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Carolin Hauler, Walter Vetter
Polyhalogenated N-methylpyrroles (PMPs) are halogenated natural products (HNPs) recently detected in seagrass, blue mussels, and other marine organisms. In this study, we synthesized 2,3,4,5-tetrachloro-N-methylpyrrole (Cl4-MP), 2,3,4,5-tetrabrominated-N-methylpyrrole (Br4-MP, aka TBMP), and mixed tetrahalogenated (Cl and Br) N-methylpyrrole congeners. Use of one- and two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C NMR verified the structures of isolated/enriched 3,4-dibromo-2,5-dichloro-N-methylpyrrole (3,4-Br2-2,5-Cl2-MP), 2,3,4-tribromo-5-chloro-N-methylpyrrole (2,3,4-Br3-5-Cl-MP), and 3-bromo-2,4,5-trichloro-N-methylpyrrole (3-Br-2,4,5-Cl3-MP)...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yosra Ben Cheikh, Marie-Agnès Travers, Frank Le Foll
The pathogenic strain V. splendidus 10/068 1T1 has previously been reported for its virulence to the blue mussel and for its capacity to alter immune responses. In this study, we expanded the knowledge on hemocyte-pathogen interactions by using in vitro and in vivo assays. V. splendidus 10/068 1T1 severely inhibited cell adhesion and acidic vacuole formation unlike the innocuous phylogenetically related V. splendidus 12/056 M24T1 which had no effect on these cell functions. Furthermore, the virulent bacteria decreased hemocyte viability (59% of viability after 24 h)...
September 19, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Bénilde Bonnefille, Elena Gomez, Mellis Alali, David Rosain, Hélène Fenet, Frédérique Courant
The presence of pharmaceutically active compounds in aquatic environments has become a major concern over the past 20years. Elucidation of their mode of action and effects in non-target organisms is thus now a major ecotoxicological challenge. Diclofenac (DCF) is among the pharmaceutical compounds of interest based on its inclusion in the European Union Water Framework Directive Watch List. In this study, our goal was to investigate the potential of a metabolomic approach to acquire information without any a priori hypothesis about diclofenac effects on marine mussels...
September 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Fuyan Liu, Xiaofeng Zhang, Yuqiu Li, Qixin Chen, Fei Liu, Xiqiang Zhu, Li Mei, Xinlei Song, Xia Liu, Zhigang Song, Jinhua Zhang, Wen Zhang, Peixue Ling, Fengshan Wang
The hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) has been used as Chinese traditional medicine for thousands of years; however, to date the ingredients responsible for the various beneficial health outcomes attributed to Mytilus coruscus are still unclear. An α-d-Glucan, called MP-A, was isolated from Mytilus coruscus, and observed to exert anti-inflammatory activity in THP-1 human macrophage cells. Specifically, we showed that MP-A treatment inhibited the production of inflammatory markers, including TNF-α, NO, and PGE2, inducible NOS (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in LPS-activated THP-1 cells...
September 20, 2017: Marine Drugs
Nicolas Briant, Nicolas Savoye, Tiphaine Chouvelon, Valérie David, Samuel Rodriguez, Karine Charlier, Jeroen E Sonke, Jean François Chiffoleau, Christophe Brach-Papa, Joël Knoery
Primary consumers play a key role in coastal ecosystems by transferring organic matter from primary producers to predators. Among them, suspension-feeders, like bivalve molluscs are widely used in trophic web studies. The main goal of this study was to investigate variations of C and N elemental and isotopic ratios in common bivalves (M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, and C. gigas) at large spatial (i.e. among three coastal regions) and different temporal (i.e. from seasonal to multi-decadal) scales in France, in order to identify potential general or specific patterns and speculate on their drivers...
September 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Laura Facchini, Ilario Losito, Tommaso R I Cataldi, Francesco Palmisano
A systematic characterization of phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) in mussels of sp. Mytilus galloprovincialis was performed by high efficiency Hydrophilic Interaction LIquid Chromatography (HILIC) combined with ElectroSpray Ionization (ESI) and Fourier-Transform Mass Spectrometry (FTMS), based on a quadrupole-Orbitrap hybrid spectrometer. FTMS/MS experiments under high-collisional energy dissociation (HCD) conditions, complemented by low energy collisionally induced dissociation (CID) MS(n) (n = 2,3) experiments, performed in a linear ion trap mass spectrometer, were exploited for structural elucidation purposes...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Alessandra Gallo, Raffaele Boni, Elisabetta Tosti
The viability of spermatozoa is a crucial parameter to evaluate their quality that is an important issue in ecotoxicological studies. Here, a new method has been developed to rapidly determine the viability of spermatozoa in three marine invertebrates: the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the mollusc Mytilus galloprovincialis. This method employed the dual DNA fluorescent staining coupled with spectrofluorimetric analysis. The dual fluorescent staining used the SYBR-14 stained live spermatozoa and propidium iodide stained degenerated cells that had lost membrane integrity...
September 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Nina K Lany, Phoebe L Zarnetske, Tarik C Gouhier, Bruce A Menge
Species distribution models typically use correlative approaches that characterize the species-environment relationship using occurrence or abundance data for a single species. However, species distributions are determined by both abiotic conditions and biotic interactions with other species in the community. Therefore, climate change is expected to impact species through direct effects on their physiology and indirect effects propagated through their resources, predators, competitors, or mutualists. Furthermore, the sign and strength of species interactions can change according to abiotic conditions, resulting in context-dependent species interactions that may change across space or with climate change...
July 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Nicole Castillo, Luisa M Saavedra, Cristian A Vargas, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate, Camille Détrée
Ocean acidification (OA) is one of the main consequences of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), impacting key biological processes of marine organisms such as development, growth and immune response. However, there are scarce studies on the influence of OA on marine invertebrates' ability to cope with pathogens. This study evaluated the single and combined effects of OA and bacterial infection on the transcription expression of genes related to antioxidant system, antimicrobial peptides and pattern recognition receptors in the edible mussel Mytilus chilensis...
September 1, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Wenqiang Dong, Yongxia Chen, Weixiao Lu, Bin Wu, Pengzhi Qi
As an economically important bivalve, the Mytilus coruscus is cultured widely in the eastern coast of China. In recent years, this bivalve has been seriously affected by the pathogenic infections. To elucidate the host defense mechanisms of M. coruscus against pathogenic challenge, the hemocyte transcriptomes of M. coruscus before and after Vibrio alginnolyficus infection were analyzed using the deep-sequencing platform Illumina/HiSeq-2500, meanwhile the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were investigated...
August 29, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Luke P Miller, W Wesley Dowd
In complex habitats, environmental variation over small spatial scales can equal or exceed larger-scale gradients. This small-scale variation may allow motile organisms to mitigate stressful conditions by choosing benign microhabitats, whereas sessile organisms may rely on other behaviors to cope with environmental stresses in these variable environments. We developed a monitoring system to track body temperature, valve gaping behavior, and posture of individual mussels (Mytilus californianus) in field conditions in the rocky intertidal zone...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Ines Kovačić, Maja Fafanđel, Lorena Perić, Iris Batel
Acid DNase activity in marine organisms displays a sensitive response to pollutants. In the present study, ex situ effect of toxic seawater organic extracts (Rijeka, Vranjic, Ploče) and in situ impact of environmental factors at referent (St. Andrew) and a polluted site (ACI Rovinj) on acid DNase in the digestive gland and gills of mussels was investigated. In the digestive gland, enzyme activity was related to potential toxicity of seawater organic extracts. Seawater organic extracts showed an increase of the enzyme activity in digestive gland following exposure...
August 24, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Wesley W Hull, Paul E Bourdeau
Predation can strongly influence community structure and ecosystem function, so the loss of key predators can have dramatic ecological consequences, unless other predatory species in the system are capable of playing similar ecological roles. In light of the recent outbreak of sea star wasting disease (SSWD) and subsequent depletion of west coast sea star populations, including those of the keystone predator Pisaster ochraceus, we examined whether large mobile crabs could play a role as predators on mussels (Mytilus californianus) on a rocky shore in Northern California...
2017: PloS One
Andrea Sahlmann, Raoul Wolf, Tor Fredrik Holth, Josefin Titelman, Ketil Hylland
Anthropogenic pollutants produce oxidative stress in marine organisms, directly or following generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), potentially resulting in increased accumulation of DNA strand breaks quantified. The aim of this study is to quantify baseline levels of DNA strand breaks in marine species from four phyla and to assess relative sensitivity to oxidative stress as well as ability to recover. DNA strand breaks were determined using a formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg)-amended comet assay in circulating cells from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), shore crab (Carcinus maenas), sea star (Asterias rubens), and vase tunicate (Ciona intestinalis)...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Zhenshun Zeng, Xing-Pan Guo, Xingsheng Cai, Pengxia Wang, Baiyuan Li, Jin-Long Yang, Xiaoxue Wang
Members of the marine bacterial genus Pseudoalteromonas are efficient producers of antifouling agents that exert inhibitory effects on the settlement of invertebrate larvae. The production of pigmented secondary metabolites by Pseudoalteromonas has been suggested to play a role in surface colonization. However, the physiological characteristics of the pigments produced by Pseudoalteromonas remain largely unknown. In this study, we identified and characterized a genetic variant that hyperproduces a dark-brown pigment and was generated during Pseudoalteromonas lipolytica biofilm formation...
August 22, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Gabriele Leoni, Andrea De Poli, Mario Mardirossian, Stefano Gambato, Fiorella Florian, Paola Venier, Daniel N Wilson, Alessandro Tossi, Alberto Pallavicini, Marco Gerdol
The application of high-throughput sequencing technologies to non-model organisms has brought new opportunities for the identification of bioactive peptides from genomes and transcriptomes. From this point of view, marine invertebrates represent a potentially rich, yet largely unexplored resource for de novo discovery due to their adaptation to diverse challenging habitats. Bioinformatics analyses of available genomic and transcriptomic data allowed us to identify myticalins, a novel family of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, and a similar family of AMPs from Modiolus spp...
August 22, 2017: Marine Drugs
Katharina Kesy, Alexander Hentzsch, Franziska Klaeger, Sonja Oberbeckmann, Stephanie Mothes, Matthias Labrenz
We examined whether bacterial assemblages inhabiting the synthetic polymer polyamide are selectively modified during their passage through the gut of Mytilus edulis in comparison to the biopolymer chitin with focus on potential pathogens. Specifically, we asked whether bacterial biofilms remained stable over a prolonged period of time and whether polyamide could thus serve as a vector for potential pathogenic bacteria. Bacterial diversity and identity were analysed by 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and sequencing of abundant bands...
August 11, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Luigi Vezzulli, L Stagnaro, C Grande, G Tassistro, L Canesi, C Pruzzo
The pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis are two widely farmed bivalve species which show contrasting behaviour in relation to microbial diseases, with C. gigas being more susceptible and M. galloprovincialis being generally resistant. In a recent study, we showed that different susceptibility to infection exhibited by these two bivalve species may depend on their different capability to kill invading pathogens (e.g., Vibrio spp.) through the action of haemolymph components...
August 12, 2017: Microbial Ecology
Jonny Beyer, Norman W Green, Steven Brooks, Ian J Allan, Anders Ruus, Tânia Gomes, Inger Lise N Bråte, Merete Schøyen
The blue mussel (Mytilus spp.) is widely used as a bioindicator for monitoring of coastal water pollution (mussel watch programs). Herein we provide a review of this study field with emphasis on: the suitability of Mytilus spp. as environmental sentinels; uptake and bioaccumulation patterns of key pollutant classes; the use of Mytilus spp. in mussel watch programs; recent trends in Norwegian mussel monitoring; environmental quality standards and background concentrations of key contaminants; pollutant effect biomarkers; confounding factors; particulate contaminants (microplastics, engineered nanomaterials); climate change; harmonization of monitoring procedures; and the use of deployed mussels (transplant caging) in pollution monitoring...
August 3, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
Merete Schøyen, Ian J Allan, Anders Ruus, Jarle Håvardstun, Dag Ø Hjermann, Jonny Beyer
Contaminant bioaccumulation was studied in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis spp.) using the harbor waters of Kristiansand (Norway) as a case study. A suite of chemical contaminants (trace metals, PAHs and PCBs) was analyzed in caged and native mussels as well as in passive samplers (Diffusive Gradients in Thin films (DGT)-devices and silicone rubbers) placed alongside the mussels for estimation of contaminant concentrations in water and uptake rates and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in mussels during a six-months deployment period...
August 2, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
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