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Infectious diseases modelling

Kelly R Moran, Sara Y Del Valle
Respiratory infectious disease epidemics and pandemics are recurring events that levy a high cost on individuals and society. The health-protective behavioral response of the public plays an important role in limiting respiratory infectious disease spread. Health-protective behaviors take several forms. Behaviors can be categorized as pharmaceutical (e.g., vaccination uptake, antiviral use) or non-pharmaceutical (e.g., hand washing, face mask use, avoidance of public transport). Due to the limitations of pharmaceutical interventions during respiratory epidemics and pandemics, public health campaigns aimed at limiting disease spread often emphasize both non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical behavioral interventions...
2016: PloS One
Russell Byrum, Lauren Keith, Christopher Bartos, Marisa St Claire, Matthew G Lackemeyer, Michael R Holbrook, Krisztina Janosko, Jason Barr, Daniela Pusl, Laura Bollinger, Jiro Wada, Linda Coe, Lisa E Hensley, Peter B Jahrling, Jens H Kuhn, Margaret R Lentz
Medical imaging using animal models for human diseases has been utilized for decades; however, until recently, medical imaging of diseases induced by high-consequence pathogens has not been possible. In 2014, the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick opened an Animal Biosafety Level 4 (ABSL-4) facility to assess the clinical course and pathology of infectious diseases in experimentally infected animals. Multiple imaging modalities including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and single photon emission computed tomography are available to researchers for these evaluations...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Barbara Picone, Clint Rhode, Rouvay Roodt-Wilding
Aquatic animal diseases are one of the most important limitations to the growth of aquaculture. miRNAs represent an important class of small ncRNAs able to modulate host immune and stress responses. In Mollusca, a large phylum of invertebrates, miRNAs have been identified in several species. The current preliminary study identified known miRNAs from the South African abalone, Haliotis midae. The economic and ecological importance of abalone makes this species a suitable model for studying and understanding stress response in marine gastropods...
October 17, 2016: Marine Genomics
S I Watson, E B Wroe, E L Dunbar, J Mukherjee, S B Squire, L Nazimera, L Dullie, R J Lilford
BACKGROUND: User fees have generally fallen out of favor across Africa, and they have been associated with reductions in access to healthcare. We examined the effects of the introduction and removal of user fees on outpatient attendances and new diagnoses of HIV, malaria, and tuberculosis in Neno District, Malawi where user fees were re-instated at three of 13 health centres in 2013 and subsequently removed at one of these in 2015. METHODS: We conducted two analyses...
October 20, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Daniel Zysset, Benjamin Weber, Silvia Rihs, Jennifer Brasseit, Stefan Freigang, Carsten Riether, Yara Banz, Adelheid Cerwenka, Cedric Simillion, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Adrian F Ochsenbein, Leslie Saurer, Christoph Mueller
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is a potent amplifier of pro-inflammatory innate immune responses, but its significance in non-infectious diseases remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that TREM-1 promotes cardiovascular disease by exacerbating atherosclerosis. TREM-1 is expressed in advanced human atheromas and is highly upregulated under dyslipidemic conditions on circulating and on lesion-infiltrating myeloid cells in the Apoe(-/-) mouse model. TREM-1 strongly contributes to high-fat, high-cholesterol diet (HFCD)-induced monocytosis and synergizes with HFCD serum-derived factors to promote pro-inflammatory cytokine responses and foam cell formation of human monocyte/macrophages...
October 20, 2016: Nature Communications
Jiraporn Jarungsriapisit, Lindsey J Moore, Stig Mæhle, Cecilie Skår, Ann Cathrine Einen, Ingrid Uglenes Fiksdal, Hugh Craig Morton, Sigurd O Stefansson, Geir Lasse Taranger, Sonal Patel
Salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV3) causes pancreas disease (PD) and adversely affects salmonid aquaculture in Europe. A better understanding of disease transmission is currently needed in order to manage PD outbreaks. Here, we demonstrate the relationship between viral dose and the outcome of SAV3 infection in Atlantic salmon post-smolts using a bath challenge model. Fish were challenged at 12 °C with 3 different SAV3 doses; 139, 27 and 7 TCID50 L(-1) of seawater. A dose of as little as 7 TCID50 L(-1) of seawater was able to induce SAV3 infection in the challenged population with a substantial level of variation between replicate tanks and, therefore, likely represents a dose close to the minimum dose required to establish an infection in a population...
October 19, 2016: Veterinary Research
Julia Smedbråten, Geir Mjøen, Anders Hartmann, Anders Åsberg, Halvor Rollag, Tom Eirik Mollnes, Leiv Sandvik, Morten W Fagerland, Steffen Thiel, Solbjørg Sagedal
BACKGROUND: Higher incidence of malignancy and infectious diseases in kidney transplant recipients is related to immunosuppressive treatment after transplantation and the recipient's native immune system. The complement system is an essential component of the innate immunity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of effector molecules of the lectin complement pathway with graft and patient survival after kidney transplantation. METHODS: Two mannan-binding lectin (MBL) associated proteases, MASP-2 and MASP-3 (activators of the lectin pathway) and two MBL-associated proteins, MAp44 and MAp19 (inhibitors of the lectin pathway) were measured at the time of transplantation in 382 patients (≥17 years old) transplanted in 2000-2001...
October 18, 2016: BMC Nephrology
Bohumír Procházka, Jan Kynčl
In epidemiology, it is very important to estimate the baseline incidence of infectious diseases, but the available data are often subject to outliers due to epidemic outbreaks. Consequently, the estimate of the baseline incidence is biased and so is the predicted epidemic threshold which is a crucial reference indicator used to suspect and detect an epidemic outbreak. Another problem is that the "usual" incidence varies in a season dependent manner, i.e. it may not be constant throughout the year, is often periodic, and may also show a trend between years...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Peter Brommesson, Uno Wennergren, Tom Lindström
The structure of contacts that mediate transmission has a pronounced effect on the outbreak dynamics of infectious disease and simulation models are powerful tools to inform policy decisions. Most simulation models of livestock disease spread rely to some degree on predictions of animal movement between holdings. Typically, movements are more common between nearby farms than between those located far away from each other. Here, we assessed spatiotemporal variation in such distance dependence of animal movement contacts from an epidemiological perspective...
2016: PloS One
J M Greene, P Dash, S Roy, C McMurtrey, W Awad, J S Reed, K B Hammond, S Abdulhaqq, H L Wu, B J Burwitz, B F Roth, D W Morrow, J C Ford, G Xu, J Y Bae, H Crank, A W Legasse, T H Dang, H Y Greenaway, M Kurniawan, M C Gold, M J Harriff, D A Lewinsohn, B S Park, M K Axthelm, J J Stanton, S G Hansen, L J Picker, V Venturi, W Hildebrand, P G Thomas, D M Lewinsohn, E J Adams, J B Sacha
Studies on mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAITs) in nonhuman primates (NHP), a physiologically relevant model of human immunity, are handicapped due to a lack of macaque MAIT-specific reagents. Here we show that while MR1 ligand-contact residues are conserved between human and multiple NHP species, three T-cell receptor contact-residue mutations in NHP MR1 diminish binding of human MR1 tetramers to macaque MAITs. Construction of naturally loaded macaque MR1 tetramers facilitated identification and characterization of macaque MR1-binding ligands and MAITs, both of which mirrored their human counterparts...
October 19, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Chun-Yuan Lee, Calvin M Kunin, Chung Chang, Susan Shin-Jung Lee, Yao-Shen Chen, Hung-Chin Tsai
BACKGROUND: Cellulitis is a common infectious disease. Although blood culture is frequently used in the diagnosis and subsequent treatment of cellulitis, it is a contentious diagnostic test. To help clinicians determine which patients should undergo blood culture for the management of cellulitis, a diagnostic scoring system referred to as the Bacteremia Score of Cellulitis was developed. METHODS: Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed as part of a retrospective cohort study of all adults diagnosed with cellulitis in a tertiary teaching hospital in Taiwan in 2013...
October 19, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Suvajyoti Guha, Brady McCaffrey, Prasanna Hariharan, Matthew R Myers
Surgical respirators, surgical masks (SMs) and facemasks for pediatric use (FPUs) are routinely used in the US healthcare industry as personal protective equipment (PPE) against infectious diseases. While N95s including surgical respirators have been routinely studied, SMs and FPUs have not received as much attention, particularly in the context of aerosolized threats. This is because SMs and PFUs are not designed to protect against sub-micron aerosols. However, with the possibility of new or re-emerging airborne diseases or bio-aerosol weapons lingering, combined with the limited availability of respirators and logistical issues associated with fit-testing millions, the general adult and pediatric populations may elect to wear SMs and FPUs, respectively, in the case of a pandemic or a bio-terrorist attack...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Antonio Mazzella, Anne Olland, Pierre Emmanuel Falcoz, Stephane Renaud, Nicola Santelmo, Gilbert Massard
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the number of video-assisted thoracic surgery-lobectomies (VATS-lobectomies) required for an experienced consultant thoracic surgeon to obtain competence and to perform standard quality surgery. METHODS: We have analysed the initial VATS-experience (January 2012 to September 2014) of a confirmed senior consultant who has performed 145 consecutive anatomic resections by thoracoscopy. After excluding bilobectomies, segmentectomies, and lobectomies for infectious disease, we have focused into 119 consecutive lobectomies, classified into 4 chronologic groups of 30 each...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Zhijie Song, Rui Shi, Jie Jia, Jian Wang
Sentiment contagion is similar to an infectious disease that spreads in a crowd. In this study, we extend the proposed SOSa-SPSa model (susceptible-optimistic-susceptible and susceptible-pessimistic-susceptible) by considering the interaction between optimists and pessimists. Simulation results show that our model is reasonable and can better explain the entire contagion process by considering three groups of people. The recovery speed of pessimists has an obvious regulative effect on the number of pessimists and the possibility of optimists coming in contact with pessimists to be infected as pessimism plays a greater role than that of reverting to susceptibility...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Marcela Suárez-Esquivel, Nazareth Ruiz-Villalobos, Amanda Castillo-Zeledón, César Jiménez-Rojas, R Martin Roop Ii, Diego J Comerci, Elías Barquero-Calvo, Carlos Chacón-Díaz, Clayton C Caswell, Kate S Baker, Esteban Chaves-Olarte, Nicholas R Thomson, Edgardo Moreno, Jean J Letesson, Xavier De Bolle, Caterina Guzmán-Verri
Brucellosis is a bacterial infectious disease affecting a wide range of mammals and a neglected zoonosis caused by species of the genetically homogenous genus Brucella. As in most studies on bacterial diseases, research in brucellosis is carried out by using reference strains as canonical models to understand the mechanisms underlying host pathogen interactions. We performed whole genome sequencing analysis of the reference strain B. abortus 2308 routinely used in our laboratory, including manual curated annotation accessible as an editable version through a link at https://en...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
David S Senchina
Infectious diseases are potential catalysts for exploring 'engaged citizen' or socioscientific themes given their interwoven economic, political, scientific, and social dimensions. This article describes how an undergraduate course on the history of infectious diseases was modified to explore the impact of two 'engaged citizen' themes (poverty and technology), and to consider the ramifications of those themes on past, present, and future infectious disease outbreaks. Four outbreaks were used as the foundation for the course: plague (1350s), puerperal fever (1840s), cholera (1850s), and syphilis (1930s)...
October 14, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Suni Petersen, Trina Do, Christy Shaw, Kaile Brake
Worldwide more deaths occur due to conditions that can be ameliorated by behavior change. Changing health behaviors using models popularized in non-western countries has not proven particularly successful. The purpose of this study was to test variables elicited during qualitative interviews and cultural conversations to develop a model of health behavior change from the ground up in Vietnam. Village leaders and women representatives from the Women's Committee were trained as health advocates to facilitate changes in health practices that led to parasitic and infectious diseases...
October 15, 2016: Health Education Research
Dung Phung, Cordia Chu, Shannon Rutherford, Huong Lien Thi Nguyen, Cuong Manh Do, Cunrui Huang
The effects of heatwaves on morbidity in developing and tropical countries have not been well explored. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between heatwaves and hospitalization and the potential influence of socio-economic factors on this relationship in Vietnam. Generalized Linear Models (GLM) with Poisson family and Distributed Lag Models (DLM) were applied to evaluate the effect of heatwaves for each province (province-level effect). A random-effects meta-analysis was applied to calculate the pooled estimates (country-level effects) for 'all causes', infectious, cardiovascular, and respiratory admissions queried by lag days, regions, sex, and ages...
October 13, 2016: Environmental Pollution
W A Knauer, S M Godden, N McDonald
Indwelling rumen temperature bolus (RTB) systems have the potential to offer a convenient and timely method of detecting pyrexia, indicative of active infectious disease. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the utility of using RTB systems in preweaned dairy calves. First, an in vitro study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the RTB in its immediate environment. Thirteen RTB were immersed in a hot water bath (WB). Variably collected RTB temperatures were then matched to WB temperatures, which varied from 36 to 41°C, with 1 h spent at each temperature...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Archana Vimal, Awanish Kumar
Allosterism has emerged as an innovative and significant mode of drug discovery. It facilitates the targeting of an allosteric site that is unique and more specific. A relatively new approach to allosteric regulation is the morpheein model, a concerted dissociative model that describes the equilibrium of alternate quaternary structure assemblies, whose architectures are dictated by alternate conformations in the dissociated state. It is involved in various biological phenomena, including enzyme regulation. One such enzyme is l-asparaginase, which is exploited by pathogenic microbes to cause infectious disease in humans...
October 11, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
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