veterinary importance causing severe diseases in immunocompromised individuals including HIV/AIDS patients and in congenital cases and animals. There is limited information on the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in humans, particularly HIV patients and food animals and the parasite genotypes in Ghana. A total of 394 HIV-infected patients from three hospitals were screened for T. gondii anti-IgG and IgM using ELISA. DNAs from blood samples of seropositve participants and 95 brain tissues of food animals were PCR assayed to detect Toxoplasma gra6...
April 22, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433574/serodiagnosis-of-toxoplasmosis-the-effect-of-measurement-of-igg-avidity-in-pregnant-women-in-rabat-in-morocco
#13
Majda Laboudi, Abderrahim Sadak
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women during the early first trimester of pregnancy is very important for preventing congenital infection of the fetus; it will not only prevent the risk of transmitting the infection to the fetus but it will also enable to give these women a preventive treatment. In this study, the avidity test was performed on pregnant women during their first prenatal visit at the National Institute of Hygiene in Rabat, Morocco. FINDINGS: One hundred and twenty-eight sera samples were collected from 128 pregnant women between august 2015 and June 2016; these women were chosen retrospectively and were in their first 4 months of pregnancy...
April 19, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433405/epidemiology-of-toxoplasma-gondii-among-blood-donors-in-iran-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Akram Mansouri, Mohammad Reza Adhami Mojarad, Gholamreza Badfar, Lila Abasian, Shoboo Rahmati, Wesam Kooti, Mohammad Hossein YektaKooshali, Ali Soleymani, Milad Azami
INTRODUCTION: Asymptomatic Toxoplasma gondii transmitted from blood donors to receiving patients has become a concern. Numerous articles have been published on the epidemiology of T. gondii in blood donors in Iran and a systematic review of the results shows quite different findings, hence this study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in Iranian blood donors using meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched for epidemiological studies that were published until July 2016 in eight English databases including: Scopus, PubMed, Ovid, Science Direct, Cochrane, Web of Science, Springer, Wiley Online Library, and four Iranian databases: Magiran, Iranmedex, SID and Medlib as well as Google Scholar...
March 29, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432838/are-poikilothermic-animals-real-hosts-for-toxoplasma-gondii
#15
Henryka Długońska
The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is believed to be a common parasite of almost all endothermic animals and humans. However, recent reports of toxoplasmosis in marine mammals raise concern that cold-blooded animals may also be a potential source of T. gondii infection. The article discusses the presence of T. gondii in aquatic and terrestrial poikilothermic animals, which may be important elements in the transmission of the parasite.
2017: Annals of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430827/dual-role-of-the-toxoplasma-gondii-clathrin-adaptor-ap1-in-the-sorting-of-rhoptry-and-microneme-proteins-and-in-parasite-division
#16
Kannan Venugopal, Elisabeth Werkmeister, Nicolas Barois, Jean-Michel Saliou, Anais Poncet, Ludovic Huot, Fabien Sindikubwabo, Mohamed Ali Hakimi, Gordon Langsley, Frank Lafont, Sabrina Marion
Toxoplasma gondii possesses a highly polarized secretory system, which efficiently assembles de novo micronemes and rhoptries during parasite replication. These apical secretory organelles release their contents into host cells promoting parasite invasion and survival. Using a CreLox-based inducible knock-out strategy and the ddFKBP over-expression system, we unraveled novel functions of the clathrin adaptor complex TgAP1. First, our data indicate that AP1 in T. gondii likely functions as a conserved heterotetrameric complex composed of the four subunits γ, β, μ1, σ1 and interacts with known regulators of clathrin-mediated vesicular budding such as the unique ENTH-domain containing protein, which we named Epsin-like protein (TgEpsL)...
April 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428784/the-roles-of-mast-cells-in-parasitic-protozoan-infections
#17
REVIEW
Fangli Lu, Shiguang Huang
Protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium spp., Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma spp., and Toxoplasma gondii are major causes of parasitic diseases in both humans and animals. The immune system plays a critical role against protozoa, but their immune mechanism remains poorly understood. This highlights the need to investigate the function of immune cells involved in the process of parasite infections and the responses of host immune system to parasite infections. Mast cells (MCs) are known to be central players in allergy and anaphylaxis, and it has been demonstrated that MCs have crucial roles in host defense against a number of different pathogens, including parasites...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426411/toxoplasma-gondii-in-backyard-pigs-seroepidemiology-and-mouse-bioassay
#18
Erika Fernanda Torres Samico-Fernandes, Marcela Fernanda Torres Samico-Fernandes, Pedro Paulo Feitosa de Albuquerque, Jonatas Campos de Almeida, André de Souza Santos, André da Rocha Mota, Orestes Luiz de Souza Neto, Rinaldo Aparecido Mota
The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii in backyard pigs destined for human consumption in Pernambuco state, Brazil. Blood and tissue samples (liver, heart, brain, lung and diaphragm) were collected from 224 pigs from legal slaughterhouses and tested for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in the sera of 37.9% (85/224) by using the immunofluorescence antibody test (cut-off - 1:64). Tissue samples from seropositive pigs were bioassayed in mice. Tissue samples from seropositive pigs and from mice of the bioassay were submitted to histopathology, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing; 14...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424687/cd103-cd8-t-cells-in-the-toxoplasma-infected-brain-exhibit-a-tissue-resident-memory-transcriptional-profile
#19
Tyler A Landrith, Suhas Sureshchandra, Andrea Rivera, Jessica C Jang, Maham Rais, Meera G Nair, Ilhem Messaoudi, Emma H Wilson
During chronic infection, memory T cells acquire a unique phenotype and become dependent on different survival signals than those needed for memory T cells generated during an acute infection. The distinction between the role of effector and memory T cells in an environment of persistent antigen remains unclear. Here, in the context of chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection, we demonstrate that a population of CD8 T cells exhibiting a tissue-resident memory (TRM) phenotype accumulates within the brain. We show that this population is distributed throughout the brain in both parenchymal and extraparenchymal spaces...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424680/induction-of-protective-immunity-against-toxoplasma-gondii-in-mice-by-nucleoside-triphosphate-hydrolase-ii-ntpase-ii-self-amplifying-rna-vaccine-encapsulated-in-lipid-nanoparticle-lnp
#20
Fangjun Luo, Lina Zheng, Yue Hu, Shuxian Liu, Yan Wang, Zhongkui Xiong, Xin Hu, Feng Tan
RNA-based vaccine represents an irresistible and safe immunization strategy with decreasing theoretical risks of genomic integration and malignant cell transformation. To our knowledge, however, there is no report about development of RNA vaccine against Toxoplasma gondii infection. We have previously demonstrated that the recombinant T. gondii nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase-II (NTPase-II) protein is able to provide protective Th1 cell-mediated immunity against T. gondii. Herein, we evaluated the immunogenic potential of a self-amplifying RNA vaccine-encoding T...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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