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Somayeh Bahrami, Ali Shahriari, Mehdi Tavalla, Somayeh Azadmanesh, Hossein Hamidinejat
Toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic infection in the world. Since increased free radicals and oxidative stress are reported in many parasitic diseases the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative stress in acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. RH strains of Toxoplasma tachyzoites were used in the present study. Twenty-five female rats were infected with the parasite while 25 other rats were as the control group that received normal saline. Zero-, 5-, 7-, 10-, and 45-day postinfection (DPI) blood samples were taken...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Christelle Pomares, Tyson H Holmes, Remy Estran, Cynthia J Press, Raymund Ramirez, Jeanne Talucod, Holden Maecker, Yael Rosenberg-Hasson, Jose G Montoya
INTRODUCTION: Majority of Toxoplasma gondii infections are benign and asymptomatic; however, some patients experience toxoplasmic lymphadenitis (TL). Factors associated as to whether infection will be symptomatic or not are unknown. METHODS: Dye test titers of patients with acute toxoplasmosis (pregnant and not pregnant) with TL (TL+) were compared with those in patients with asymptomatic acute infection (TL-). Additionally, mean levels of 62 serum cytokines were compared between TL+ and TL- pregnant women and between TL+ pregnant and non-pregnant women...
October 13, 2016: Cytokine
Cristina Silva Meira-Strejevitch, Vera Lucia Pereira-Chioccola, Marta Marques Maia, Daise Damaris Carnietto de Hipólito, Hui-Tzu Lin Wang, Gabriela Motoie, Aparecida Helena de Souza Gomes, Cristina Takami Kanamura, Roosecelis Brasil Martines, Cinara Cássia Brandão de Mattos, Fábio Batista Frederico, Luiz Carlos de Mattos, Cinara Cássia Brandão de Mattos, Fábio Batista Frederico, Rubens Camargo Siqueira, Mariana Previato, Amanda Pires Barbosa, Fernando Henrique Antunes Murata
This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at
October 12, 2016: Gene
Xiu-Zhen Li, Lin Lv, Xu Zhang, Kenneth Yongabi Anchang, Auwalu Yusuf Abdullahi, Liqing Tu, Xiaohu Wang, Lijun Xia, Xiu-Xiang Zhang, Weili Feng, Chunxia Lu, Shoujun Li, Zi-Guo Yuan
We previously demonstrated that the survival time of BALB/c mice challenged with Toxoplasma gondii RH strain was prolonged by immunising the mice with a eukaryotic vector expressing the protein ROP16 of T. gondii. Building upon previous findings, we are exploring improved vaccination strategies to enhance protection. In this work, a novel recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 expressing ROP16 (CAV-2-ROP16) of T. gondii was constructed and identified to express ROP16 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) cells by western blot (WB) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) assays...
October 11, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Claudia Del Grande, Carlo Contini, Elisa Schiavi, Grazia Rutigliano, Martina Maritati, Silva Seraceni, Barbara Pinto, Liliana Dell'Osso, Fabrizio Bruschi
Recent evidence suggests the involvement of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the emergence of psychotic and affective disorders. In this report, we describe the case of a young Brazilian woman affected by recurrent ocular toxoplasmosis and presenting with a manic episode with psychotic features in the context of a diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (BD), type I. We observed a relationship between ocular manifestations and the clinical course of bipolar illness, confirmed by molecular analyses (nested-PCR), as well as by the high level of T...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Kayode K Ojo, Sriveny Dangoudoubiyam, Shiv K Verma, Suzanne Scheele, Amy E DeRocher, Michelle Yeargan, Ryan Choi, Tess R Smith, Kasey L Rivas, Matthew A Hulverson, Lynn K Barrett, Erkang Fan, Dustin J Maly, Marilyn Parsons, Jitender P Dubey, Daniel K Howe, Wesley C Van Voorhis
Sarcocystis neurona is the most frequent cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, a debilitating neurological disease of horses that can be difficult to treat. We identified SnCDPK1, the S. neurona homologue of calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1), a validated drug target in Toxoplasma gondii. SnCDPK1 shares the glycine "gatekeeper" residue of the well-characterized T. gondii enzyme, which allows the latter to be targeted by bumped kinase inhibitors. This study presents detailed molecular and phenotypic evidence that SnCDPK1 can be targeted for rational drug development...
October 8, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Dolores E Hill, Jitender P Dubey
Foodborne infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and foodborne parasitic diseases, though not as widespread as bacterial and viral infections, are common on all continents and in most ecosystems, including arctic, temperate, and tropical regions. Outbreaks of disease resulting from foodstuffs contaminated by parasitic protozoa have become increasingly recognized as a problem in the United States and globally. Increased international trade in food products has made movement of these organisms across national boundaries more frequent, and the risks associated with infections have become apparent in nations with well-developed food safety apparatus in place...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
L Ene, T D Marcotte, A Umlauf, C Grancea, A Temereanca, A Bharti, C L Achim, S Letendre, S M Ruta
We evaluated the impact of latent toxoplasmosis (LT) on neurocognitive (NC) and neurobehavioural functioning in young adults with and without chronic HIV infection, using a standardised NC test battery, self-reported Beck Depression Inventory, Frontal System Behavior Scale, MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and risk-assessment battery. 194 young adults (median age 24years, 48.2% males) with chronic HIV infection (HIV+) since childhood and 51 HIV seronegative (HIV-) participants were included. HIV+ individuals had good current immunological status (median CD4: 479 cells/μl) despite a low CD4 nadir (median: 93 cells/μl)...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Brian Lassen, Marilin Janson, Arvo Viltrop, Kädi Neare, Pirje Hütt, Irina Golovljova, Lea Tummeleht, Pikka Jokelainen
We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children aged 14-18, 158 veterinarians, 375 animal caretakers, and 144 hunters were tested for specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against the selected parasites using commercial enzyme immunoassays (ELISA). Sera yielding positive or twice grey zone Echinococcus spp, T...
2016: PloS One
Cem Ozgonul, Cagri Giray Besirli
Ocular toxoplasmosis, a chorioretinal infection with Toxoplasma gondii, is the most common etiology of posterior uveitis in many countries. Accurate diagnosis depends heavily on the characteristic clinical features of this disease, but atypical presentations, especially in immunocompromised patients, may create diagnostic challenges and lead to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. Molecular biology techniques to diagnose ocular toxoplasmosis have been available for many years and are now accessible as standard laboratory tests in many countries...
October 11, 2016: Ophthalmic Research
Anuradha Basavaraju
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite presenting as a zoonotic infection distributed worldwide. In HIV-positive individuals, it causes severe opportunistic infections, which is of major public health concern as it results in physical and psychological disabilities. In healthy immunocompetent individuals, it causes asymptomatic chronic persistent infections, but in immunosuppressed patients, there is reactivation of the parasite if the CD4 counts fall below 200 cells/μl. The seroprevalence rates are variable in different geographic areas...
July 2016: Tropical Parasitology
Sarman Singh
Toxoplasmosis is caused by a coccidian parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. The parasite is highly prevalent both in humans and in warm-blooded animals. Cat family animals are definitive host, and these animals excrete the infective oocysts in their feces. Humans, though not definitive host, get infection by consuming water or food contaminated with cat feces. Rarely, infection can also take place through transfusing the infected blood, through transplantation of infected organs, or transplacentally from infected mother to fetus...
July 2016: Tropical Parasitology
Cristina Rostkowska, Caroline M Mota, Taísa C Oliveira, Fernanda M Santiago, Lilian A Oliveira, Gaspar H Korndörfer, Regina M Q Lana, Monica L Rossi, Neusa L Nogueira, Xavier Simonnet, Tiago W P Mineo, Deise A O Silva, José R Mineo
Artemisia annua is used as a source of artemisinin, a potent therapeutic agent used for the treatment of infectious diseases, chiefly malaria. However, the low concentration (from 0.01 to 1.4% of dried leaf matter) of artemisinin in the plant obtained with the traditional cropping system makes it a relatively expensive drug, especially in developing countries. Considering that artemisinin and silicon (Si) are both stored in A. annua glandular trichomes, and that Si accumulation has never been investigated, this study aimed to look into Si effects on A...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Daria L Ivanova, Rida Fatima, Jason P Gigley
Conventional natural killer (cNK) cells, members of group 1 innate lymphoid cells, are a diverse cell subpopulation based on surface receptor expression, maturation, and functional potential. cNK cells are critical for early immunity to Toxoplasma gondii via IFNγ production. Acute cNK cell responses to infection with different strains of T. gondii have not yet been characterized in detail. Here, we comprehensively performed this analysis with Type I virulent RH, Type II avirulent ME49, and fully attenuated Type I cps1-1 strains...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
J Flegr, D Q Escudero
The global seroprevalence of latent toxoplasmosis is estimated to be higher than 30%. The presence of slowly dividing parasites in tissue cysts located mainly in immunoprivileged organs was long considered asymptomatic. Recently, many studies have shown that latent Toxoplasma infections could have serious impacts on human health. Here we ran a cross-sectional study in a population of 1486 volunteers. The results showed that 333 infected subjects scored worse than 1153 controls in 28 of 29 health-related variables...
October 10, 2016: Parasitology
Zhuanzhuan Liu, Litian Yin, Yaqing Li, Fei Yuan, Xiaofan Zhang, Jiazhi Ma, Hongmei Liu, Yanjuan Wang, Kuiyang Zheng, Jianping Cao
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan closely associated with AIDS and vertical transmission. T. gondii actin depolymerizing factor (TgADF) plays an important role in actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and it is required to invade host cells. TgADF was a promising vaccine candidate. To observe the immunological changes and protective efficacy of recombinant TgADF protein (rTgADF) against T. gondii infection, we optimized the intranasal immunization dose of rTgADF and analyzed the survival rate and tachyzoite loads in mouse tissues after oral challenge with T...
October 6, 2016: BMC Immunology
Bang Shen, Kevin Brown, Shaojun Long, L David Sibley
Efficient and site-specific alteration of the genome is key to decoding and altering the genomic information of an organism. Over the last couple of years, the RNA-guided Cas9 nucleases derived from the prokaryotic type 2 CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) systems have drastically improved our ability to engineer the genomes of a variety of organisms including Toxoplasma gondii. In this chapter, we describe detailed protocols for using the CRISPR/Cas9 system adapted from Streptococcus pyogenes to perform efficient genetic manipulations in T...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Maria João Gargaté, Idalina Ferreira, Anabela Vilares, Susana Martins, Carlos Cardoso, Susana Silva, Baltazar Nunes, João Paulo Gomes
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan infecting up to one-third of the world's population, constituting a life threat if transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy. In Portugal, there is a lack of knowledge of the current epidemiological situation, as the unique toxoplasmosis National Serological Survey was performed in 1979/1980. METHODS: We studied the seroprevalence trends in the Portuguese general population over the past 3 decades, by assessing chronological spread cross-sectional studies, with special focus on women of childbearing age, by age group, region and gender...
October 5, 2016: BMJ Open
Fiona M Menzies, David Macphail, Fiona L Henriquez
Protists are a diverse collection of eukaryotic organisms that account for a significant global infection burden. Often, the immune responses mounted against these parasites cause excessive inflammation and therefore pathology in the host. Elucidating the mechanisms of both protective and harmful immune responses is complex, and often relies of the use of animal models. In any immune response, leucocyte trafficking to the site of infection, or inflammation, is paramount, and this involves the production of chemokines, small chemotactic cytokines of approximately 8-10 kDa in size, which bind to specific chemokine receptors to induce leucocyte movement...
October 6, 2016: Parasitology
Rogério Fernando de Jesus, Gabriel Menezes Rodrigues, Evandro Moraes Silva, Aroldo José Borges Carneiro, Carlos Roberto Franke, Rogério de Magalhães Cunha, Luís Fernando Pita Gondim
Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are widespread cyst-forming coccidian parasites of the subfamily Toxoplasmatinae that infect a wide range of wild and domestic animals. Whereas T. gondii is a zoonotic disease, N. caninum is restricted to nonhuman animals. Some chiropteran species can be infected by T. gondii and present fatal toxoplasmosis. In most cases, T. gondii -infected bats are believed to remain asymptomatic and to act as an infection source to other animals. It is not known whether N. caninum can infect bats...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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