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Antibiotic prescription

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690946/longitudinal-point-prevalence-survey-of-antibacterial-use-in-northern-ireland-using-the-european-surveillance-of-antimicrobial-consumption-esac-pps-and-global-pps-tool
#1
G M Al-Taani, M Scott, D Farren, F Gilmore, B Mccullagh, C Hibberd, A Mccorry, A Versporten, H Goossens, P Zarb, M A Aldeyab
Antimicrobial resistance is a limiting factor for the success of the treatment of infectious diseases and is associated with increased morbidity and cost. The present study aims to evaluate prescribing patterns of antimicrobials and quantify progress in relation to targets for quality improvement in the prescription of antimicrobials in Northern Ireland's secondary care sector using three repetitive point prevalence surveys (PPS) over a 6-year period: the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC-PPS) in 2009 and 2011 and the Global-PPS on Antimicrobial Consumption and Resistance in 2015...
April 25, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685459/educational-intervention-to-enhance-adherence-to-short-term-use-of-antibiotics
#2
Lorna Marie West, Maria Cordina
BACKGROUND: Non-adherence to short-term antibiotics is considered to be one of the factors leading to medicines wastage, and this can increase misuse of medicine taking, promote antibiotic resistance and cause environmental pollution. Interventions developed to enhance adherence to short-term antibiotics should be easily implementable into daily practice. No studies utilising Normalization Process Theory to develop interventions aiming to enhance adherence to antibiotics were identified...
April 11, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684931/-multiresistant-bacteria-antibiotic-prescription-and-antibiotics-of-last-resort
#3
Winfried V Kern
Ascertaining critical indications for antibiotics and rational prescribing can delay and minimize the spread of antibiotic resistance. Room for improvement lies in particular in a stricter indication, in shortening antibiotic treatment and in initiating more targeted therapies with narrow-spectrum drugs. Not all infections due to multidrug-resistant organisms require treatment with reserve drugs. Detailed susceptibility testing together with enhanced knowledge of pharmacokinetics and -dynamics are needed for adequate treatment decisions...
May 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684634/interactive-electronic-decision-trees-for-the-integrated-primary-care-management-of-febrile-children-in-low-resource-settings-review-of-existing-tools
#4
REVIEW
Kristina Keitel, Valérie D'Acremont
BACKGROUND: The lack of effective, integrated diagnostic tools pose a major challenge to the primary care management of febrile childhood illnesses. These limitations are especially evident in low-resource settings and are often inappropriately compensated by antimicrobial over-prescription. Interactive electronic decision trees (IEDTs) have the potential to close these gaps: guiding antibiotic use and better identifying serious disease. AIMS: This narrative review summarizes existing IEDTs, to provide an overview of their degree of validation, as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge and prospects for future innovation...
April 20, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681933/retrospective-assessment-of-antibiotics-prescribing-at-public-primary-healthcare-facilities-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#5
Fikru Worku, Dagmawit Tewahido
Background. Antibiotic overprescribing is the major driving force for the emergence of antibiotics resistance. The aim of this study was to assess antibiotics prescribing at primary healthcare facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. The study was conducted in six public health centers found in Addis Ababa City. Data was collected retrospectively from a total of 900 prescriptions and selected medical charts of patients in the health centers in 2016. Data was entered and analyzed using EPI Info 7 and SPSS 20, respectively...
2018: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681513/antimicrobial-consumption-and-resistance-in-adult-hospital-inpatients-in-53-countries-results-of-an-internet-based-global-point-prevalence-survey
#6
Ann Versporten, Peter Zarb, Isabelle Caniaux, Marie-Françoise Gros, Nico Drapier, Mark Miller, Vincent Jarlier, Dilip Nathwani, Herman Goossens
BACKGROUND: The Global Point Prevalence Survey (Global-PPS) established an international network of hospitals to measure antimicrobial prescribing and resistance worldwide. We aimed to assess antimicrobial prescribing and resistance in hospital inpatients. METHODS: We used a standardised surveillance method to collect detailed data about antimicrobial prescribing and resistance from hospitals worldwide, which were grouped by UN region. The internet-based survey included all inpatients (adults, children, and neonates) receiving an antimicrobial who were on the ward at 0800 h on one specific day between January and September, 2015...
April 19, 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680636/modifiable-risk-factors-for-prescription-medicine-sharing-behaviours
#7
Kebede Beyene, Trudi Aspden, Rob McNeill, Janie Sheridan
BACKGROUND: Prescription medicine sharing has been defined as giving one's own medicine to someone else (lending) or taking someone else's medicine (borrowing). Medicines can be shared for non-medical purposes (recreational sharing or drug abuse) or for their intended therapeutic benefits (non-recreational sharing, e.g. sharing antibiotics to self-treat); the latter is the focus of this research. Limited research evidence is available about modifiable risk factors for non-recreational medicine sharing and addressing this issue was the main aim of this research...
April 6, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680224/clinical-evaluation-of-a-novel-and-simple-to-use-molecular-platform-for-diagnosis-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#8
Karoliina Liikonen, Tuomas Ojalehto, Sonja Elf, Minna Mäki, Pirjo Matero, Kevin Eboigbodin
Rapid molecular diagnostic testing for respiratory infections can improve patient care and minimize unnecessary prescriptions of antibiotics. We present the preliminary clinical evaluation of Orion GenRead® RSV, a novel, rapid, and easy-to-use molecular test for the diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. The sensitivity and specificity of Orion GenRead RSV were 99% and 100%, respectively. Orion GenRead RSV detected RSV-positive specimens within 15 min. The performance of Orion GenRead RSV was similar to that of the reference method and this test could rapidly detect RSV within minutes...
April 19, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679226/national-estimates-of-emergency-department-visits-for-antibiotic-adverse-events-among-adults-united-states-2011-2015
#9
Andrew I Geller, Maribeth C Lovegrove, Nadine Shehab, Lauri A Hicks, Mathew R P Sapiano, Daniel S Budnitz
BACKGROUND: Detailed, nationally representative data describing high-risk populations and circumstances involved in antibiotic adverse events (AEs) can inform approaches to prevention. OBJECTIVE: Describe US burden, rates, and characteristics of emergency department (ED) visits by adults for antibiotic AEs. DESIGN: Nationally representative, public health surveillance of adverse drug events (National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-Cooperative Adverse Drug Event Surveillance [NEISS-CADES]) and a nationally projected database of dispensed prescriptions (QuintilesIMS), 2011-2015...
April 20, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678946/prenatal-antibiotic-exposure-and-childhood-asthma-a-population-based-study
#10
Keely Loewen, Barret Monchka, Salaheddin M Mahmud, Geert 't Jong, Meghan B Azad
Antibiotic use during infancy alters gut microbiota and immune development and is associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma. The impact of prenatal antibiotic exposure is unclear. We sought to characterise the association between prenatal antibiotic exposure and childhood asthma.We performed a population-based cohort study using prescription records, hospitalization records, and physician billing claims from 213,661 mother-child dyads born in Manitoba, Canada from 1996-2012. Associations were determined using Cox regression, adjusting for maternal asthma, postnatal antibiotics, and other potential confounders...
April 20, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678929/antibiotic-use-after-removal-of-penicillin-allergy-label
#11
David Vyles, Asriani Chiu, John Routes, Mariana Castells, Elizabeth J Phillips, Jennifer Kibicho, David C Brousseau
BACKGROUND: Penicillin allergy is commonly reported in the pediatric emergency department. We previously performed 3-tier penicillin allergy testing on children with low-risk symptoms, and 100% tolerated a penicillin challenge without an allergic reaction. We hypothesized that no serious allergic reactions would occur after re-exposure to penicillin and that prescription practices would change after testing. METHODS: We performed a follow-up case series of 100 children whose test results were negative for penicillin allergy...
April 20, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677922/implementing-an-antibiotic-stewardship-information-system-to-improve-hospital-infection-control-a-co-design-process
#12
Mélanie R Maia, Alexandra Simões, Luís V Lapão
HAITooL information system design and implementation was based on Design Science Research Methodology, ensuring full participation, in close collaboration, of researchers and a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals. HAITooL enables effective monitoring of antibiotic resistance, antibiotic use and provides an antibiotic prescription decision-supporting system by clinicians, strengthening the patient safety procedures. The design, development and implementation process reveals benefits in organizational and behavior change with significant success...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677440/phenotypic-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-with-deep-learning-video-microscopy
#13
Hui Yu, Wenwen Jing, Rafael Iriya, Yunze Yang, Karan Syal, Manni Mo, Thomas E Grys, Shelley E Haydel, Shaopeng Wang, Nongjian Tao
Timely determination of antimicrobial susceptibility for a bacterial infection enables precision prescription, shortens treatment time and helps minimize the spread of antibiotic resistant infections. Current antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) methods often take several days and thus impede these clinical and health benefits. Here, we present an AST method by imaging freely moving bacterial cells in urine in real time and analyzing the videos with a deep learning algorithm. The deep learning algorithm determines if an antibiotic inhibits a bacterial cell by learning multiple phenotypic features of the cell without the need for defining and quantifying each feature...
April 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676868/-how-i-treat-%C3%A2-an-acute-otitis-media-in-children
#14
V Heinrichs, J Frère
Acute otitis media (AOM) is very common in early childhood (inferior to 2 years). As a spontaneous recovery occurs in superior to 80 % of cases, antibiotics use should not be systematic. The aim of this review is to discuss AOM diagnostic criteria based on the latest recommendations, aiming a wiser use of antibiotics. Antibiotics use in a child with AOM should take into account the age, the severity of the disease, uni- or bilateral otitis, the presence or absence of otorrhea, and the presence of possible risk factors...
April 2018: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676050/part-2-current-prescribing-trends-of-dental-non-antibacterial-medicines-in-australia-from-2013-to-2016
#15
L Teoh, K Stewart, R J Marino, M J McCullough
BACKGROUND: There is limited literature regarding dental prescribing preferences for medicines other than antibiotics. This study aimed to describe the prescribing trends of dispensed prescription medicines by dentists in Australia from 2013 and 2016 and assess adherence to current guidelines. METHODS: Data was accessed from the Department of Health of all dental prescriptions dispensed under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) from 2013 to 2016 and prescribing patterns were analysed...
April 19, 2018: Australian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671132/effects-of-county-public-hospital-reform-on-procurement-costs-and-volume-of-antibiotics-a-quasi-natural-experiment-in-hubei-province-china
#16
Yuqing Tang, Chaojie Liu, Junjie Liu, Xinping Zhang, Keyuan Zuo
BACKGROUND: The overuse of antibiotics has become a major public health challenge worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries, including China. In 2009, the Chinese government launched a series of measures to de-incentivise over-prescription in public health facilities, including decoupling the link between facility income and the sale of medicines. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effects of these measures on procurement costs and the volume of antibiotics in county public hospitals...
April 18, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670882/stomal-closure-strategies-to-prevent-incisional-hernia
#17
Rhiannon L Harries, Jared Torkington
Incisional hernias following ostomy reversal occur frequently. Incisional hernias at the site of a previous stoma closure can cause significant morbidity, impaired quality of life, lead to life-threatening hernia incarceration or strangulation and result in a significant financial burden on health care systems Despite this, the evidence base on the subject is limited. Many recognised risk factors for the development of incisional hernia following ostomy reversal are related to patient factors such as age, malignancy, diabetes, COPD, hypertension and obesity, and are not easily correctable...
2018: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670404/evaluation-of-vancomycin-therapy-in-the-adult-icus-of-a-teaching-hospital-in-southern-iran
#18
Afsaneh Vazin, Motahare Mahi Birjand, Masoud Darake
Background: Vancomycin resistance in intensive care units (ICUs) accounts for significant morbidity and excess costs. The objective of the present study was to determine the appropriateness of vancomycin use in the various ICUs of Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz, Iran. Methods: This prospective study was performed on 95 critically ill patients (48 males and 47 females) who were treated with vancomycin for at least 3 subsequent doses in 6 ICUs during 12 months. Required demographic, clinical, and paraclinical data were collected by a pharmacist...
2018: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669670/utilization-and-timeliness-of-an-inpatient-penicillin-allergy-evaluation
#19
Keith A Sacco, Razvan Chirila, Claudia Libertin, Brett Hiroto, Arveen Bhasin, Margaret M Johnson, Thanai Pongdee, M Caroline Burton
BACKGROUND: A history of penicillin allergy is associated with an increased risk of nosocomial infections because patients are exposed to non-beta lactam antibiotics. Ruling out inaccurate penicillin allergy during hospitalization decreases prescription of beta lactam antibiotics. However, the utilization of penicillin allergy testing and timeliness in relation to initiation of antibiotics is not known. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to describe the proportion and characteristics of patients who underwent inpatient penicillin allergy testing in a hospital without a guideline or infrastructure for inpatient penicillin allergy testing...
May 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669046/nephrology-comanagement-and-the-quality-of-antibiotic-prescribing-in-primary-care-for-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#20
Justin X G Zhu, Danielle M Nash, Eric McArthur, Alexandra Farag, Amit X Garg, Arsh K Jain
Background: In primary care, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are frequently prescribed excessive doses of antibiotics relative to their kidney function. We examined whether nephrology comanagement is associated with improved prescribing in primary care. Methods: In a retrospective propensity score-matched cross-sectional study, we studied the appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions by primary care physicians to Ontarians ≥66 years of age with CKD Stages 4 and 5 (estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1...
April 12, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
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