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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543850/structures-and-kinetics-for-plant-nucleoside-triphosphate-diphosphohydrolases-ntpdases-support-a-domain-motion-catalytic-mechanism
#1
Emma L Summers, Mathew H Cumming, Tifany Oulavallickal, Nick Roberts, Vickery L Arcus
Extracellular nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDases) are enzymes that hydrolyse extracellular nucleotides to the respective monophosphate nucleotides. In the past 20 years, NTPDases belonging to mammalian, parasitic and prokaryotic domains of life have been discovered, cloned and characterized. We reveal the first structures of NTPDases from the legume plant species Trifolium repens (7WC) and Vigna unguiculata subsp. cylindrica (DbLNP). Four crystal structures of 7WC and DbLNP were determined at resolutions between 1...
May 24, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540488/an-18s-rrna-workflow-for-characterizing-protists-in-sewage-with-a-focus-on-zoonotic-trichomonads
#2
Julia M Maritz, Krysta H Rogers, Tara M Rock, Nicole Liu, Susan Joseph, Kirkwood M Land, Jane M Carlton
Microbial eukaryotes (protists) are important components of terrestrial and aquatic environments, as well as animal and human microbiomes. Their relationships with metazoa range from mutualistic to parasitic and zoonotic (i.e., transmissible between humans and animals). Despite their ecological importance, our knowledge of protists in urban environments lags behind that of bacteria, largely due to a lack of experimentally validated high-throughput protocols that produce accurate estimates of protist diversity while minimizing non-protist DNA representation...
May 24, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539446/infectious-prions-in-the-pregnancy-microenvironment-of-cwd-infected-reeves-muntjac-deer
#3
Amy V Nalls, Erin McNulty, Clare E Hoover, Laura A Pulscher, Edward A Hoover, Candace K Mathiason
Ample evidence exists for the presence of infectious agents at the maternal-fetal interface, often with grave outcomes to the developing fetus (i.e. zika virus, brucella, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasma). While less studied, pregnancy-related transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) have been implicated in several species, including humans. Our previous work has shown that prions can be transferred from mother-to-offspring resulting in the development of clinical TSE disease in offspring born to CWD-infected muntjac dams (64)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537532/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-anti-toxoplasma-gondii-activity-of-a-novel-scaffold-of-thiazolidinone-derivatives
#4
Simone Carradori, Daniela Secci, Bruna Bizzarri, Paola Chimenti, Celeste De Monte, Paolo Guglielmi, Cristina Campestre, Daniela Rivanera, Claudia Bordón, Lorraine Jones-Brando
We designed and synthesised novel N-substituted 1,3-thiazolidin-4-one derivatives for the evaluation of their anti-Toxoplasma gondii efficacy. This scaffold was functionalised both at the N1-hydrazine portion with three structurally different moieties and at the lactam nitrogen with substituted benzyl groups selected on the basis of our previous structure-activity relationships studies. Using three different assay methods, the compounds were assessed in vitro to determine both the levels of efficacy against the tachyzoites of T...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533649/cerebral-toxoplasmosis-masquerading-cns-lymphoma-on-fdg-pet-ct-in-post-renal-transplant-patient
#5
Anirban Mukherjee, Chandrasekhar Bal, Madhavi Tripathi, Chandan Jyoti Das, Shamim Ahmed Shamim
20 year old post renal transplant patient developed recurrent episodes of seizure. MRI revealed focal lesion in right parieto-occipital lobe with perilesional edema. FDG PET-CT revealed multiple hypermetabolic lesions in bilateral cerebral hemisphere. Subsequent biopsy from the lesion demonstrated bradyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii with inflammatory cells and thereby, a confirmatory diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis was made. This case demonstrates the fact that increased FDG uptake in cerebral lesions in post transplant patient should be interpreted with caution and confirmed with histopathological correlation...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532528/hepatic-calcifications-in-fetal-population-studied-by-autopsies-in-bogota-colombia
#6
M Olaya-C, S Aldana-M, M Maya-G, F Gil
Fetal hepatic calcifications can be caused by infections, chromosomal disorders, thrombotic events, ischemic hepatic necrosis and subcapsular hematomas among others events. Its features and clinical significance are still not well known. We performed an observational study to describe fetal hepatic calcifications and its association with main clinical and histopathological findings from the fetal autopsy database, between 2007 and 2014. Raw odds ratio analysis was performed. We reviewed 591 fetal autopsies: 14 cases with hepatic calcifications, 102 fetuses with chromosomal disorders; 13 with diagnosis of TORSCH (toxoplasma, rubella, syphilis, cytomegalovirus, herpes virus 1 and 2, and others) and 207 with any abnormality in the umbilical cord (UC)...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530509/genotyping-toxoplasma-gondii-with-the-b1-gene-in-naturally-infected-sheep-from-an-endemic-region-in-the-pacific-coast-of-mexico
#7
Williams Arony Martínez-Flores, José Manuel Palma-García, Heriberto Caballero-Ortega, Alejandra Del Viento-Camacho, Eduardo López-Escamilla, Fernando Martínez-Hernández, Pablo Vinuesa, Dolores Correa, Pablo Maravilla
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with a broad ecological valence, which has been detected in a wide range of hosts and landscapes. Although the genus is considered monospecific, in recent years it has been demonstrated to exhibit more genetic variability than previously known. In Mexico, there are few genotyping studies, which suggest that classical, autochthonous, and atypical strains are circulating. The goal of this study was to describe T. gondii genetic diversity in naturally infected sheep from Colima, Mexico...
May 22, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529974/a-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored-carbonic-anhydrase-related-protein-of-toxoplasma-gondii-is-important-for-rhoptry-biogenesis-and-virulence
#8
Nathan M Chasen, Beejan Asady, Leandro Lemgruber, Rossiane C Vommaro, Jessica C Kissinger, Isabelle Coppens, Silvia N J Moreno
Carbonic anhydrase-related proteins (CARPs) have previously been described as catalytically inactive proteins closely related to α-carbonic anhydrases (α-CAs). These CARPs are found in animals (both vertebrates and invertebrates) and viruses as either independent proteins or domains of other proteins. We report here the identification of a new CARP (TgCA_RP) in the unicellular organism Toxoplasma gondii that is related to the recently described η-class CA found in Plasmodium falciparum. TgCA_RP is posttranslationally modified at its C terminus with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor that is important for its localization in intracellular tachyzoites...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529454/characterization-of-cytosine-methylation-and-the-dna-methyltransferases-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#9
Haixia Wei, Shichen Jiang, Longfei Chen, Cheng He, Shuizhen Wu, Hongjuan Peng
DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification which confers phenotypic plasticity and adaptation. Cyst-forming strains of Toxoplasma gondii undergo tachyzoite to bradyzoite conversion after initial acute infection of a host, and the reverse conversion may occur in immune-suppressed hosts. The formation of m(5)C is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferase (DNMT). We identified two functional DNA methyltransferases, TgDNMTa and TgDNMTb, in T. gondii that may mediate DNA methylation. The recombinant proteins showed intrinsic methyltransferase activity; both have higher transcription levels in bradyzoites than that in tachyzoites...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527905/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-mediated-polarization-of-macrophages-in-neospora-caninum-infection
#10
Xuexiu He, Pengtao Gong, Zhengkai Wei, Weijian Liu, Weili Wang, Jianhua Li, Zhengtao Yang, Xichen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite closely related Toxoplasma gondii, which causes neurological disease and abortion in multiple animal species. Macrophage polarization plays an important role in host immune responses to parasites infection, such as Toxoplasma gondii, Leishmania, Trypanosoma cruzi. However, the dynamics of macrophage polarization, as well as the possible mechanism that regulate macrophage polarization, during N. caninum infection remains unclear...
May 17, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526607/the-merozoite-specific-protein-tggra11b-identified-as-a-component-of-the-toxoplasma-gondii-parasitophorous-vacuole-in-a-tachyzoite-expression-model
#11
Chandra Ramakrishnan, Robert A Walker, Ramon M Eichenberger, Adrian B Hehl, Nicholas C Smith
The apicomplexan, Toxoplasma gondii, infects all warm-blooded animals as intermediate hosts but only felids as definitive hosts. Dense granule proteins are critical for the survival of Toxoplasma within host cells but, whilst these proteins have been studied intensively in tachyzoites, little is known about their expression in the coccidian stages in the cat intestine. Transcriptomic profiling indicates that two putative dense granule proteins, TgGRA11A and TgGRA11B, are expressed uniquely in merozoites. Immunofluorescent microscopy of Toxoplasma-infected cat intestine and tachyzoites engineered to express TgGRA11B, reveals that it is a dense granule protein that traffics into the parasitophorous vacuole and its membrane...
May 17, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516077/toxoplasmic-encephalitis-in-patient-with-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome
#12
Sang-Bok Lee, Tae-Gyu Lee
Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) is an opportunistic infection found in immunocompromised patients and TE related cerebral mass lesion is often reported in acquired immunodeficiency acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. However, incidence of TE related AIDS in Korea is still rare and is unfamiliar to neurosurgeons. Differential diagnosis is needed to rule out other brain lesions. A 39-year-old man visited the emergency room with rapid progressive left hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a ring-enhanced mass lesion in his right frontal lobe...
April 2017: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513566/neurophysiological-changes-induced-by-chronic-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#13
REVIEW
Ellen Tedford, Glenn McConkey
Although the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most pervasive neurotropic pathogens in the world, the host-parasite interactions during CNS infection and the consequences of neurological infection are just beginning to be unraveled. The chronic stages of infection have been considered dormant, although several studies have found correlations of infection with an array of host behavioral changes. These may facilitate parasite transmission and impact neurological diseases. During infection, in addition to the presence of the parasites within neurons, host-mediated neuroimmune and hormonal responses to infection are also present...
May 17, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510363/purification-toxoplasma-gondii-tissue-cysts-using-percoll-gradients
#14
Elizabeth A Watts, Animesh Dhara, Anthony P Sinai
The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is capable of infecting all warm-blooded animals and humans. Infectious, transmissible forms of the parasite include oocysts produced by the sexual cycle within the definitive feline host and tissue cysts that form Toxoplasma in the central nervous system and muscle during the asexual cycle within all chronically infected warm-blooded hosts. These tissue cysts are populated with slow-growing bradyzoites, which until recently have been thought to be dormant entities in the context of immune sufficiency...
May 16, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508576/mhc-i-presentation-of-toxoplasma-gondii-immunodominant-antigen-does-not-require-sec-22b-and-is-regulated-by-antigen-orientation-at-the-vacuole-membrane
#15
Célia Buaillon, Nestor A Guerrero, Ignacio Cebrian, Sophie Blanié, Jodie Lopez, Emilie Bassot, Virginie Vasseur, Julien Santi-Rocca, Nicolas Blanchard
The intracellular Toxoplasma gondii parasite replicates within a parasitophorous vacuole (PV). T. gondii secretes proteins that remain soluble in the PV space, are inserted into PV membranes or are exported beyond the PV boundary. In addition to supporting T. gondii growth, these proteins can be processed and presented by MHC I for CD8(+) T-cell recognition. Yet it is unclear whether membrane binding influences the processing pathways employed and if topology of membrane antigens impacts their MHC I presentation...
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508166/toxoplasma-gondii-and-schizophrenia-a-review-of-published-rcts
#16
REVIEW
Sam D Chorlton
Over the last 60 years, accumulating evidence has suggested that acute, chronic, and maternal Toxoplasma gondii infections predispose to schizophrenia. More recent evidence suggests that chronically infected patients with schizophrenia present with more severe disease. After acute infection, parasites form walled cysts in the brain, leading to lifelong chronic infection and drug resistance to commonly used antiparasitics. Chronic infection is the most studied and closely linked with development and severity of schizophrenia...
May 15, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508165/frequency-of-toxoplasma-gondii-in-the-retina-in-eye-banks-in-brazil
#17
Deise F Costa, Heloisa Nascimento, Aline Sutili, Fernando A J Nobrega, Flavio Fowler, Mario Junqueira Nobrega, Cristina Garrido, Janaina de Oliveira Dias, Consuelo B D Adán, Luiz Vicente Rizzo, Claudio Silveira, Rubens Belfort, Alessandra G Commodaro
Ocular toxoplasmosis is the main cause of posterior uveitis worldwide frequently leading to vision loss. In Brazil, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection ranges from 50 to 80% depending of the region studied. The frequency of toxoplasmic retinal scar may reach 18% of the adults in the South of Brazil. Our goal was to determine the frequency of T. gondii DNA in retinas from eye banks from different regions in Brazil. A total of 162 eyes were obtained from eye banks in Manaus (n = 60), Sao Paulo (n = 60), Chapeco (n = 26), and Joinville (n = 16)...
May 15, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507984/immunoprevalence-to-six-waterborne-pathogens-in-beachgoers-at-boquer%C3%A3-n-beach-puerto-rico-application-of-a-microsphere-based-salivary-antibody-multiplex-immunoassay
#18
Swinburne A J Augustine, Kaneatra J Simmons, Tarsha N Eason, Clarissa L Curioso, Shannon M Griffin, Timothy J Wade, Alfred Dufour, G Shay Fout, Ann C Grimm, Kevin H Oshima, Elizabeth A Sams, Mary Jean See, Larry J Wymer
Waterborne infectious diseases are a major public health concern worldwide. Few methods have been established that are capable of measuring human exposure to multiple waterborne pathogens simultaneously using non-invasive samples such as saliva. Most current methods measure exposure to only one pathogen at a time, require large volumes of individual samples collected using invasive procedures, and are very labor intensive. In this article, we applied a multiplex bead-based immunoassay capable of measuring IgG antibody responses to six waterborne pathogens simultaneously in human saliva to estimate immunoprevalence in beachgoers at Boquerón Beach, Puerto Rico...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507471/seroepidemiological-study-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-a-population-of-iranian-epileptic-patients
#19
Jalal Babaie, Mohammad Sayyah, Kourosh Gharagozli, Ehsan Mostafavi, Majid Golkar
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders. Underlying cause of epilepsy is unknown in 60 % of the patients. Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite which is capable of forming tissue cysts in brain of chronically infected hosts including humans. Some epidemiological studies suggested an association between toxoplasmosis and acquisition of epilepsy. In this study we determined seroprevalence of latent Toxoplasma infection in a population of Iranian epileptic patients. Participants were classified in three groups as Iranian epileptic patients (IEP, n = 414), non-epileptic patients who had other neurologic disorders (NEP, n = 150), and healthy people without any neurologic disorders (HP, n = 63)...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507409/toxoplasma-gondii-type-i-predominant-genotype-isolated-from-sheep-in-south-of-iran
#20
Belal Armand, Kavous Solhjoo, Manoochehr Shabani Kordshooli, Mohammad Hasan Davami, Morteza Pourahmad, Vahideh Orfaee
AIM: This study was performed to determine the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep using nested-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in Southern Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The tissue samples of diaphragm and heart from 125 sheep were collected from the main slaughterhouses of Jahrom district in South of Fars province, Iran, between Aprils and June 2013. The DNA were extracted and analyzed by nested-PCR using specific primers for SAG2 and GRA6 loci...
April 2017: Veterinary World
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