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Antibiotic prescription

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243258/the-diagnostic-pathway-of-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-a-large-u-s-healthcare-system
#1
Jason Gilde, Brian Song, Farzad Masroor, Jeanne A Darbinian, Miranda L Ritterman Weintraub, James Salazar, Eleanor Yang, Deepak Gurushanthaiah, Kevin H Wang
OBJECTIVE: To examine the current diagnostic pathway of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and identify factors associated with time to diagnosis. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients with OPSCC in an integrated healthcare system from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2013. Patient demographics, tobacco and alcohol use, chief complaint, tumor stage, human papilloma virus (HPV) status, physician factors (diagnosis, antibiotic prescription, performance of endoscopic exam, biopsy), and time intervals were examined...
December 15, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240638/antibiotic-prophylaxis-after-immediate-breast-reconstruction-the-reality-of-its-efficacy
#2
Kavitha Ranganathan, Erika D Sears, Lin Zhong, Ting-Ting Chung, Kevin C Chung, Jeffrey H Kozlow, Adeyiza O Momoh, Jennifer F Waljee
PURPOSE: Numerous techniques are used to prevent infection after immediate implant-based breast reconstruction. Postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP) is commonly prescribed to decrease the risk of reconstructive failure, despite conflicting evidence regarding its effectiveness. We sought to determine whether PAP decreases the risk of infection-related explantation in the setting of immediate prosthesis-based breast reconstruction. METHODS: Using Truven MarketScan databases, we identified all patients who underwent immediate implant reconstruction between 1/2010-6/2014 with at least 6 months of follow-up...
December 13, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238498/explaining-family-physicians-beliefs-about-antibiotic-prescription
#3
Elham Shokouhi, Fereshteh Zamani-Alavijeh, Marzieh Araban
Background: Antibiotics are among those drugs prescribed abundantly in hospitals due to their high efficiency. However, excessive, non-logical and unnecessary use of antibiotics regardless of physicians' recommendations is considered as a challenge. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explain family physicians' beliefs about antibiotic prescription in Ahvaz. Methods: This study is part of a content-analysis qualitative research conducted in Ahvaz in 2016...
October 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238212/effects-of-an-antimicrobial-restriction-system-on-appropriate-carbapenem-use-in-a-hospital-without-infectious-diseases-consultation
#4
Warangkhana Wanla, Wasan Katip, Sakon Supakul, Porntipa Apiwatnakorn, Sompong Khamsarn
Background: Gram-negative bacteria are becoming increasingly resistant to carbapenems and are related to the use of carbapenems. Thus, the main objective of this study was to compare the appropriateness of prescribing carbapenem before and after using an antimicrobial restriction system without infectious diseases consultation. Materials and methods: A retrospective cross-sectional before and after study was conducted in Lamphun Hospital to limit the prescription of carbapenems...
2017: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234355/treatment-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-are-all-countries-treating-children-in-the-same-way-a-literature-review
#5
REVIEW
Daniele Donà, Dora Luise, Liviana Da Dalt, Carlo Giaquinto
Background: Pneumonia represents an important threat to children's health in both developed and developing countries. In the last 10 years, many national and international guidelines on the treatment of pediatric CAP have been published, in order to optimize the prescription of antibiotics and limit their cost and side effects. However, the practical implementation of these guidelines is still limited. Main Text: We analyzed the current recommendations for the therapy of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) that all converge on the identification of aminopenicillins and beta-lactams as the optimal treatment for CAP...
2017: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228960/cross-sectional-survey-on-the-use-and-impact-of-the-danish-national-antibiotic-use-guidelines-for-companion-animal-practice
#6
Lisbeth Rem Jessen, Tina Møller Sørensen, Zenia Littau Lilja, Maja Kristensen, Tine Hald, Peter Damborg
BACKGROUND: The Danish antibiotic use guidelines for companion animal practice were published by the Danish Veterinary Association in 2012. Since then, national surveillance data indicate a 10% reduction in the total use of antibiotics for companion animals, particularly a marked reduction in the use of third generation cephalosporins. The aim of the study was to assess if and how the guidelines have impacted diagnostic and antibiotic prescription habits of the users, and to identify user perceived barriers to implementation...
December 11, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228528/the-dilemma-of-irrational-antibiotic-and-corticosteroid-prescription-in-iran-how-much-it-can-affect-the-medicine-expenditures
#7
Parisa Mehdizadeh, Nooredin Dopeykar, Mohammad Meskarpour-Amiri, Hediyeh Zekri, Mahmoud Salesi
In recent years the high cost of medicines and the lack of it were one of the major problems in developing countries that despite numerous efforts to solve the root causes of this problem, the issue remains, unfortunately. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of antibiotics and corticosteroids prescription on the medicines expenditures. This was descriptive-analytical study that conducted to assess the function of medical expenditures through prescription letters and analysis the factors affecting medicine expenditures...
October 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228207/effectiveness-of-live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-in-preventing-amoxicillin-prescribing-in-preschool-children-a-self-controlled-case-series-study
#8
Pia Hardelid, Yonas Ghebremichael-Weldeselassie, Heather Whitaker, Greta Rait, Ruth Gilbert, Irene Petersen
Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in reducing amoxicillin prescribing in preschool children in primary care. Patients and methods: We used The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a large primary care database from the United Kingdom. We included children aged 2 to 4 years old at the start of either the 2013/14 or the 2014/15 winter season, with at least one amoxicillin prescription between September and May, irrespective of LAIV vaccination status...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226070/economic-burden-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-elderly-patients-a-japanese-perspective
#9
Keiko Konomura, Hideaki Nagai, Manabu Akazawa
Background: This study aimed to estimate the economic burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among elderly patients in Japan. In addition, the study evaluated the relationship between total treatment cost and CAP risk factors. Methods: An administrative database was searched for elderly patients (≥ 65 years old) who had pneumonia (ICD-10 code: J12-J18) and an antibiotic prescription between 1 June 2014 and 31 May 2015. The all-cause total healthcare costs of outpatient and inpatient CAP episodes were calculated...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218467/antibiotic-prescription-and-clinical-management-of-common-infections-among-general-practitioners-in-latvia-lithuania-and-sweden-a-pilot-survey-with-a-simple-protocol
#10
Uga Dumpis, Annika Hahlin, Sonata Varvuolyte, Stephan Stenmark, Sarmīte Veide, Rolanda Valinteliene, Asta Jurkeviciene, Johan Struwe
Comparative information on diagnosis-related antibiotic prescribing patterns are scarce from primary care within and between countries. To describe and compare antibiotic prescription and routine management of infections in primary care in Latvia (LV), Lithuania (LT) and two study sites in Sweden (SE), a cross-sectional observational study on patients who consulted due to sypmtoms compatible with infection was undetraken. Infection and treatment was detected and recorded by physicians only. Data was collected from altogether 8786 consecutive patients with infections in the three countries...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216902/improved-drug-safety-through-intensive-pharmacovigilance-in-hospitalized-pediatric-patients
#11
Alan O Vázquez-Alvarez, Lorena Michele Brennan-Bourdon, Ana Rosa Rincón-Sánchez, María Cristina Islas-Carbajal, Selene G Huerta-Olvera
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to detect and analyze Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) through Intensive Pharmacovigilance (IPV) in hospitalized pediatric patients to improve drug safety. METHODS: A prospective 6-month cross-sectional study was performed in the pediatric service of a regional hospital in Mexico in order to assess hospitalized children from 1 day to 18 years old. The inclusion criteria were: both genders, all hospitalization causes, and at least one prescribed medication (indistinct drug group)...
December 8, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215660/-prioritization-of-non-recommended-clinical-activities-in-primary-care
#12
L García Mochon, A Olry de Labry Lima, C Bermudez-Tamayo
OBJECTIVE: To prioritize non-recommended clinical activities in Primary Care (PC), from "Do not do" recommendations listed by the Sociedad Española de Medicina de Familia y Comunitaria (Semfyc), according to expert consensus (physicians, nurses and pharmacists). METHODS: The consensus for the prioritization of non-recommended practices in PC was performed through an online procedure. We used as a base the list of "do not-do" recommendations of the SEMFYC. We asked the experts to prioritize practices that should be de-adopted in PC, based on four prioritization criteria: frequency of occurrence, cost of the activity, ease of disposal and damage caused, which were scored from one to five, according to their recommendation...
December 7, 2017: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215319/examining-the-potential-preventative-effects-of-minocycline-prescribed-for-acne-on-the-incidence-of-severe-mental-illnesses-a-historical-cohort-study
#13
Maria Herrero-Zazo, Ruth Brauer, Fiona Gaughran, Louise M Howard, David Taylor, David J Barlow
BACKGROUND: Animal studies suggest that the antibiotic and microglial activation inhibitor, minocycline, is likely to have a protective effect against the emergence of psychosis but evidence from human studies is lacking. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of exposure to minocycline during adolescence on the later incidence of severe mental illness (SMI). METHODS: A historical cohort study using electronic primary care data was conducted to assess the association between exposure to minocycline during adolescence and incidence of SMI...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215180/direct-and-indirect-costs-incurred-by-australian-living-kidney-donors
#14
Lianne Barnieh, John Kanellis, Stephen McDonald, Jennifer Arnold, Jessica M Sontrop, Meaghan Cuerden, Scott Klarenbach, Amit X Garg, Neil Boudville
AIM: To describe the direct and indirect costs incurred by Australian living kidney donors. METHODS: We studied 55 living kidney donors from 3 centres in Perth, Australia and 1 centre in Melbourne, Australia (2010-2014); 49 donors provided information on expenses incurred during the donor evaluation period and up to 3 months after donation. We used a micro-costing approach to measure and value the units of resources consumed. Expenses were grouped as direct costs (ground and air travel, accommodation, and prescription medications) and indirect costs (lost wages and lost productivity)...
December 7, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210147/drug-exposure-and-the-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Heather Y Yong, Kyla A McKay, Cole G J Daley, Helen Tremlett
BACKGROUND: Several environmental and lifestyle factors have been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) risk, including some pharmacological treatments. We systematically reviewed the literature on prescription drug exposure and MS risk. METHODS: Six databases were searched for original observational studies reporting drug exposure and MS risk published before 2017. RESULTS: Thirteen articles fulfilled inclusion criteria. Exposure to neither amiloride nor valproic acid was associated with MS (adjusted hazard ratio (adj...
December 6, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207972/disparities-in-the-regional-hospital-and-individual-levels-of-antibiotic-use-in-gallstone-surgery-in-sweden
#16
Gona Jaafar, Bahman Darkahi, Lars Lindhagen, Gunnar Persson, Gabriel Sandblom
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance may be promoted by divergent routines and lack of conformity in antibiotic treatment, especially regarding the practice of antibiotic prophylaxis. The aim of the present study was to assess differences in gallstone surgery regarding antibiotic use in Sweden. METHODS: The study was based on data from the Swedish Register for Gallstone Surgery and ERCP (GallRiks) 2005-2015. Funnel plots were used to test impact of grouping factors, including, hospital and surgeon and to identify units that deviated from the rest of the population...
December 6, 2017: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205493/impact-of-pretreatment-neutrophil-count-on-chemotherapy-administration-and-toxicity-in-dogs-with-lymphoma-treated-with-chop-chemotherapy
#17
Q Fournier, J-C Serra, I Handel, J Lawrence
BACKGROUND: Prechemotherapy absolute neutrophil count (ANC) cutoffs are arbitrary and vary across institutions and clinicians. Similarly, subjective guidelines are utilized for the administration of prophylactic antibiotics in neutropenic dogs. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of various ANC cutoffs on chemotherapy administration in dogs with lymphoma treated with CHOP chemotherapy and to determine whether an association between prechemotherapy ANC and subsequent toxicity exists...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205419/community-pharmacists-leaders-for-antibiotic-stewardship-in-respiratory-tract-infection
#18
S Essack, J Bell, A Shephard
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Hospital-based pharmacists are established antibiotic stewards, but the potential for community pharmacists is largely untapped. This commentary explores the potential leadership role of the community pharmacist in antibiotic stewardship using upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) as an example. COMMENT: Community pharmacists are well placed for antibiotic stewardship, possessing the capability (knowledge of medicines), opportunity (contact with prescribers and patients) and inherent commitment...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205415/systematic-review-human-gut-dysbiosis-induced-by-non-antibiotic-prescription-medications
#19
REVIEW
Q Le Bastard, G A Al-Ghalith, M Grégoire, G Chapelet, F Javaudin, E Dailly, E Batard, D Knights, E Montassier
BACKGROUND: Global prescription drug use has been increasing continuously for decades. The gut microbiome, a key contributor to health status, can be altered by prescription drug use, as antibiotics have been repeatedly described to have both short-term and long-standing effects on the intestinal microbiome. AIM: To summarise current findings on non-antibiotic prescription-induced gut microbiome changes, focusing on the most frequently prescribed therapeutic drug categories...
December 5, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191263/persistent-and-severe-hypoglycemia-associated-with-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-in-a-frail-diabetic-man-on-polypharmacy-a-case-report-and-literature-review%C3%A2
#20
Raffaella Rossio, Sara Arcudi, Flora Peyvandi, Stefania Piconi
OBJECTIVE: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) is a commonly used broad-spectrum antibiotic, but it can be associated with potentially serious adverse effects, often not recognized by clinicians. This is a relevant problem in elderly patients, who are particularly susceptible to adverse drug reactions. Moreover, multiple medications taken by older people increase the risk for adverse drug reactions and drug-drug interactions. CASE REPORT: We report the case of an 85-year-old man with diabetes mellitus who attended the emergency room with severe hypoglycemia that persisted despite multiple intravenous bolus doses and continuous infusion of glucose...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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