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Pre-term birth

E G Deryabina, G V Yakornova, L A Pestryaeva, N D Sandyreva
Preterm birth is defined as all births before 37 completed weeks of gestation. Preterm birth can be further sub-divided based on gestational age: extremely preterm (<28 weeks), very preterm (28 to <32 weeks) and moderate preterm (32 to <37 weeks). Retrospective observational case-control study review (1 year i.e., 2015) is to assess pregnancy outcome among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) delivering very preterm (28 + 0/7 to 31 + 6/7 weeks of gestation). The study group included all women diagnosed with GDM and were compared to a control group of women delivering at the same gestational age period but without GDM...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Lucilla Poston, Rishi Caleyachetty, Sven Cnattingius, Camila Corvalán, Ricardo Uauy, Sharron Herring, Matthew W Gillman
Obesity in women of reproductive age is increasing in prevelance worldwide. Obesity reduces fertility and increases time taken to conceive, and obesity-related comorbidities (such as type 2 diabetes and chronic hypertension) heighten the risk of adverse outcomes for mother and child if the woman becomes pregnant. Pregnant women who are obese are more likely to have early pregnancy loss, and have increased risk of congenital fetal malformations, delivery of large for gestational age infants, shoulder dystocia, spontaneous and medically indicated premature birth, and stillbirth...
October 10, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Neda Sadeghi, John H Gilmore, Guido Gerig
Twin studies provide valuable insights into the analysis of genetic and environmental factors influencing human brain development. However, these findings may not generalize to singletons due to differences in pre- and postnatal environments. One would expect the effect of these differences to be greater during the early years of life. To address this concern, we compare longitudinal diffusion data of white matter regions for 26 singletons and 76 twins (monozygotic and dizygotic) from birth to 2 years of age...
October 14, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Thông Hua-Huy, Sy Duong-Quy, Hoa Pham, Julien Pansiot, Jean-Christophe Mercier, Olivier Baud, Anh Tuan Dinh-Xuan
Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is commonly used in the treatment of very ill pre-term newborns. Previous studies showed that exogenous NO could affect endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity and expression in vascular endothelial cell cultures or adult rat models, but this has never been fully described in newborn rat lungs. We therefore aimed to assess the effects of iNO on eNOS expression and activity in newborn rats. Rat pups, post-natal day (P) 0 to P7, and their dams were placed in a chamber containing NO at 5 ppm (iNO-5 ppm group) or 20 ppm (iNO-20 ppm group), or in room air (control group)...
January 2016: ERJ Open Research
K McCloskey, A-L Ponsonby, F Collier, K Allen, M L K Tang, J B Carlin, R Saffery, M R Skilton, M Cheung, S Ranganathan, T Dwyer, D Burgner, P Vuillermin
BACKGROUND: Excess adiposity and adiposity-related inflammation are known risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adults; however, little is known regarding the determinants of adiposity-related inflammation at birth. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and newborn adiposity and inflammation. METHODS: Paired maternal (28-week gestation) and infant (umbilical cord) blood samples were collected from a population-derived birth cohort (Barwon Infant Study, n = 1074)...
October 9, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
Andrew W Stevenson, Sean M Randall, James H Boyd, Fiona M Wood, Mark W Fear, Janine M Duke
BACKGROUND: While the most obvious impact of burn is on the skin, systemic responses also occur after burn, including intestinal inflammation. The objective of this study was to assess if burns are associated with increased long-term admissions for gastrointestinal diseases. METHODS: A population-based longitudinal study using linked hospital morbidity and death data from Western Australia was undertaken of adults aged at least 15 years when hospitalized for a first burn (n=20,561) in 1980-2012...
October 5, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Eva Pölzlberger, Beda Hartmann, Erich Hafner, Ingrid Stümpflein, Sylvia Kirchengast
The impact of maternal height, pre-pregnancy weight status and gestational weight gain on fetal growth patterns and newborn size was analysed using a dataset of 4261 singleton term births taking place at the Viennese Danube Hospital between 2005 and 2013. Fetal growth patterns were reconstructed from three ultrasound examinations carried out at the 11th/12th, 20th/21th and 32th/33th weeks of gestation. Crown-rump length, biparietal diameter, fronto-occipital diameter, head circumference, abdominal transverse diameter, abdominal anterior-posterior diameter, abdominal circumference and femur length were determined...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biosocial Science
X Li, A Andres, K Shankar, R T Pivik, C M Glasier, R H Ramakrishnaiah, Y Zhang, T M Badger, X Ou
Recent studies have shown associations between maternal obesity at pre- or early pregnancy and long-term neurodevelopment in children, suggesting in utero effects of maternal obesity on offspring brain development. In this study, we examined whether brain functional connectivity to the prefrontal lobe network is different in newborns from normal-weight or obese mothers. Thirty-four full-term healthy infants from uncomplicated pregnancies were included, with 18 born to normal-weight and 16 born to obese mothers...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Ellie Wernham, Jason Gurney, James Stanley, Lis Ellison-Loschmann, Diana Sarfati
BACKGROUND: Internationally, a typical model of maternity care is a medically led system with varying levels of midwifery input. New Zealand has a midwife-led model of care, and there are movements in other countries to adopt such a system. There is a paucity of systemic evaluation that formally investigates safety-related outcomes in relationship to midwife-led care within an entire maternity service. The main objective of this study was to compare major adverse perinatal outcomes between midwife-led and medical-led maternity care in New Zealand...
September 2016: PLoS Medicine
Douglas Brubaker, Yu Liu, Junye Wang, Huijing Tan, Ge Zhang, Bo Jacobsson, Louis Muglia, Sam Mesiano, Mark R Chance
Maternal genome influences associate with up to 40% of spontaneous preterm births (PTB). Multiple genome wide association studies (GWAS) have been completed to identify genetic variants associated with PTB. Disappointingly, no highly significant SNPs have replicated in independent cohorts so far. We developed an approach combining protein-protein interaction (PPI) network data with tissue specific gene expression data to "find" SNPs of modest significance to identify candidate genes of functional importance that would otherwise be overlooked...
September 23, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Pathmila Navaratne, Xin Y Foo, Sailesh Kumar
The aim of this retrospective study was to characterise intrapartum and neonatal outcomes in women with an antenatally recorded Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Score (EPDS) ≤ 9 compared with women with a score of ≥12 at a major Australian tertiary maternity hospital. Women with scores ≥12 are at particularly high risk of major depressive symptomatology. There were 20512 (78.6%) women with a score ≤ 9 and 2708 (10.4%) had a score ≥ 12. Category 1 caesarean sections where there was immediate threat to life (maternal or fetal) were more common in women with EPDS scores ≥12 (5...
2016: Scientific Reports
Marie Pedersen, Thorhallur I Halldorsson, Sjurdur F Olsen, Dorrit Hjortebjerg, Matthias Ketzel, Charlotta Grandström, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Mette Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Road traffic is a majorsource of air pollution and noise. Both exposures have been associated with hypertension in adults, but pregnant womenhave been less studied. METHODS: We examined single and joint effects of ambient air pollution and road traffic noise on preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders among 72,745 singleton pregnancies (1997-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort with complete covariate data and residential address history from conception until liveborn birth...
September 15, 2016: Epidemiology
Feng Zhang, Haiou Xia, Meiyun Shen, Xia Li, Ling Qin, Hongmei Gu, Xujuan Xu
BACKGROUND: Suction pressure has been reported to be a key driving force of lactation. An infant's sucking at its mother's breasts is the major stimulus to post-natal prolactin (PRL) secretion, and PRL is the essential hormone for lactation and milk production. It is unknown what role suction pressure has in PRL secretion and milk supply postnatally. OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between the suction pressure, PRL level, lactation, and milk supply in breastfeeding mother-infant dyads...
September 19, 2016: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Whitney A McCarthy, Edwina J Popek
Fetal anemia and hydrops may be caused by parvovirus B19 infection and maternal alloimmunization to RhD with subsequent hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. The use of intrauterine transfusion over the last few decades has dramatically improved outcomes. Prior literature has extensively documented placental changes associated with untreated parvovirus infection and RhD HDFN in intrauterine fetal demises (IUFD) and pre-term births; however, histopathologic changes in term placentas from term infants treated with IUT have not been reported...
September 19, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
R Douglas Wilson, Isabelle De Bie, Christine M Armour, Richard N Brown, Carla Campagnolo, June C Carroll, Nan Okun, Tanya Nelson, Rhonda Zwingerman, Francois Audibert, Jo-Ann Brock, Richard N Brown, Carla Campagnolo, June C Carroll, Isabelle De Bie, Jo-Ann Johnson, Nan Okun, Melanie Pastruck, Karine Vallée-Pouliot, R Douglas Wilson, Rhonda Zwingerman, Christine Armour, David Chitayat, Isabelle De Bie, Sara Fernandez, Raymond Kim, Josee Lavoie, Norma Leonard, Tanya Nelson, Sherry Taylor, Margot Van Allen, Clara Van Karnebeek
OBJECTIVE: This guideline was written to update Canadian maternity care and reproductive healthcare providers on pre- and postconceptional reproductive carrier screening for women or couples who may be at risk of being carriers for autosomal recessive (AR), autosomal dominant (AD), or X-linked (XL) conditions, with risk of transmission to the fetus. Four previous SOGC- Canadian College of Medical Geneticists (CCMG) guidelines are updated and merged into the current document. INTENDED USERS: All maternity care (most responsible health provider [MRHP]) and paediatric providers; maternity nursing; nurse practitioner; provincial maternity care administrator; medical student; and postgraduate resident year 1-7...
August 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Goiuri Alberdi, Aoife E McNamara, Karen L Lindsay, Helena A Scully, Mary H Horan, Eileen R Gibney, Fionnuala M McAuliffe
UNLABELLED: The aim of this paper was to systematically review the published evidence on the relationship between the type of childcare and risk of childhood overweight or obesity. The databases PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and EMBASE were searched using combinations of the various search terms to identify eligible observational studies published between 2000 and May 2016 in English. Fifteen publications from 7 countries matched the inclusion criteria. The most commonly reported childcare arrangements were centre-based (e...
October 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Nurzalinda Zalbahar, Jake Najman, Harold D McIntrye, Abdullah Mamun
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prospective association between parental pre-pregnancy BMI and adult male and female offspring BMI and waist circumference (WC). METHODS: Sub-sample of 2,229 parent-offspring pairs with parental pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring BMI and WC at 21 years were used from the MUSP (Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy cohort). Multivariable results were adjusted for maternal factors around pregnancy (e.g. gestational weight and smoking during pregnancy) and offspring factors in early life (e...
September 13, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Diane Farrar, Mark Simmonds, Maria Bryant, Trevor A Sheldon, Derek Tuffnell, Su Golder, Fidelma Dunne, Debbie A Lawlor
OBJECTIVES:  To assess the association between maternal glucose concentrations and adverse perinatal outcomes in women without gestational or existing diabetes and to determine whether clear thresholds for identifying women at risk of perinatal outcomes can be identified. DESIGN:  Systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and control arms of randomised trials. DATA SOURCES:  Databases including Medline and Embase were searched up to October 2014 and combined with individual participant data from two additional birth cohorts...
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Akihito Takeuchi, Takashi Yorifuji, Kyohei Takahashi, Makoto Nakamura, Misao Kageyama, Toshihide Kubo, Tatsuya Ogino, Katsuhiro Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Doi
BACKGROUND: Small for gestational age (SGA) birth is linked with neurological deficits among children at pre-school age, but the evidence is still limited on whether such deficits are still observable at school age. We investigated the association between SGA birth and behavioral development at school age among full-term infants. METHODS: We analyzed data from a large, Japanese, nationwide, population-based longitudinal survey that started in 2001. We restricted the study participants to children born at 37-41weeks of gestation with information on birth weight and behavioral outcomes at 8years of age (n=33,795)...
September 10, 2016: Brain & Development
L S Pagani, F Lévesque-Seck, C Fitzpatrick
BACKGROUND: Using a large Canadian population-based sample, this study aimed to verify whether televiewing in toddlerhood is prospectively associated with self-reported social impairment in middle school. METHOD: Participants are from a prospective-longitudinal birth cohort of 991 girls and 1006 boys from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development. Child self-reported ratings of relational difficulties at age 13 years were linearly regressed on parent-reported televiewing at age 2 years while adjusting for potential confounders...
September 13, 2016: Psychological Medicine
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