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Infectious diseases modelling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914091/toward-clinical-use-of-the-igg-specific-enzymes-ides-and-endos-against-antibody-mediated-diseases
#1
Mattias Collin, Lars Björck
The endoglycosidase EndoS and the protease IdeS from the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes are immunomodulating enzymes hydrolyzing human IgG. IdeS cleaves IgG in the lower hinge region, while EndoS hydrolyzes the conserved N-linked glycan in the Fc region. Both enzymes are remarkably specific for human IgG that after hydrolysis loses most of its effector functions, such as binding to leukocytes and complement activation, all contributing to bacterial evasion of adaptive immunity. However, taken out of their infectious context, we and others have shown that IdeS and EndoS can alleviate autoimmune disease in a number of animal models of antibody-mediated disorders...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914087/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-biofilm-formation-by-pathogenic-streptococci
#2
Yashuan Chao, Caroline Bergenfelz, Anders P Håkansson
This manuscript presents novel approaches to grow and evaluate Streptococcal biofilm formation using the human respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) as the main model organism on biological surfaces in vitro and in vivo. Most biofilm models are based on growth on abiotic surfaces, which is relevant for many pathogens whose growth on surfaces or medical devices is a major cause of disease transmission and infections, especially in hospital environments. However, most infections with commensal organisms require biofilm formation on biological surfaces in the host at the site of colonization or infection...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914084/the-zebrafish-as-a-model-for-human-bacterial-infections
#3
Melody N Neely
The development of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) infectious disease model has provided new insights and information into pathogenesis. Many of these new discoveries would not have been possible using a typical mammalian model. The advantages of using this model are many and in the last 15 years the model has been exploited for the analysis of many different pathogens. Here, we describe in detail how to perform a bacterial infection using either the adult zebrafish or zebrafish larvae using microinjection. Multiple methods of analysis are described that can be used to address specific questions pertaining to disease progression and the interactions with the immune system...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913131/using-phenomenological-models-for-forecasting-the-2015-ebola-challenge
#4
Bruce Pell, Yang Kuang, Cecile Viboud, Gerardo Chowell
BACKGROUND: The rising number of novel pathogens threatening the human population has motivated the application of mathematical modeling for forecasting the trajectory and size of epidemics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We summarize the real-time forecasting results of the logistic equation during the 2015 Ebola challenge focused on predicting synthetic data derived from a detailed individual-based model of Ebola transmission dynamics and control. We also carry out a post-challenge comparison of two simple phenomenological models...
November 19, 2016: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911873/interleukin-8-holds-promise-to-serve-as-a-molecular-adjuvant-in-dna-vaccination-model-against-streptococcus-iniae-infection-in-fish
#5
Erlong Wang, Bo Long, Kaiyu Wang, Jun Wang, Yang He, Xingli Wang, Qian Yang, Tao Liu, Defang Chen, Yi Geng, Xiaoli Huang, Ping Ouyang, Weimin Lai
DNA vaccines had been widely used in animal models against various viral infections, while it was not so convincing for many infectious diseases especially bacterial disease in aquaculture. Interleukin-8(IL-8) as one of the CXC chemokines, its immunological role and adjuvant potential which had been proved in mammals were rarely reported in fish species. In this study, recombination plasmid pcDNA3.1/IL-8(pcIL-8) was conducted and the capacity of IL-8 as molecular adjuvant was explored from several aspects by co-injecting with a DNA vaccine encoding α-enolase(pcENO) against Streptococcus iniae infection in channel catfish...
November 30, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906084/quasi-poisson-versus-negative-binomial-regression-models-in-identifying-factors-affecting-initial-cd4-cell-count-change-due-to-antiretroviral-therapy-administered-to-hiv-positive-adults-in-north-west-ethiopia-amhara-region
#6
Awoke Seyoum, Principal Ndlovu, Temesgen Zewotir
BACKGROUND: CD4 cells are a type of white blood cells that plays a significant role in protecting humans from infectious diseases. Lack of information on associated factors on CD4 cell count reduction is an obstacle for improvement of cells in HIV positive adults. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate baseline factors that could affect initial CD4 cell count change after highly active antiretroviral therapy had been given to adult patients in North West Ethiopia...
November 9, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903801/inhibition-of-an-aquatic-rhabdovirus-demonstrates-promise-of-a-broad-spectrum-antiviral-for-use-in-aquaculture
#7
Bethany F Balmer, Rachel L Powers, Ting-Hu Zhang, Jihye Lee, Frederic Vigant, Benhur Lee, Michael E Jung, Maureen K Purcell, Kevin Snekvik, Hector C Aguilar
: Many enveloped viruses cause devastating disease in aquaculture, resulting in significant economic impact. LJ001 is a broad-spectrum antiviral compound that inhibits enveloped viral infections by specifically targeting phospholipids in the lipid bilayer via production of singlet oxygen ((1)O2). This stabilizes positive curvature and decreases membrane fluidity, which inhibits viral-cell membrane fusion during viral entry. Based on previous mammalian studies and the requirement of light for activation of LJ001, we hypothesized that LJ001 may be useful as a preventative and/or therapeutic agent for enveloped viral infections in aquaculture...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903308/joint-spatial-time-series-epidemiological-analysis-of-malaria-and-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-infection
#8
O A Adegboye, M Al-Saghir, D H Y Leung
Malaria and leishmaniasis are among the two most important health problems of many developing countries especially in the Middle East and North Africa. It is common for vector-borne infectious diseases to have similar hotspots which may be attributed to the overlapping ecological distribution of the vector. Hotspot analyses were conducted to simultaneously detect the location of local hotspots and test their statistical significance. Spatial scan statistics were used to detect and test hotspots of malaria and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Afghanistan in 2009...
December 1, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892501/a-social-contagious-model-of-the-obesity-epidemic
#9
He Huang, Zhijun Yan, Yahong Chen, Fangyan Liu
Obesity has been recognized as a global epidemic by WHO, followed by many empirical evidences to prove its infectiousness. However, the inter-person spreading dynamics of obesity are seldom studied. A distinguishing feature of the obesity epidemic is that it is driven by a social contagion process which cannot be perfectly described by the infectious disease models. In this paper, we propose a novel belief decision model based on the famous Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence to model obesity epidemic as the competing spread of two obesity-related behaviors: physical inactivity and physical activity...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890012/the-biology-of-%C3%AE-d-mannuronic-acid-m2000-on-human-dendritic-cell-based-on-microrna-155-and-microrna-221
#10
Nakisa Tabrizian, Nazanin Arjomand Fard, Ali Farazmand, Rahil Eftekhari, Farzaneh Tofighi Zavareh, Abbas Mirshafiey
: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ß-D-mannuronic acid (M2000) on related miRNAs to dendritic cells (DCs) differentiation. DC-based immunosuppressive drugs can suppress the progression of autoimmune diseases, however, their notable side effects in increasing the risk of infectious diseases and cancers should be considered. The ß-D-mannuronic acid, as a novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, has been tested in various experimental models. The effect of M2000 on expression of miRNA-155 and miRNA-221 was examined...
November 23, 2016: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887963/animal-models-in-the-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-evaluation-of-antimicrobial-agents
#11
Miao Zhao, Alexander J Lepak, David R Andes
Animal infection models in the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) evaluation of antimicrobial therapy serve an important role in preclinical assessments of new antibiotics, dosing optimization for those that are clinically approved, and setting or confirming susceptibility breakpoints. The goal of animal model studies is to mimic the infectious diseases seen in humans to allow for robust PK/PD studies to find the optimal drug exposures that lead to therapeutic success. The PK/PD index and target drug exposures obtained in validated animal infection models are critical components in optimizing dosing regimen design in order to maximize efficacy while minimize the cost and duration of clinical trials...
November 9, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887600/individual-household-and-community-level-factors-associated-with-keeping-tuberculosis-status-secret-in-ghana
#12
Joshua Amo-Adjei
BACKGROUND: In tuberculosis (TB) control, early disclosure is recommended for the purposes of treatment as well as a means of reducing or preventing person-to-person transmission of the bacteria. However, disclosure maybe avoided as a means of escaping stigma, and possible discrimination. This study aimed at providing insights into factors associated with intentions of Ghanaians to keep positive TB diagnosis in their families' a secret. METHODS: The paper was based on data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey...
November 25, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883328/factors-associated-with-lethal-outcome-in-patients-with-severe-form-of-influenza
#13
Marija Cvetanovska, Zvonko Milenkovik, Valerija Kirova Uroshevik, Ilir Demiri, Vlatko Cvetanovski
INTRODUCTION: Clinical manifestations of influenza range from relatively mild and self-limiting respiratory infections to severe clinical manifestations with significant morbidity and mortality. The awareness of predictive indicators for the lethal outcome of influenza is of particular significance in making timely and exact decision for adequate treatment. The aim of this study was to identify the factors in patients with a severe form of influenza, resulting in lethal outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The investigation was a prospective group comparison conducted at the University Clinic for Infectious Diseases in Skopje, R...
November 1, 2016: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882678/a-molecular-transmission-network-of-recent-hepatitis-c-infection-in-people-with-and-without-hiv-implications-for-targeted-treatment-strategies
#14
S R Bartlett, J O Wertheim, R A Bull, G V Matthews, F M J Lamoury, K Scheffler, M Hellard, L Maher, G J Dore, A R Lloyd, T L Applegate, J Grebely
Combining phylogenetic and network methodologies has the potential to better inform targeted interventions to prevent and treat infectious diseases. This study reconstructed a molecular transmission network for people with recent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and modelled the impact of targeting directly acting antiviral (DAA) treatment for HCV in the network. Participants were selected from three Australian studies of recent HCV from 2004 to 2014. HCV sequence data (Core-E2) from participants at the time of recent HCV detection were analysed to infer a network by connecting pairs of sequences whose divergence was ≤...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882127/evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-steroid-therapy-on-acute-liver-failure
#15
Bo Zhao, Hui-Yan Zhang, Gui-Juan Xie, Hui-Min Liu, Qing Chen, Rui-Feng Li, Jian-Ping You, Sha Yang, Qing Mao, Xu-Qing Zhang
The effects of corticosteroids in the treatment of patients with acute or subacute liver failure (ALF or SALF) are controversial. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroids in improving spontaneous survival (SS) rate in patients with ALF and SALF, and to determine the groups with the highest rates of response to, and the most effective timing of, corticosteroid administration. A retrospective analysis was performed of all patients with ALF and SALF who were hospitalized in the Department of Infectious Diseases, Southwest Hospital, Chongqing, China from 2000-2012...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882067/bioinformatic-identification-of-rare-codon-clusters-rccs-in-hbv-genome-and-evaluation-of-rccs-in-proteins-structure-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#16
Mojtaba Mortazavi, Mohammad Zarenezhad, Saeid Gholamzadeh, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Mohammad Ghorbani, Reza Dehghani, Abdorrasoul Malekpour, Mohammadhasan Meshkibaf, Ali Fakhrzad
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) as an infectious disease that has nine genotypes (A - I) and a 'putative' genotype J. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify the rare codon clusters (RCC) in the HBV genome and to evaluate these RCCs in the HBV proteins structure. METHODS: For detection of protein family accession numbers (Pfam) in HBV proteins, the UniProt database and Pfam search tool were used. Protein family accession numbers is a comprehensive and accurate collection of protein domains and families...
October 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881656/infectious-bursal-disease-virus-activates-c-src-to-promote-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-1-integrin-dependent-viral-entry-via-modulating-downstream-akt-rhoa-gtpase-actin-rearrangement-cascade
#17
Chengjin Ye, Xinpeng Han, Zhaoli Yu, Enli Zhang, Lijuan Wang, Hebin Liu
: While the entry of IBDV is initiated by the binding of the virus to the two major receptors integrin and HSP90, the signaling events after the receptor binding and how they contribute to the viral entry remain elusive. We show here that IBDV activates c-Src by inducing phosphorylation of the Y416 residue in c-Src both in the DF-1 chicken fibroblasts and in vivo in the bursa of fabricius from SPF chickens. Importantly, the inactivated IBDV fails to stimulate c-Src Y416 phosphorylation, and a very virulent IBDV strain induces much higher level of c-Src Y416 phosphorylation than an attenuated strain...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881655/porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-nsp1%C3%AE-inhibits-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-by-targeting-linear-ubiquitin-chain-assembly-complex-lubac
#18
Huiyuan Jing, Liurong Fang, Zhen Ding, Dang Wang, Wenqi Hao, Li Gao, Wenting Ke, Huanchun Chen, Shaobo Xiao
: Linear ubiquitination, a newly discovered posttranslational modification, is catalyzed by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), which is composed of three subunits: one catalytic subunit HOIP and two accessory molecules, HOIL-1L and SHARPIN. Accumulating evidence suggests that linear ubiquitination plays a crucial role in innate immune signaling and especially in the activation of the NF-κB pathway by conjugating linear polyubiquitin chains to NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO, also called IKKγ), the regulatory subunit of the IKK complex...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881648/modeling-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-virus-infection-in-golden-syrian-hamsters-importance-of-stat2-in-preventing-disease-and-effective-treatment-with-favipiravir
#19
Brian B Gowen, Jonna B Westover, Jinxin Miao, Arnaud J Van Wettere, Johanna D Rigas, Brady T Hickerson, Kie-Hoon Jung, Rong Li, Bettina L Conrad, Skot Nielson, Yousuke Furuta, Zhongde Wang
: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne disease endemic in parts of Asia. The etiologic agent, SFTS virus (SFTSV; Bunyaviridae family, Phlebovirus genus) has caused significant morbidity and mortality in China, Korea, and Japan, with key features of disease being intense fever, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. Case fatality rates are estimated in the 30% range and no antivirals or vaccines are approved for use for treatment and prevention of SFTS...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879561/late-therapeutic-intervention-with-antibiotics-and-fluid-resuscitation-allows-for-a-prolonged-disease-course-with-high-survival-in-a-severe-murine-model-of-sepsis
#20
Allison M Steele, Marlene E Starr, Hiroshi Saito
Current animal models of sepsis often incorporate antibiotics to be consistent with clinical standards for treatment of patients in the ICU. However, such experimental intervention is commonly initiated very early after infectious insult, which likely blunts the progression of systemic inflammation and downstream pathology. The objective of this study was to establish an animal model of sepsis with delayed therapeutic intervention, allowing a longer disease course and downstream pathology, but still resulting in a high survival rate...
November 22, 2016: Shock
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