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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524859/mesenchymal-stem-cells-sense-mitochondria-released-from-damaged-cells-as-danger-signals-to-activate-their-rescue-properties
#1
Meriem Mahrouf-Yorgov, Lionel Augeul, Claire Crola Da Silva, Maud Jourdan, Muriel Rigolet, Sylvie Manin, René Ferrera, Michel Ovize, Adeline Henry, Aurélie Guguin, Jean-Paul Meningaud, Jean-Luc Dubois-Randé, Roberto Motterlini, Roberta Foresti, Anne-Marie Rodriguez
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) protect tissues against cell death induced by ischemia/reperfusion insults. This therapeutic effect seems to be controlled by physiological cues released by the local microenvironment following injury. Recent lines of evidence indicate that MSC can communicate with their microenvironment through bidirectional exchanges of mitochondria. In particular, in vitro and in vivo studies report that MSCs rescue injured cells through delivery of their own mitochondria. However, the role of mitochondria conveyed from somatic cells to MSC remains unknown...
May 19, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524065/microrna-in-skin-diseases
#2
Tatiana G Ruksha, Anna V Komina, Nadezhda V Palkina
MicroRNAs are essential regulators of various cellular processes such as cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and the immune response, acting as factors for translational repression and/or degradation of target messenger RNA. Currently, microRNAs are considered as promising biomarkers and therapeutic targets for different pathological conditions. Skin may serve as a convenient model for microRNA modulation studies due to the comparatively easy access to targets cells. Cutaneous diseases are characterized by multiple intercellular communication pathways, triggered by diverse stimuli and mediated by heterogenous regulators, including microRNAs...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523673/the-function-of-language-in-parent-infant-psychotherapy
#3
Björn Salomonsson
Parent-infant psychotherapy, a rather new field in psychoanalysis, raises questions of how to conceptualize the clinical process. Previous publications have used semiotic concepts to account for the therapist's non-verbal communication and investigated the countertransference, including what the baby might grasp of its variations. The present paper focuses on another argument for using verbal interventions to a baby in therapy; they present him with a symbolic order that differs from that of the parent. The qualitative difference between the parent's and the analyst's address is conceptualized by Dolto's term parler vrai...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523529/s-nitrosylation-regulates-cell-survival-and-death-in-the-central-nervous-system
#4
Yoshiki Koriyama, Ayako Furukawa
Nitric oxide (NO), which is produced from nitric oxide synthase, is an important cell signaling molecule that is crucial for many physiological functions such as neuronal death, neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, and vascular homeostasis. This diffusible gaseous compound functions as an effector or second messenger in many intercellular communications and/or cell signaling pathways. Protein S-nitrosylation is a posttranslational modification that involves the covalent attachment of an NO group to the thiol side chain of select cysteine residues on target proteins...
May 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522962/alterations-in-cd200-cd200r1-system-during-eae-already-manifest-at-presymptomatic-stages
#5
Tony Valente, Joan Serratosa, Unai Perpiñá, Josep Saura, Carme Solà
In the brain of patients with multiple sclerosis, activated microglia/macrophages appear in active lesions and in normal appearing white matter. However, whether they play a beneficial or a detrimental role in the development of the pathology remains a controversial issue. The production of pro-inflammatory molecules by chronically activated microglial cells is suggested to contribute to the progression of neurodegenerative processes in neurological disease. In the healthy brain, neurons control glial activation through several inhibitory mechanisms, such as the CD200-CD200R1 interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518114/preparation-and-in-vitro-characterization-of-magnetized-mir-modified-endothelial-cells
#6
Natalia Voronina, Heiko Lemcke, Frank Wiekhorst, Jens-Peter Kühn, Markus Frank, Gustav Steinhoff, Robert David
To date, the available surgical and pharmacological treatments for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are limited and often palliative. At the same time, gene and cell therapies are highly promising alternative approaches for CVD treatment. However, the broad clinical application of gene therapy is greatly limited by the lack of suitable gene delivery systems. The development of appropriate gene delivery vectors can provide a solution to current challenges in cell therapy. In particular, existing drawbacks, such as limited efficiency and low cell retention in the injured organ, could be overcome by appropriate cell engineering (i...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515465/gender-specific-differential-expression-of-exosomal-mirna-in-synovial-fluid-of-patients-with-osteoarthritis
#7
Ravindra Kolhe, Monte Hunter, Siyang Liu, Ravirajsinh N Jadeja, Chetan Pundkar, Ashis K Mondal, Bharati Mendhe, Michelle Drewry, Mumtaz V Rojiani, Yutao Liu, Carlos M Isales, Robert E Guldberg, Mark W Hamrick, Sadanand Fulzele
The pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) is poorly understood, and therapeutic approaches are limited to preventing progression of the disease. Recent studies have shown that exosomes play a vital role in cell-to-cell communication, and pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. Molecular profiling of synovial fluid derived exosomal miRNAs may increase our understanding of OA progression and may lead to the discovery of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets. In this article we report the first characterization of exosomes miRNAs from human synovial fluid...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515010/aberrant-network-activity-in-schizophrenia
#8
REVIEW
Mark J Hunt, Nancy J Kopell, Roger D Traub, Miles A Whittington
Brain dynamic changes associated with schizophrenia are largely equivocal, with interpretation complicated by many factors, such as the presence of therapeutic agents and the complex nature of the syndrome itself. Evidence for a brain-wide change in individual network oscillations, shared by all patients, is largely equivocal, but stronger for lower (delta) than for higher (gamma) bands. However, region-specific changes in rhythms across multiple, interdependent, nested frequencies may correlate better with pathology...
May 14, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514875/identification-of-novel-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-nampt-inhibitors-using-computational-approaches
#9
Manish Kesherwani, Sriram Raghavan, Krishnasamy Gunasekaran, Devadasan Velmurugan
Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of NAD. Cancer cells have elevated poly [ADP-Ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP) activity as well as the immense necessity of ATP: thereby consuming NAD at a higher rate than normal tissues. The perturbation of these intracellular processes is more sensitive and highly dependent on NAMPT to maintain the required NAD levels. Functional inhibition of NAMPT is, therefore, a promising drug target in therapeutic oncology. In this study, the importance of intermolecular contacts was realized based on contact occupancy and favorable energetic from molecular dynamic simulation to discern non-critical contacts of four different classes of potential NAMPT inhibitor bound complexes...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510506/signaling-at-the-crossroads-matrix-derived-proteoglycan-and-reactive-oxygen-species-signaling
#10
Madalina-Viviana Nastase, Andrea Janicova, Malgorzata Wygrecka, Liliana Schaefer
SIGNIFICANCE: Proteoglycans (PGs), besides their structural contribution, have emerged as dynamic components that mediate a multitude of cellular events. The various roles of PGs are attributed to their structure, spatial localization, and ability to act as ligands and receptors. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are small mediators, which are generated in physiological and pathological conditions. Besides their reactivity and ability to induce oxidative stress, a growing body of data suggests that ROS signaling is more relevant than direct radical damage in development of human pathologies...
May 16, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508813/web-and-mobile-based-hiv-prevention-and-intervention-programs-pros-and-cons-a-review
#11
Sharareh Niakan, Esmaeil Mehraeen, Tayebeh Noori, Elahe Gozali
BACKGROUND: With the increasing growth of HIV positive people the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) can play an important role in controlling the spread of the AIDS. Web and Mobile are the new technologies that young people take advantage from them. OBJECTIVES: In this study a review to investigate the web and mobile based HIV prevention and intervention programs was carried out. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted including PubMed, Science direct, Web of Science and Proquest to find relevant sources that published in 2009 to 2016...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506202/subtle-and-severe-microaggressions-among-racially-diverse-sexual-minorities
#12
Amanda Weber, Shelly-Ann Collins, Tracy Robinson-Wood, Elda Zeko-Underwood, Bianca Poindexter
In recent years, understanding prejudice and discrimination towards minorities has developed to include the investigation of microaggressions. Microaggressions are brief and commonplace verbal, behavioral or environmental indignities. They are intentional or unintentional and communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative slights towards racial and sexual minorities. The purpose of this phenomenological study is to chronicle the prevalence and type of microaggressions experienced among a sample of 18 highly educated and racially diverse sexual minorities, 24-65 years of age...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504978/beyond-googling-the-ethics-of-using-patients-electronic-footprints-in-psychiatric-practice
#13
Carl E Fisher, Paul S Appelbaum
Electronic communications are an increasingly important part of people's lives, and much information is accessible through such means. Anecdotal clinical reports indicate that mental health professionals are beginning to use information from their patients' electronic activities in treatment and that their data-gathering practices have gone far beyond simply searching for patients online. Both academic and private sector researchers are developing mental health applications to collect patient information for clinical purposes...
May 12, 2017: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503947/recommendations-for-data-monitoring-committees-from-the-clinical-trials-transformation-initiative
#14
Karim A Calis, Patrick Archdeacon, Raymond Bain, David DeMets, Miriam Donohue, M Khair Elzarrad, Annemarie Forrest, John McEachern, Michael J Pencina, Jane Perlmutter, Roger J Lewis
Background/aims Use of data monitoring committees to oversee clinical trials was first proposed nearly 50 years ago. Since then, data monitoring committee use in clinical trials has increased and evolved. Nonetheless, there are no well-defined criteria for determining the need for a data monitoring committee, and considerable variability exists in data monitoring committee composition and conduct. To understand and describe the role and function of data monitoring committees, and establish best practices for data monitoring committee trial oversight, the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative-a public-private partnership to improve clinical trials-launched a multi-stakeholder project...
May 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500650/aberrant-cognitive-phenotypes-and-altered-hippocampal-bdnf-expression-related-to-epigenetic-modifications-in-mice-lacking-the-post-synaptic-scaffolding-protein-shank1-implications-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
A Özge Sungur, Magdalena C E Jochner, Hani Harb, Ayşe Kılıç, Holger Garn, Rainer K W Schwarting, Markus Wöhr
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a class of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by persistent deficits in social communication/interaction, together with restricted/repetitive patterns of behavior. ASD is among the most heritable neuropsychiatric conditions, and while available evidence points to a complex set of genetic factors, the SHANK gene family has emerged as one of the most promising candidates. Here, we assessed ASD-related phenotypes with particular emphasis on social behavior and cognition in Shank1 mouse mutants in comparison to heterozygous and wildtype littermate controls across development in both sexes...
May 12, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500324/labeling-extracellular-vesicles-for-nanoscale-flow-cytometry
#16
Aizea Morales-Kastresana, Bill Telford, Thomas A Musich, Katherine McKinnon, Cassandra Clayborne, Zach Braig, Ari Rosner, Thorsten Demberg, Dionysios C Watson, Tatiana S Karpova, Gordon J Freeman, Rosemarie H DeKruyff, George N Pavlakis, Masaki Terabe, Marjorie Robert-Guroff, Jay A Berzofsky, Jennifer C Jones
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, are 30-800 nm vesicles that are released by most cell types, as biological packages for intercellular communication. Their importance in cancer and inflammation makes EVs and their cargo promising biomarkers of disease and cell-free therapeutic agents. Emerging high-resolution cytometric methods have created a pressing need for efficient fluorescent labeling procedures to visualize and detect EVs. Suitable labels must be bright enough for one EV to be detected without the generation of label-associated artifacts...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499577/metabolic-regulation-of-suppressive-myeloid-cells-in-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Antonio Sica, Laura Strauss, Francesca Maria Consonni, Cristina Travelli, Armando Genazzani, Chiara Porta
Cancer cells rewire their metabolism to promote growth, survival, proliferation and long-term maintenance. The common feature of this altered metabolism is the increased glucose uptake and fermentation of glucose to lactate, which is observed even in the presence of completely functioning mitochondria. This effect is known as the 'Warburg Effect' and its intensive investigation in the last decade has partially established either its causes or its functions. It is now emerging that a major side effect of the Warburg Effect is immunosuppression, which limits the immunogenicity of cancer cells and therefore restricts the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer immunotherapy...
May 3, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499371/-placebo-effect-is-probably-what-we-refer-to-as-patient-healing-power-a-qualitative-pilot-study-examining-how-norwegian-complementary-therapists-reflect-on-their-practice
#18
Trine Stub, Nina Foss, Ingrid Liodden
BACKGROUND: Complementary therapists spend considerable time with their patients, especially in the first consultation. The communication between patients and their therapists is important for raising consciousness and activation of the patient's self-healing power. Thus, the aims in this study were to delineate what complementary therapists regard as essential in patient consultations, their view of the healing process, and how the therapists understand the placebo effect and its position in the healing process...
May 12, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497358/predictive-value-of-selected-biomarkers-related-to-metabolism-and-oxidative-stress-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Afaf El-Ansary, Geir Bjørklund, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Osima M Alnakhli
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as a neurodevelopmental disorder is characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication, and restricted, repetitive behavior. Several and reproducible studies have suggested that oxidative stress may represent one of the primary etiological mechanism of ASD that can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. In the present study, multiple regression and combined receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were used to search for a relationship between impaired energy and oxidative metabolic pathways in the etiology of ASD and to find the linear combination that maximizes the partial area under a ROC curve for a pre-identified set of markers related to energy metabolism and oxidative stress...
May 11, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495997/extracellular-vesicles-in-metabolic-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
M Carmen Martínez, Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina
Metabolic syndrome defines a cluster of interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. These factors include metabolic abnormalities, such as hyperglycemia, elevated triglyceride levels, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and obesity, mainly central adiposity. In this context, extracellular vesicles (EVs) may represent novel effectors that might help to elucidate disease-specific pathways in metabolic disease. Indeed, EVs (a terminology that encompasses microparticles, exosomes, and apoptotic bodies) are emerging as a novel mean of cell-to-cell communication in physiology and pathology because they represent a new way to convey fundamental information between cells...
May 12, 2017: Circulation Research
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