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Infectious diseases modelling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353387/inter-individual-variation-in-health-and-disease-associated-with-pulmonary-infectious-agents
#1
Kirsten C Verhein, Heather L Vellers, Steven R Kleeberger
Respiratory infectious diseases resulting from bacterial or viral pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), or influenza, are major global public health concerns. Lower respiratory tract infections are leading causes of morbidity and mortality, only behind ischemic heart disease and stroke (GBD 2015 LRI Collaborators in Lancet Infect Dis 17(11):1133-1161, 2017). Developing countries are particularly impacted by these diseases. However, while many are infected with viruses such as RSV (> 90% of all individuals are infected by age 2), only sub-populations develop severe disease...
January 20, 2018: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352298/hexokinase-ii-may-be-dispensable-for-cd4-t-cell-responses-against-a-virus-infection
#2
Siva Karthik Varanasi, Ujjaldeep Jaggi, Nissim Hay, Barry T Rouse
Activation of CD4 T cells leads to their metabolic reprogramming which includes enhanced glycolysis, catalyzed through hexokinase enzymes. Studies in some systems indicate that the HK2 isoform is the most up regulated isoform in activated T cells and in this report the relevance of this finding is evaluated in an infectious disease model. Genetic ablation of HK2 was achieved in only T cells and the outcome was evaluated by measures of T cell function. Our results show that CD4 T cells from both HK2 depleted and WT animals displayed similar responses to in vitro stimulation and yielded similar levels of Th1, Treg or Th17 subsets when differentiated in vitro...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347209/takeover-times-for-a-simple-model-of-network-infection
#3
Bertrand Ottino-Löffler, Jacob G Scott, Steven H Strogatz
We study a stochastic model of infection spreading on a network. At each time step a node is chosen at random, along with one of its neighbors. If the node is infected and the neighbor is susceptible, the neighbor becomes infected. How many time steps T does it take to completely infect a network of N nodes, starting from a single infected node? An analogy to the classic "coupon collector" problem of probability theory reveals that the takeover time T is dominated by extremal behavior, either when there are only a few infected nodes near the start of the process or a few susceptible nodes near the end...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345518/bacterial-pathogenesis-and-interleukin-17-interconnecting-mechanisms-of-immune-regulation-host-genetics-and-microbial-virulence-that-influence-severity-of-infection
#4
Michelle N Chamoun, Antje Blumenthal, Matthew J Sullivan, Mark A Schembri, Glen C Ulett
Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the control of many different disorders, including autoimmune, oncogenic, and diverse infectious diseases. In the context of infectious diseases, IL-17 protects the host against various classes of microorganisms but, intriguingly, can also exacerbate the severity of some infections. The regulation of IL-17 expression stems, in part, from the activity of Interleukin-23 (IL-23), which drives the maturation of different classes of IL-17-producing cells that can alter the course of infection...
January 18, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343627/risk-ratios-for-contagious-outcomes
#5
Olga Morozova, Ted Cohen, Forrest W Crawford
Epidemiologists commonly use the risk ratio to summarize the relationship between a binary covariate and outcome, even when outcomes may be dependent. Investigations of transmissible diseases in clusters-households, villages or small groups-often report risk ratios. Epidemiologists have warned that risk ratios may be misleading when outcomes are contagious, but the nature of this error is poorly understood. In this study, we assess the meaning of the risk ratio when outcomes are contagious. We provide a mathematical definition of infectious disease transmission within clusters, based on the canonical stochastic susceptible-infective model...
January 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343258/mass-spectrometric-profiling-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-reveals-metabolite-biomarkers-for-cns-involvement-in-varicella-zoster-virus-reactivation
#6
Maike Kuhn, Kurt-Wolfram Sühs, Manas K Akmatov, Frank Klawonn, Junxi Wang, Thomas Skripuletz, Volkhard Kaever, Martin Stangel, Frank Pessler
BACKGROUND: Varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation spans the spectrum from uncomplicated segmental herpes zoster to life-threatening disseminated CNS infection. Moreover, in the absence of a small animal model for this human pathogen, studies of pathogenesis at the organismal level depend on analysis of human biosamples. Changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolites may reflect critical aspects of host responses and end-organ damage in neuroinfection and neuroinflammation. We therefore applied a targeted metabolomics screen of CSF to three clinically distinct forms of VZV reactivation and infectious and non-infectious disease controls in order to identify biomarkers for CNS involvement in VZV reactivation...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343216/an-appraisal-how-notifiable-infectious-diseases-are-reported-by-hungarian-family-physicians
#7
Katalin Vraukó, Zoltán Jancsó, László Kalabay, Andrea Lukács, Gabriella Maráczi, Lajos Mester, Anna Nánási, József Rinfel, Tamás Sárosi, Ferenc Tamás, Albert Varga, József Vitrai, Imre Rurik
BACKGROUND: Within the frame of National Epidemiological Surveillance System, family physicians have an obligation to report infections and suspicions cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, daily practice and the reporting activities of Hungarian family physicians regarding to infectious diseases. METHODS: A self-administered survey was developed, validated and used. The survey was completed by family physicians who had taken part in continuous medical educational programmes of all Hungarian medical faculties...
January 17, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342931/transcriptome-analysis-based-on-rna-seq-in-understanding-pathogenic-mechanisms-of-diseases-and-the-immune-system-of-fish-a-comprehensive-review
#8
REVIEW
Arun Sudhagar, Gokhlesh Kumar, Mansour El-Matbouli
In recent years, with the advent of next-generation sequencing along with the development of various bioinformatics tools, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq)-based transcriptome analysis has become much more affordable in the field of biological research. This technique has even opened up avenues to explore the transcriptome of non-model organisms for which a reference genome is not available. This has made fish health researchers march towards this technology to understand pathogenic processes and immune reactions in fish during the event of infection...
January 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342882/implication-of-soluble-forms-of-cell-adhesion-molecules-in-infectious-disease-and-tumor-insights-from-transgenic-animal-models
#9
REVIEW
Etsuro Ono, Toshimitsu Uede
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, which mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. They play a critical role in maintaining tissue integrity and mediating migration of cells, and some of them also act as viral receptors. It has been known that soluble forms of the viral receptors bind to the surface glycoproteins of the viruses and neutralize them, resulting in inhibition of the viral entry into cells. Nectin-1 is one of important CAMs belonging to immunoglobulin superfamily and herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339220/a-new-chimeric-triple-reporter-fusion-protein-as-a-tool-for-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-multimodal-imaging-to-monitor-the-development-of-african-trypanosomes-and-leishmania-parasites
#10
Estefania Calvo Alvarez, Christelle Cren-Travaillé, Aline Crouzols, Brice Rotureau
Trypanosomiases and leishmaniases, caused by a group of related protist parasites, are Neglected Tropical Diseases currently threatening >500 million people worldwide. Reporter proteins have revolutionised the research on infectious diseases and have opened up new advances in the understanding of trypanosomatid-borne diseases in terms of both biology, pathogenesis and drug development. Here, we describe the generation and some applications of a new chimeric triple reporter fusion protein combining the red-shifted firefly luciferase PpyREH9 and the tdTomato red fluorescent protein, fused by the TY1 tag...
January 12, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338877/german-travelers-preferences-for-travel-vaccines-assessed-by-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#11
Christine Poulos, Desmond Curran, Anastassia Anastassopoulou, Laurence De Moerlooze
BACKGROUND: Many travelers to regions with endemic infectious diseases do not follow health authorities' recommendations regarding vaccination against vaccine-preventable infectious diseases, before traveling. The determinants of individual travelers' decisions to vaccinate before traveling are largely unknown. This study aimed to provide this information using a discrete choice experiment (DCE) administered to four types of German travelers: (1) business travelers; (2) travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFR); (3) leisure travelers; and (4) backpackers...
January 12, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338805/risk-factors-for-infectiousness-of-patients-with-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Y A Melsew, T N Doan, M Gambhir, A C Cheng, E McBryde, J M Trauer
We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses of studies assessing tuberculosis (TB) patient-related risk factors for transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Meta-analyses were conducted for sputum smear-positivity, lung cavitation and HIV seropositivity of index patients with both crude and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) pooled using random effect models. Thirty-seven studies were included in the review. We found that demographic characteristics such as age and sex were not significant risk factors, while behaviours such as smoking and alcohol intake were associated with infectiousness although inconsistently...
January 17, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336668/safety-and-biodistribution-of-sulfated-archaeal-glycolipid-archaeosomes-as-vaccine-adjuvants
#13
Bassel Akache, Felicity C Stark, Umar Iqbal, Wangxue Chen, Yimei Jia, Lakshmi Krishnan, Michael J McCluskie
Archaeosomes are liposomes comprised of ether lipids derived from various archaea. Unlike conventional ester-linked liposomes, archaeosomes exhibit high pH and thermal stability. As adjuvants, archaeosomes can induce robust, long-lasting humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and enhance protection in murine models of infectious disease and cancer. Archaeosomes constituted with total polar lipids (TPL) of various archaea are relatively complex, comprising >10 different lipid compounds. Archaeosomes can be constituted with semi-synthetic glycerolipids built on ether-linked isoprenoid phytanyl cores with varied synthetic glycol- and amino-head groups...
January 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335166/ambient-soil-cation-exchange-capacity-inversely-associates-with-infectious-and-parasitic-disease-risk-in-regional-australia
#14
Craig Liddicoat, Peng Bi, Michelle Waycott, John Glover, Martin Breed, Philip Weinstein
Human contact with soil may be important for building and maintaining normal healthy immune defence mechanisms, however this idea remains untested at the population-level. In this continent-wide, cross-sectional study we examine the possible public health benefit of ambient exposures to soil of high cation exchange capacity (CEC), a surrogate for potential immunomodulatory soil microbial diversity. We compare distributions of normalized mean 2011/12-2012/13 age-standardized public hospital admission rates (cumulative incidence) for infectious and parasitic diseases across regional Australia (representing an average of 29,516 patients/year in 228 local government areas), within tertiles of socioeconomic status and soil exposure...
January 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334373/prevention-of-tuberculosis-in-rhesus-macaques-by-a-cytomegalovirus-based-vaccine
#15
Scott G Hansen, Daniel E Zak, Guangwu Xu, Julia C Ford, Emily E Marshall, Daniel Malouli, Roxanne M Gilbride, Colette M Hughes, Abigail B Ventura, Emily Ainslie, Kurt T Randall, Andrea N Selseth, Parker Rundstrom, Lauren Herlache, Matthew S Lewis, Haesun Park, Shannon L Planer, John M Turner, Miranda Fischer, Christina Armstrong, Robert C Zweig, Joseph Valvo, Jackie M Braun, Smitha Shankar, Lenette Lu, Andrew W Sylwester, Alfred W Legasse, Martin Messerle, Michael A Jarvis, Lynn M Amon, Alan Aderem, Galit Alter, Dominick J Laddy, Michele Stone, Aurelio Bonavia, Thomas G Evans, Michael K Axthelm, Klaus Früh, Paul T Edlefsen, Louis J Picker
Despite widespread use of the bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of global mortality from a single infectious agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mtb). Here, over two independent Mtb challenge studies, we demonstrate that subcutaneous vaccination of rhesus macaques (RMs) with rhesus cytomegalovirus vectors encoding Mtb antigen inserts (hereafter referred to as RhCMV/TB)-which elicit and maintain highly effector-differentiated, circulating and tissue-resident Mtb-specific CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cell responses-can reduce the overall (pulmonary and extrapulmonary) extent of Mtb infection and disease by 68%, as compared to that in unvaccinated controls, after intrabronchial challenge with the Erdman strain of Mtb at ∼1 year after the first vaccination...
January 15, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332042/protective-effects-of-indian-spice-curcumin-against-amyloid-%C3%AE-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
P Hemachandra Reddy, Maria Manczak, Xiangling Yin, Mary Catherine Grady, Andrew Mitchell, Sahil Tonk, Chandra Sekhar Kuruva, Jasvinder Singh Bhatti, Ramesh Kandimalla, Murali Vijayan, Subodh Kumar, Rui Wang, Jangampalli Adi Pradeepkiran, Gilbert Ogunmokun, Kavya Thamarai, Kandi Quesada, Annette Boles, Arubala P Reddy
The purpose of our article is to assess the current understanding of Indian spice, curcumin, against amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced toxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Natural products, such as ginger, curcumin, and gingko biloba have been used as diets and dietary supplements to treat human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular, respiratory, infectious, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndromes, and neurological disorders. Products derived from plants are known to have protective effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-arthritis, pro-healing, and boosting memory cognitive functions...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330075/the-epidemic-model-based-on-the-approximation-for-third-order-motifs-on-networks
#17
Jinxian Li, Weiqiang Li, Zhen Jin
The spread of an infectious disease may depend on the structure of the network. To study the influence of the structure parameters of the network on the spread of the epidemic, we need to put these parameters into the epidemic model. The method of moment closure introduces structure parameters into the epidemic model. In this paper, we present a new moment closure epidemic model based on the approximation of third-order motifs in networks. The order of a motif defined in this paper is determined by the number of the edges in the motif, rather than by the number of nodes in the motif as defined in the literature...
January 9, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330056/growth-scaling-for-the-early-dynamics-of-hiv-aids-epidemics-in-brazil-and-the-influence-of-socio-demographic-factors
#18
L Dinh, G Chowell, R Rothenberg
The early dynamics of an infectious disease outbreak can be affected by various factors including the transmission mode of the disease and host-specific factors. While recent works have highlighted the presence of sub-exponential growth patterns during the early phase of epidemics, empirical studies examining the contribution of different factors to early epidemic growth dynamics are lacking. Here we aim to characterize and explain the early incidence growth patterns of local HIV/AIDS epidemics in Brazil as a function of socio-demographic factors...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329957/safety-and-tolerability-of-a-novel-polyclonal-human-anti-mers-coronavirus-antibody-produced-from-transchromosomic-cattle-a-phase-1-randomised-double-blind-single-dose-escalation-study
#19
John H Beigel, Jocelyn Voell, Parag Kumar, Kanakatte Raviprakash, Hua Wu, Jin-An Jiao, Eddie Sullivan, Thomas Luke, Richard T Davey
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a severe respiratory illness with an overall mortality of 35%. There is no licensed or proven treatment. Passive immunotherapy approaches are being developed to prevent and treat several human medical conditions where alternative therapeutic options are absent. We report the safety of a fully human polyclonal IgG antibody (SAB-301) produced from the hyperimmune plasma of transchromosomic cattle immunised with a MERS coronavirus vaccine...
January 9, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329682/feline-coronavirus-insights-into-viral-pathogenesis-based-on-the-spike-protein-structure-and-function
#20
Javier A Jaimes, Gary R Whittaker
Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is an etiological agent that causes a benign enteric illness and the fatal systemic disease feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). The FCoV spike (S) protein is considered the viral regulator for binding and entry to the cell. This protein is also involved in FCoV tropism and virulence, as well as in the switch from enteric disease to FIP. This regulation is carried out by spike's major functions: receptor binding and virus-cell membrane fusion. In this review, we address important aspects in FCoV genetics, replication and pathogenesis, focusing on the role of S...
January 9, 2018: Virology
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