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Matthew E S Bracken
The concept of ecological stoichiometry-the balancing of elemental ratios in ecological interactions-has transformed our thinking about processes in natural systems. Here, this perspective is applied to rocky shore ecosystems to explore the consequences of variation in internal nutrient ratios across two trophic levels. Specifically, I measured the internal concentrations of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in mussels (Mytilus spp.) and particulate organic matter (POM) to evaluate the effects of stoichiometric mismatch-the difference in the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C:N) between a consumer and its resources-on mussel growth at sites on the coasts of Oregon, USA, and the South Island of New Zealand...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rosa Perfetto, Sonia Del Prete, Daniela Vullo, Vincenzo Carginale, Giovanni Sansone, Carmela M A Barone, Mosè Rossi, Fatmah A S Alasmary, Sameh M Osman, Zeid AlOthman, Claudiu T Supuran, Clemente Capasso
We cloned, expressed, purified, and determined the kinetic constants of the recombinant α-carbonic anhydrase (rec-MgaCA) identified in the mantle tissue of the bivalve Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. In metazoans, the α-CA family is largely represented and plays a pivotal role in the deposition of calcium carbonate biominerals. Our results demonstrated that rec-MgaCA was a monomer with an apparent molecular weight of about 32 kDa. Moreover, the determined kinetic parameters for the CO2 hydration reaction were kcat =  4...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Caroline Liddell, Jennifer E Welsh, Jaap van der Meer, David W Thieltges
Marine parasites such as trematodes often compromise the fitness of their hosts. Such effects are generally considered to be density-dependent, i.e. the greater the infection intensity in the host, the greater the detrimental impact on host fitness. However, the mechanisms determining infection in marine hosts are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effect of cercarial dose and exposure frequency (single vs. trickle infections) of a marine trematode parasite, Himasthla elongata (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae), on infection intensity and success in its second intermediate host, the blue mussel Mytilus edulis, an abundant and widely distributed bivalve in European coastal waters...
July 24, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Noèlia Carrasco, Michal Voorbergen-Laarman, Beatriz Lacuesta, Dolors Furones, Marc Y Engelsma
Species belonging to the genus Marteilia are protozoan parasites of bivalves. The species Marteilia refringens, jeopardizing the health of European bivalves, is included on the list of OIE notifiable pathogens. Two genotypes of Marteilia refringens are distinguished: type "O" affecting mainly oysters, and type "M" affecting mainly mussels. Historically, detection of Marteilia species is primarily carried out by histology. In recent years molecular assays are more frequently used for the detection of mollusc pathogens, also in routine monitoring...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Emily Howe, Charles A Simenstad, Andrea Ogston
We measured the influence of landscape setting on estuarine food web connectivity in five macrotidal Pacific Northwest estuaries across a gradient of freshwater influence. We used stable isotopes (δ(13) C, δ(15) N, δ(34) S) in combination with a Bayesian mixing model to trace primary producer contributions to suspension- and deposit-feeding bivalve consumers (Mytilus trossulus and Macoma nasuta) transplanted into three estuarine vegetation zones: emergent marsh, mudflat, Japanese eelgrass (Zostera japonica), and native eelgrass (Zostera marina)...
July 17, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Bouchra El Haimeur, Mina Bouhallaoui, Mariama Zbiry, Najat Elkhiati, Sophia Talba, Susanna Sforzini, Aldo Viarengo, Ali Benhra
A biomonitoring study using wild Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels sampled from six sites along the Moroccan coasts evaluated whether select biomarkers are suitable for identifying and quantifying pollution-induced stress syndrome in mussels. Lysosomal membrane stability was confirmed to be a highly sensitive biological parameter, and acetylcholinesterase activity was found a suitable biomarker of neurotoxicity. Metallothionein concentrations were in line with heavy metal concentrations detected in mussel tissues...
June 13, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
David Deruytter, Jan M Baert, Nancy Nevejan, Karel A C DE Schamphelaere, Colin R Janssen
Little is known about the effect of metal mixtures on marine organisms, especially when exposed to environmentally realistic concentrations. This information is, however, required to evaluate the need to include mixtures in future environmental risk assessment (ERA) procedures. Here, the effect of Cu-Ni binary mixtures on Mytilus edulis larval development was assessed using a full factorial design that included environmentally relevant metal concentrations and ratios. The reproducibility of the results was assessed by repeating this experiment 5 times...
July 15, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Hélène de Paoli, Tjisse van der Heide, Aniek van den Berg, Brian R Silliman, Peter M J Herman, Johan van de Koppel
Self-organized spatial patterns occur in many terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems. Theoretical models and observational studies suggest self-organization, the formation of patterns due to ecological interactions, is critical for enhanced ecosystem resilience. However, experimental tests of this cross-ecosystem theory are lacking. In this study, we experimentally test the hypothesis that self-organized pattern formation improves the persistence of mussel beds (Mytilus edulis) on intertidal flats. In natural beds, mussels generate self-organized patterns at two different spatial scales: regularly spaced clusters of mussels at centimeter scale driven by behavioral aggregation and large-scale, regularly spaced bands at meter scale driven by ecological feedback mechanisms...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
M Carneiro, P Antas, B Reis, J Azevedo, H Osório, A Campos, V Vasconcelos, J C Martins
This study compares the role of hepatic cytosolic glutathione transferases (cGST) isoforms of three different bivalve species to a Microcystis aeruginosa extract and purified MC-LR exposure (both at 150 μg MC-LR L(-1)) for 24 h. Characterization and alterations of the cytosolic GST activities in Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ruditapes philippinarum and Corbicula fluminea were measured using four class-specific substrates and changes in individual GST isoforms expression were achieved by a subsequent two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis...
July 5, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Melissa A May, Karl D Bishop, Paul D Rawson
Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) are ecologically and economically important marine invertebrates whose populations are at risk from climate change-associated variation in their environment, such as decreased coastal salinity. Blue mussels are osmoconfomers and use components of the metabolome (free amino acids) to help maintain osmotic balance and cellular function during low salinity exposure. However, little is known about the capacity of blue mussels during the planktonic larval stages to regulate metabolites during osmotic stress...
July 6, 2017: Metabolites
Andy Reynolds, Giacomo Santini, Guido Chelazzi, Stefano Focardi
Weierstrassian Lévy walks are the archetypical form of random walk that do not satisfy the central limit theorem and are instead characterized by scale invariance. They were originally regarded as a mathematical abstraction but subsequent theoretical studies showed that they can, in principle, at least, be generated by chaos. Recently, Weierstrassian Lévy walks have been found to provide accurate representations of the movement patterns of mussels (Mytilus edulis) and mud snails (Hydrobia ulvae) recorded in the laboratory under controlled conditions...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
M V Prego-Faraldo, L R Vieira, J M Eirin-Lopez, J Méndez, L Guilhermino
The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) toxins have been widely investigated in bivalve molluscs, representing the main vectors of these compounds in the Atlantic coast of Europe. DSP toxins are produced by Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) of Dinophysis and Prorocentrum dinoflagellates, being subsequently accumulated by marine organisms and biomagnified throughout trophic webs. Yet, bivalves display increased resistance to the harmful effects of these toxins during HAB episodes...
June 15, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
V Moschino, M Schintu, A Marrucci, B Marras, N Nesto, L Da Ros
In the Marine Protected Area of La Maddalena Archipelago, environmental protection rules and safeguard measures for nautical activities have helped in reducing anthropogenic pressure; however, tourism related activities remain particularly significant in summer. With the aim of evaluating their impacts, the biomarker approach using transplanted Mytilus galloprovincialis as sentinel organisms coupled with POCIS deployment was applied. Mussels, translocated to four marine areas differently impacted by tourism activities, were sampled before, during and after the tourist season...
June 27, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Emma Tali Saltzman, Michael Thomsen, Sean Hall, Luis Vitetta
Natural medicines are often an attractive option for patients diagnosed with chronic conditions. Three main classes of bioactives that have been reported from marine mussel extracts include proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Commercially, the most relevant species of marine mollusks belong to two genera, Perna and Mytilus. Specifically, the Perna canaliculus species has been repeatedly demonstrated to harbor anti-inflammatory compounds such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) that can ameliorate pro-inflammatory conditions, or proteins that can promote thrombin inhibitory activity...
June 30, 2017: Marine Drugs
Hasan Baltas, Murat Sirin, Goktug Dalgic, Esra Yilmaz Bayrak, Aysel Akdeniz
This study investigated the contents of Cu, Zn and Pb in seawater, sediment, different shell sizes of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and sea snail (Rapana venosa) samples collected from four different provinces of the Eastern Black Sea Region. With the exception of Zn, all the metal concentration values measured in the sea snail were observed to be higher than those of mussels in all stations. While the correlation between mussels and sea snail according to metal concentrations was found to be positive (p˂0...
June 26, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Oya S Okay, Burak Karacık, Abbas Güngördü, Atilla Yılmaz, Nazmi C Koyunbaba, Sevil D Yakan, Bernhard Henkelmann, Karl-Werner Schramm, Murat Ozmen
This study involves the monitoring of organic pollutants using transplanted mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as bioindicator organisms and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as passive samplers. Mussels and SPMDs were deployed to marinas, shipyards and shipbreaking yards on the coastal area of Turkey and retrieved after 60 days. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticide (OCP) compounds were analysed with high-resolution GC-MS. Total PAH concentrations in SPMDs and mussels ranged from 200 to 4740 ng g sampler(-1) and from 7...
June 28, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Marina Prisco, Marisa Agnese, Adriano De Marino, Piero Andreuccetti, Luigi Rosati
The aim of the present paper was to study the spermatogenic cycle of Mytilus galloprovincialis collected in the bay of Naples during a whole year and to acquire new insights into the mechanism of control. Knowledge of the Mytilus cycle in this geographic area is of particular interest as, to the best of our knowledge, the male gonad cycle has been hitherto unexplored. Testis organization was evaluated together with the localization of the enzymes 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD and P450-aromatase, which are strictly connected to the synthesis of two key hormones involved in the testis activity: testosterone and 17β-estradiol...
June 28, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Mohamed Banni, Susanna Sforzini, Volker M Arlt, Audrey Barranger, Lorna J Dallas, Caterina Oliveri, Yann Aminot, Beniamina Pacchioni, Caterina Millino, Gerolamo Lanfranchi, James W Readman, Michael N Moore, Aldo Viarengo, Awadhesh N Jha
Despite the increasing use of mussels in environmental monitoring and ecotoxicological studies, their genomes and gene functions have not been thoroughly explored. Several cDNA microarrays were recently proposed for Mytilus spp., but putatively identified partial transcripts have rendered the generation of robust transcriptional responses difficult in terms of pathway identification. We developed a new low density oligonucleotide microarray with 465 probes covering the same number of genes. Target genes were selected to cover most of the well-known biological processes in the stress response documented over the last decade in bivalve species at the cellular and tissue levels...
2017: PloS One
Mario Alberto Burgos-Aceves, Caterina Faggio
The Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is an ecologically and economically important species. It has been used in programs of monitoring of pollution, since it is sessile organism that is capable of accumulating pollutants in tissues through filter feeding. Due to an increase of pollutants in the environment, marine mussels present physiological alterations that compromise their innate immune system, which can latter lead to opportunistic diseases. The haemocytes are the cells in charge of the immune response in the Mediterranean mussel and in other mollusks...
August 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Liliana J G Silva, André M P T Pereira, Helena Rodrigues, Leonor M Meisel, Celeste M Lino, Angelina Pena
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are among the most prescribed antidepressants nation and worldwide. Their presence in the aquatic environment is known, causing growing pressures in heavily populated coastal areas. For instance, disruption of invertebrate endocrine systems has been described. Since discrete seawater sampling may not be suitable to evaluate such environmental risk, we aimed to assess SSRIs and metabolites in wild Mytilus galloprovincialis, and assess risk to human health. A total of 1225 mussels were sampled during one year along the Portuguese Atlantic coast...
June 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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