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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335576/genome-wide-identification-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-sarcocystis-neurona-protein-kinases
#1
Edwin K Murungi, Henry M Kariithi
The apicomplexan parasite Sarcocystis neurona causes equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a degenerative neurological disease of horses. Due to its host range expansion, S. neurona is an emerging threat that requires close monitoring. In apicomplexans, protein kinases (PKs) have been implicated in a myriad of critical functions, such as host cell invasion, cell cycle progression and host immune response evasion. Here, we used various bioinformatics methods to define the kinome of S. neurona and phylogenetic relatedness of its PKs to other apicomplexans...
March 21, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331073/stability-and-function-of-a-putative-microtubule-organizing-center-in-the-human-parasite-toxoplasma-gondii
#2
Jacqueline M Leung, Yudou He, Fangliang Zhang, Yu-Chen Hwang, Eiji Nagayasu, Jun Liu, John M Murray, Ke Hu
The organization of the microtubule cytoskeleton is dictated by microtubule nucleators or organizing centers.  Toxoplasma gondii, an important human parasite, has an array of 22 regularly spaced cortical microtubules stemming from a hypothesized organizing center, the apical polar ring. Here, we examine the functions of the apical polar ring by characterizing two of its components, KinesinA and APR1, and discovered that its putative role in templating can be separated from its mechanical stability. Parasites that lack both KinesinA and APR1 (ΔkinesinAΔapr1) are capable of generating 22 cortical microtubules...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330745/the-toxoplasma-parasitophorous-vacuole-an-evolving-host-parasite-frontier
#3
REVIEW
Barbara Clough, Eva-Maria Frickel
The parasitophorous vacuole is a unique replicative niche for apicomplexan parasites, including Toxoplasma gondii. Derived from host plasma membrane, the vacuole is rendered nonfusogenic with the host endolysosomal system. Toxoplasma secretes numerous proteins to modify the forming vacuole, enable nutrient uptake, and set up mechanisms of host subversion. Here we describe the pathways of host-parasite interaction at the parasitophorous vacuole employed by Toxoplasma and host, leading to the intricate balance of host defence versus parasite survival...
March 19, 2017: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330485/prevalence-of-helminth-and-coccidian-parasites-in-swedish-outdoor-cats-and-the-first-report-of-aelurostrongylus-abstrusus-in-sweden-a-coprological-investigation
#4
Giulio Grandi, Arianna Comin, Osama Ibrahim, Roland Schaper, Ulrika Forshell, Eva Osterman Lind
BACKGROUND: This study was performed in order to gather recent epidemiological data on feline endoparasites in Swedish cats. Faecal samples from 205 outdoor cats were collected by their owners and submitted to the National Veterinary Institute for analysis. The study population was comprised of cats with access to an outdoor environment and with no history of anthelmintic treatment within the last 3 months. Intestinal parasites were detected with a centrifugal flotation technique and Baermann larval sedimentation was performed to detect metastrongylid lungworms...
March 23, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328183/seroprevalence-of-bartonella-species-coxiella-burnetii-and-toxoplasma-gondii-among-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-a-pilot-study-in-romania
#5
C J Messinger, E S Gurzau, E B Breitschwerdt, C I Tomuleasa, S J Trufan, M M Flonta, R G Maggi, I B Neagoe, P M Rabinowitz
Patients receiving immunosuppressive cancer treatments in settings where there is a high degree of human-animal interaction may be at increased risk for opportunistic zoonotic infections or reactivation of latent infections. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of selected zoonotic pathogens among patients diagnosed with haematologic malignancies and undergoing chemotherapeutic treatments in Romania, where much of the general population lives and/or works in contact with livestock. A convenience sample of 51 patients with haematologic cancer undergoing chemotherapy at a referral clinic in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, was surveyed regarding animal exposures...
March 22, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328108/ex-vivo-infection-of-human-placental-chorionic-villi-explants-with-trypanosoma-cruzi-and-toxoplasma-gondii-induces-different-toll-like-receptor-expression-and-cytokine-chemokine-profiles
#6
Christian Castillo, Lorena Muñoz, Ileana Carrillo, Ana Liempi, Christian Gallardo, Norbel Galanti, Juan Diego Maya, Ulrike Kemmerling
PROBLEM: Trypanosoma cruzi and Toxoplasma gondii present, respectively, low and high congenital transmission rates. The placenta as an immune regulatory organ expresses TLRs, leading to the secretion of cytokines. Both parasites are recognized by TLR-2, TLR-4, and TLR-9. Here, we studied if the parasites induce differences in TLR protein expression, cytokine profiles, and whether receptor inhibition is related to parasite infection. METHOD OF STUDY: Placental tissue explants were infected ex vivo with each parasite, TLRs protein expression, cytokine profile and parasite infection were determined by Western blotting, ELISA and qPCR...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328099/an-icosahedral-virus-as-a-fluorescent-calibration-standard-a-method-for-counting-protein-molecules-in-cells-by-fluorescence-microscopy
#7
John M Murray
The ability to replace genes coding for cellular proteins with DNA that codes for fluorescent protein-tagged versions opens the way to counting the number of molecules of each protein component of macromolecular assemblies in vivo by measuring fluorescence microscopically. Converting fluorescence to absolute numbers of molecules requires a fluorescent standard whose molecular composition is known precisely. In this report, the construction, properties and mode of using a set of fluorescence calibration standards are described...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327879/antibodies-against-apicomplexa-protozoa-and-absence-sarcocysts-in-heart-tissues-from-horses-in-southern-brazil
#8
Luiza Pires Portella, Gustavo Cauduro Cadore, Luis Antonio Sangioni, Luiz Fernando Vilani Pellegrini, Rafael Fighera, Fernanda Ramos, Fernanda Silveira Flores Vogel
Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Toxoplasma gondii are Apicomplexa protozoa that can infect horses. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of antibodies against Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and T. gondii in horses slaughtered in southern Brazil. The presence of histological lesions, tissue cysts, and Sarcocystis spp. DNA in the hearts of these horses was also investigated. A total of 197 paired serum and heart samples were evaluated by serology and direct microscopic examination; 50 of these samples were subjected to histopathological and PCR analyses...
March 16, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326085/dectin-1-compromises-innate-responses-and-host-resistance-against-neospora-caninum-infection
#9
Murilo Vieira da Silva, Flávia Batista Ferreira França, Caroline Martins Mota, Arlindo Gomes de Macedo Júnior, Eliézer Lucas Pires Ramos, Fernanda Maria Santiago, José Roberto Mineo, Tiago Wilson Patriarca Mineo
Neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan parasite that has drawn increasing interest due to its association with worldwide repetitive bovine abortions, which cause billionaire losses to the meat and dairy industries annually. Innate immunity plays an important role in infection control, and N. caninum activates the production of inflammatory mediators through toll-like receptors, NOD-like receptors, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Advances in the knowledge of initial host-parasite interactions are desirable for the design of control measures against the infection, obliterating its pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323833/lactate-dehydrogenase-in-toxoplasma-gondii-controls-virulence-bradyzoite-differentiation-and-chronic-infection
#10
Abdelbaset E Abdelbaset, Barbara A Fox, Mohamed H Karram, Mahmoud R Abd Ellah, David J Bzik, Makoto Igarashi
In the asexual stages, Toxoplasma gondii stage converts between acute phase rapidly replicating tachyzoites and chronic phase slowly dividing bradyzoites. Correspondingly, T. gondii differentially expresses two distinct genes and isoforms of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme, expressing LDH1 exclusively in the tachyzoite stage and LDH2 preferentially in the bradyzoite stage. LDH catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate in anaerobic growth conditions and is utilized for energy supply, however, the precise role of LDH1 and LDH2 in parasite biology in the asexual stages is still unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323244/itraq-based-differential-proteomic-analysis-in-mongolian-gerbil-brains-chronically-infected-with-toxoplasma-gondii
#11
Lin Lv, Yapei Wang, Weili Feng, Jorge A Hernandez, Wanyi Huang, Yuxiang Zheng, Xue Zhou, Shumei Lv, Yajun Chen, Zi-Guo Yuan
The aim of our study was to detect differentially regulated proteins and specific signaling pathways in Mongolian gerbil brains during chronic Toxoplasma gondii (T.gondii) PRU strain infection. We use a iTRAQ-based strategy to detecte 4935 proteins, out of which 110 proteins were differentially expressed (>/=2.0-fold, p value <0.05) when the brain of gerbils infected with T.gondii was compared to control brain tissues. We confirmed the authenticity and the accuracy of iTRAQ results through quantitative real-time PCR and western blot (WB), which was consistent with mass spectrometry analysis...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322721/seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-domestic-cats-in-central-china
#12
Shuai Wang, Yonghua Zhou, Jingyuan Niu, Qing Xie, Tingwei Xiao, Yunchao Chen, Han Li, Chenchen Ma, Haizhu Zhang, Shiguo Liu, Zhenchao Zhang
To investigate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic cats in central China, 843 serum samples were collected in Henan province between March 2015 and May 2016 and tested for IgG antibodies against T. gondii using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was 21% (178/843). No significant difference was observed based on the sex of cats (p > 0.05). Significantly higher seroprevalence (p < 0.05) was observed in mixed-breed cats (24%) compared to purebred cats (17%)...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322189/toxoplasma-gondii-f-actin-forms-an-extensive-filamentous-network-required-for-material-exchange-and-parasite-maturation
#13
Javier Periz, Jamie Whitelaw, Clare Harding, Simon Gras, Mario Igor Del Rosario Minina, Fernanda Latorre-Barragan, Leandro Lemgruber, Madita Alice Reimer, Robert Insall, Aoife Heaslip, Markus Meissner
Apicomplexan actin is important during the parasite's life cycle. Its polymerization kinetics are unusual, permitting only short, unstable F-actin filaments. It has not been possible to study actin in vivo and so its physiological roles have remained obscure, leading to models distinct from conventional actin behaviour. Here a modified version of the commercially available Actin-Chromobody® was tested as a novel tool for visualising F-actin dynamics in Toxoplasma gondii. Cb labels filamentous actin structures within the parasite cytosol and labels an extensive F-actin network that connects parasites within the parasitophorous vacuole and allows vesicles to be exchanged between parasites...
March 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321492/anti-toxoplasma-antibodies-in-egyptian-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients
#14
Abeer A El-Henawy, Eman Abdel Razek Hafez, Nairmen Nabih, Naglaa M Shalaby, Mervat Mashaly
OBJECTIVE: To assess seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies; both IgG and IgM in Egyptian rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients versus a non-RA group and to compare anti-Toxoplasma antibodies seroprevalence among RA patients receiving traditional treatment and RA patients treated with biologic drug. METHODS: 60 RA patients and 60 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Patients were categorized into two groups: one group included 30 patients receiving disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), while the other group included 30 patients receiving biologic agent, infliximab, a TNF-α antagonist...
March 20, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318381/seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-american-black-bears-ursus-americanus-of-the-central-appalachians-usa
#15
John J Cox, Sean M Murphy, Ben C Augustine, Joseph M Guthrie, John T Hast, Sutton C Maehr, Joseph McDermott
We assessed Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in 53 free-ranging American black bears ( Ursus americanus ) in the Central Appalachian Mountains, US. Seroprevalence was 62% with no difference between males and females or between juvenile and adult bears. Wildlife agencies should consider warnings in hunter education programs to reduce the chances for human infection from this source.
March 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317026/toxoplasma-gondii-ap2ix-4-regulates-gene-expression-during-bradyzoite-development
#16
Sherri Huang, Michael J Holmes, Joshua B Radke, Dong-Pyo Hong, Ting-Kai Liu, Michael W White, William J Sullivan
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite of great importance to human and animal health. In the host, this obligate intracellular parasite persists as a tissue cyst that is imperceptible to the immune response and unaffected by current therapies. The tissue cysts facilitate transmission through predation and give rise to chronic cycles of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients. Transcriptional changes accompany conversion of the rapidly replicating tachyzoites into the encysted bradyzoites, and yet the mechanisms underlying these alterations in gene expression are not well defined...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316427/evaluation-of-toxoplasma-gondii-soluble-whole-and-excretory-secretary-antigens-for-diagnosis-of-toxoplasmosis-by-elisa-test
#17
S Pishkari, S Shojaee, H Keshavarz, M Salimi, M Mohebali
The present study was performed to compare the soluble, whole and excretory/secretary antigens of Toxoplasma gondii (RH strain) in diagnosis of toxoplasmosis by ELISA method. Tachyzoites of T. gondii, RH strain were injected in intra-peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice, after 4 days tachyzoites were harvested by peritoneal washing of the mice. For soluble antigen, exudates were centrifuged and sediment sonicated and then centrifuged at 4 °C, 1 h, supernatant collected and density of protein determined by Bradford method...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316418/seroepidemiology-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-pregnant-women-in-west-iran-determined-by-elisa-and-pcr-analysis
#18
Gholam Reza Ahmadpour, Behrouz Ezatpour, Ramtin Hadighi, Hormoz Oormazdi, Lame Akhlaghi, Fatemeh Tabatabaei, Mehdi Azami, Mozafar Mohammadi Nejad, Hossein Mahmoudvand
Congenital toxoplasmosis can lead to severe damage for the fetus and newborn. Considering that the seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection in the pregnant women is poorly studied in west of Iran, the main objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence and potential risk factors for congenital toxoplasmosis in Delfan, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, the serum samples obtained from pregnant women who were referred to health centers for routine monitoring of the pregnancy. Totally, 264 sera were screened for IgG and IgM anti-T...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316413/detection-and-genotyping-of-toxoplasma-gondii-isolated-from-soil-in-ahvaz-southwest-of-iran
#19
J Saki, S Khademvatan, E Yousefi, M Tavalla, R Abdizadeh
To detection and genotype of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from soil in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran. Between August 2011 and May 2012 at different sites located in the area of the Ahvaz city south west Iran. A total of 200 soil samples were taken from different points of the region. Oocysts were recovered using the flotation method. Then, PCR reactions targeting the GRA6 gene were performed for specific T. gondii detection. The positive samples were studied by RFLP (random amplified fragment length polymorphism) using MseI enzymes to confirm the parasite linage...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315671/spatial-distribution-of-soil-contaminated-with-toxoplasma-gondii-oocysts-in-relation-to-the-distribution-and-use-of-domestic-cat-defecation-sites-on-dairy-farms
#20
J A Simon, S Kurdzielewicz, E Jeanniot, E Dupuis, F Marnef, D Aubert, I Villena, M-L Poulle
Little information is available on the relationship between the spatial distribution of zoonotic parasites in soil and the pattern of hosts' faeces deposition at a local scale. In this study, the spatial distribution of soil contaminated by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii was investigated in relation to the distribution and use of the defecation sites of its definitive host, the domestic cat (Felis catus). The study was conducted on six dairy farms with a high number of cats (seven to 30 cats). During regular visits to the farms over a 10month period, the cat population and cat defecation sites (latrines and sites of scattered faeces) on each farm were systematically surveyed...
March 16, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
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