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Antibiotic prescription

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909849/monitoring-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-from-tertiary-wastewater-treatment-plants-using-passive-sampling-modelled-with-performance-reference-compounds
#1
Tamanna Sultana, Craig Murray, M Ehsanul Hoque, Chris D Metcalfe
The Lake Simcoe watershed in Ontario, Canada is an important recreational area and a recharge zone for groundwater resources. Lake Simcoe is a relatively shallow lotic system that has been impacted by urban development, recreation, industry and agriculture. As part of a watershed management plan, six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in this catchment basin were selected to measure the inputs of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) of wastewater origin. These WWTPs were recently upgraded to tertiary treatment for phosphorus removal...
December 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890726/sources-of-antibiotics-hot-springs
#2
REVIEW
Girish B Mahajan, Lakshmi Balachandran
The discovery of antibiotics heralded an era of improved health care. However, the over-prescription and misuse of antibiotics resulted in the development of resistant strains of various pathogens. Since then, there has been an incessant search for discovering novel compounds from bacteria at various locations with extreme conditions. The soil is one of the most explored locations for bioprospecting. In recent times, hypersaline environments and symbiotic associations have been investigated for novel antimicrobial compounds...
November 24, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888989/burden-and-risk-factors-of-ambulatory-or-hospitalized-cap-a%C3%A2-population-based-cohort-study
#3
Martin Kolditz, Falko Tesch, Luise Mocke, Gert Höffken, Santiago Ewig, Jochen Schmitt
BACKGROUND: Data on incidence, risk factors and outcome of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) including outpatients is sparse. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study on 1.837.080 adults insured by a German statutory health insurance in 2010-2011. CAP was identified via ICD-10-GM codes, ambulatory cases were validated by antibiotic prescription within 7 days. Primary outcomes were incidence, hospitalisation and 30-day all-cause mortality. Evaluated risk factors included age, sex and comorbidities...
December 2016: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887585/reduction-in-antibiotic-prescribing-for-respiratory-tract-infections-in-swedish-primary-care-a-retrospective-study-of-electronic-patient-records
#4
Mia Tyrstrup, Anders Beckman, Sigvard Mölstad, Sven Engström, Christina Lannering, Eva Melander, Katarina Hedin
BACKGROUND: Swedish studies on antibiotic use in primary care have been based on one-week registrations of infections. In order to study adherence to guidelines, analyses based on large databases that provide information on diagnosis linked prescriptions, are needed. This study describes trends in management of infections in Swedish primary care particularly with regards to antibiotic prescribing and adherence to national guidelines. METHODS: A descriptive study of Sweden's largest database regarding diagnosis linked antibiotic prescription data, the Primary care Record of Infections in Sweden (PRIS), for the years 2008, 2010 and 2013...
November 25, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886038/surveillance-of-antibiotic-use-in-the-private-sector-in-namibia-using-sales-and-claims-data
#5
Dawn Dineo Pereko, Martie S Lubbe, Sabiha Y Essack
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotics are among the most commonly used therapeutic agents for humans globally, and their use has been associated with the development of resistance. The objective of this study was to identify sources for quantifying antibiotic usage patterns and to assess such use in ambulatory patients in the private health sector of Namibia. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective analysis of prescription claims data and sales data for the period 2008 to 2011 was conducted...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886032/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-different-pathogens-of-acute-diarrhea-in-adults-in-beijing-china
#6
Lei Jia, Changying Lin, Zhiyong Gao, Mei Qu, Junyong Yang, Jingyi Sun, He Chen, Quanyi Wang
INTRODUCTION: Only a small proportion of patients with diarrhea are diagnosed with laboratory tests in China, and most are diagnosed based on clinical symptoms. Therefore, understanding the prevalence of different diarrheal pathogens and their specific symptoms is important. METHODOLOGY: Data from a prospective study in Beijing of acute diarrhea and the related pathogens were used to study the association between different pathogen groups and the infected patients' characteristics...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884552/estimated-saving-of-antibiotics-in-pharyngitis-and-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-if-general-practitioners-used-rapid-tests-and-followed-guidelines
#7
Carles Llor, Ana Moragas, Josep M Cots, Beatriz González López-Valcárcel
INTRODUCTION: General practitioners (GP) in Spain do not have access to rapid tests and adherence to guidelines is usually suboptimal. The aim of the study is to evaluate the estimated number of antibiotics that could have been saved if GPs had appropriately used these tests and had followed the guidelines. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Primary care centres from eight Autonomous Communities in Spain. PARTICIPANTS: GPs who had not participated in previous studies on rational use of antibiotics...
November 21, 2016: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884536/-chest-x-ray-and-acute-bronchiolitis-are-these-indications-decreasing
#8
V Arnoux, A Carsin, E Bosdure, K Retornaz, B Chabrol, G Gorincour, J Mancini, A Dabadie, J-C Dubus
OBJECTIVE: A management protocol for infants hospitalized for acute bronchiolitis, established after the study conducted in our unit in 2012, recommends a chest X-ray when the clinical course is unusual or if a differential diagnosis is suspected. The goal of this study was to evaluate professional practices after the introduction of this new management protocol. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive study in two pediatric units from October 2013 to March 2015, including infants (0-23 months) hospitalized for their first episode of acute bronchiolitis without any underlying chronic condition...
November 21, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882681/general-practice-consultations-diagnostic-investigations-and-prescriptions-in-the-year-preceding-a-lung-cancer-diagnosis
#9
Louise M Guldbrandt, Henrik Møller, Erik Jakobsen, Peter Vedsted
Patterns of general practice utilization in the period before lung cancer (LC) diagnosis may provide new knowledge to ensure timelier and earlier diagnosis of LC. This study aimed to explore the prediagnostic activity in general practice in the year preceding LC diagnosis. The activity was compared to a matched comparison group. We compared LC patients with different stage, and patients with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using Danish registers, we performed a population-based matched cohort study including lung cancer patients (n = 34,017) and matched comparison subjects (n = 340,170)...
November 23, 2016: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879178/-minocycline-induced-hyperpigmentation-not-uncommon-but-nonetheless-important-to-recognise
#10
P J G M Voets, D Blommaert, R R M C Keijsers, H A C Alkemade
BACKGROUND: Minocycline, a broad-spectrum antibiotic from the group of tetracyclins, is frequently prescribed for acne vulgaris and rosacea. Hyperpigmentation is a relatively common side effect of this drug and can lead to multiple unsightly skin lesions, which are not always reversible. It can take a long period, from a few months to several years, before the lesions have completely vanished. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 24-year-old male was seen in our outpatient clinic because of slowly progressive pigmented lesions on his shins...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876477/current-prescribing-practices-for-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-nursing-homes
#11
Diana Feldstein, Philip D Sloane, David Weber, Kimberly Ward, David Reed, Sheryl Zimmerman
OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic stewardship has been called for across all sites of health care, including nursing homes (NHs). Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are the third most common indication for antibiotics in the NH, and so should be a focus of stewardship. This study audited medical records to identify signs and symptoms of SSTIs treated with antibiotics in relation to the McGeer criteria for surveillance, the Loeb minimum criteria for antibiotic initiation, and prescribing recommendations of the Infectious Disease Society of America...
November 18, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874151/a-stepwise-introduction-of-a-successful-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-university-hospital-in-western-saudi-arabia
#12
Maha M Alawi, Bayan M Darwesh
OBJECTIVES: To analyze and evaluate the safety and cost-effectiveness of a gradually-implemented antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) in a tertiary care center. METHODS: Prospective data were collected from an ASP that was gradually introduced between April 2012 and December 2013 in 6 hospital departments, over successive periods of 3 months each. A multidisciplinary team supervised antibiotic use and regulated pharmacy dispensations of a list of restricted antimicrobials (RAs)...
December 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872643/antibiotic-susceptibility-patterns-of-bacterial-isolates-from-pus-samples-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-punjab-india
#13
Rugira Trojan, Lovely Razdan, Nasib Singh
We determined the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibilities patterns of bacterial isolates from pus samples collected from patients in a tertiary care hospital of Punjab, India. E. coli was the most prevalent pathogen (51.2%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.8%), Citrobacter spp. (3.5%), Acinetobacter baumannii (2.3%), Proteus mirabilis (2.3%), and Streptococcus spp. (2.3%). E. coli, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, and Citrobacter isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics including higher generation cephalosporins...
2016: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866752/selling-antimicrobials-without-prescription-far-beyond-an-administrative-problem
#14
Maria C Guinovart, Albert Figueras, Carles Llor
INTRODUCTION: Selling antibiotics without prescription is common in many countries; beyond the administrative restrictions, this practice is a risk for patients and society. The aim of the study was to evaluate the information provided by the staff of the pharmacy to a simulated patient requesting an antibiotic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective study was carried out in January 2013 - February 2014 in the Health Region of Tarragona, in which a mystery shopper visited 220 pharmacies requesting an antibiotic to be sold...
November 17, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861259/tailored-perioperative-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-in-urological-surgery-myth-or-reality
#15
Magnus J Grabe, Karl-Johan Lundström
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The controversies surrounding perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) are about the use and especially misuse of antibiotics. The overall lack of evidence to facilitate a rational perioperative AMP policy in urological surgery and the postoperative infectious complications remain a challenge. Therefore, a basic tool to aid decision-making would be useful. A model based on the patients' risk factors, the level of contamination and grading of surgical procedures is discussed...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855719/an-illness-focused-interactive-booklet-to-optimise-management-and-medication-for-childhood-fever-and-infections-in-out-of-hours-primary-care-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#16
Eefje G P M de Bont, Geert-Jan Dinant, Gijs Elshout, Gijs van Well, Nick A Francis, Bjorn Winkens, Jochen W L Cals
BACKGROUND: Fever is the most common reason for a child to be taken to a general practitioner (GP), especially during out-of-hours care. It is mostly caused by self-limiting infections. However, antibiotic prescription rates remain high, especially during out-of-hours care. Anxiety and lack of knowledge among parents, and perceived pressure to prescribe antibiotics amongst GPs, are important determinants of excessive antibiotic prescriptions. An illness-focused interactive booklet has the potential to improve this by providing parents with information about fever self-management strategies...
November 17, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853362/comparative-analysis-of-budesonide-formoterol-and-fluticasone-salmeterol-combinations-in-copd-patients-findings-from-a-real-world-analysis-in-an-italian-setting
#17
Valentina Perrone, Diego Sangiorgi, Stefano Buda, Luca Degli Esposti
AIM: The objective of this study was to evaluate the different outcomes associated with the use of budesonide/formoterol compared to fluticasone/salmeterol in fixed combinations in patients with COPD in a "real-world" setting. The outcomes included exacerbation rates and health care costs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An observational retrospective cohort analysis, based on administrative databases of three local health units, was conducted. Patients with at least one prescription of fixed-dose combination of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2-agonists (budesonide/formoterol or fluticasone/salmeterol), at dosages and formulations approved for COPD in Italy, between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2011 (inclusion period), were included...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851106/1470-antibiotics-prescription-is-not-associated-with-prognosis-in-sepsis-a-prospective-cohort-study
#18
Fabian Jaimes, Pablo Castaño, Maribel Plaza, Fernando Molina, Carolina Hincapie, Wilmar Maya, Juan Cataño, Alba Leon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836999/quality-of-child-healthcare-at-primary-healthcare-facilities-a-national-assessment-of-the-integrated-management-of-childhood-illnesses-in-afghanistan
#19
Ghulam Farooq Mansoor, Paata Chikvaidze, Sherin Varkey, Ariel Higgins-Steele, Najibullah Safi, Adela Mubasher, Khaksar Yusufi, Sayed Alisha Alawi
OBJECTIVE: To assess quality of the national Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) program services provided for sick children at primary health facilities in Afghanistan. DESIGN: Mixed methods including cross-sectional study. SETTING: Thirteen (of thirty-four) provinces in Afghanistan. PARTICIPANTS: Observation of case management and re-examination of 177 sick children, exit interviews with caretakers and review of equipment/supplies at 44 health facilities...
November 10, 2016: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836969/knowledge-and-attitudes-towards-the-use-of-antibiotics-in-the-paediatric-age-group-a-multicenter-survey-in-italy
#20
Fabrizio Bert, Maria R Gualano, Renata Gili, Giacomo Scaioli, Emanuela Lovato, Italo F Angelillo, Silvio Brusaferro, Elisabetta De Vito, Giuseppe La Torre, Lamberto Manzoli, Francesco Vitale, Walter Ricciardi, Roberta Siliquini
BACKGROUND: The misuse of antibiotics is one of the leading causes of antibiotic resistance. Paediatric patients are highly involved in this issue, as they are those who receive the largest amount of prescriptions of these drugs. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the general knowledge regarding the use of antibiotics, as well as the attitudes related to the administration of these drugs to children, amongst parents of children in the paediatric age-group. METHODS: In 2014, a multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted amongst parents of children aged 0-14...
November 11, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
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