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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933725/integrins-and-exosomes-a-dangerous-liaison-in-cancer-progression
#1
REVIEW
Mayra Paolillo, Sergio Schinelli
Integrin activity and function is classically related to the bi-directional regulation of cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) contacts that regulate a number of cell pathways linked to cell adhesion, cell detachment from ECM, cell migration, and anoikis. Interestingly, emerging data continue to uncover new roles for integrins in cancer-relevant pathways, particularly concerning the regulation of immune cell activity in the tumor niche, like myeloid cell differentiation and function and, very recently, the regulation of metastatic processes by exosomes...
July 26, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930915/microvesicle-subsets-in-sepsis-due-to-community-acquired-pneumonia-compared-to-faecal-peritonitis
#2
Hazem M S Lashin, Suchita Nadkarni, Silvia Oggero, Hefin R Jones, Julian C Knight, Charles J Hinds, Mauro Perretti
RATIONALE: Microvesicles (MV) act as a non-soluble means of inter-cellular communication, with effector roles in disease pathogenesis and potentially as biomarkers. Previously, we reported that neutrophil MV expressing alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2MG) are protective in experimental sepsis and associate with survival in a small cohort of patients with sepsis due to community acquired pneumonia (CAP). OBJECTIVES: To characterise MV profiles in sepsis due to CAP or faecal peritonitis (FP) and determine their relation to outcome...
September 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930657/foundations-of-immunometabolism-and-implications-for-metabolic-health-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Gökhan S Hotamisligil
Highly ordered interactions between immune and metabolic responses are evolutionarily conserved and paramount for tissue and organismal health. Disruption of these interactions underlies the emergence of many pathologies, particularly chronic non-communicable diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Here, we examine decades of research identifying the complex immunometabolic signaling networks and the cellular and molecular events that occur in the setting of altered nutrient and energy exposures and offer a historical perspective...
September 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930577/exosome-enrichment-by-ultracentrifugation-and-size-exclusion-chromatography
#4
Yong Qin Koh, Fatema B Almughlliq, Kanchan Vaswani, Hassendrini N Peiris, Murray D Mitchell
Exosomes are a subset of extracellular vesicles (EVs) that have important roles in intercellular communication. They contain and carry bioactive molecules within their membranes which are delivered to target cells. Reproducible isolation and enrichment of these exosomes will aid in evaluation of cellular communication. We present an approach that involved the pre-processing of plasma, combined with ultracentrifugation (UC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to isolate EVs and subsequently enrich exosomes...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930556/osteoimmunology-the-nexus-between-bone-and-immune-system
#5
Hamid Y Dar, Zaffar Azam, Rajaneesh Anupam, Rajesh K Mondal, Rupesh K Srivastava
Osteoimmunology is an interdisciplinary research field which combines the existing fields of osteology (bone biology) and immunology under one umbrella. The observation that contributed enormously to the emergence of osteoimmunology as an independent field of investigation was the enhanced bone loss in various inflammatory bone diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and periodontitis. T helper cells (Th1, Th2, Treg and Th17) along with various other immune cells (B cells, DC, macrophages etc.) are actively involved in bone homeostasis...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928488/ubiquitylation-at-the-crossroads-of-development-and-disease
#6
REVIEW
Michael Rape
Human development requires intricate cell specification and communication pathways that allow an embryo to generate and appropriately connect more than 200 different cell types. Key to the successful completion of this differentiation programme is the quantitative and reversible regulation of core signalling networks, and post-translational modification with ubiquitin provides embryos with an essential tool to accomplish this task. Instigated by E3 ligases and reversed by deubiquitylases, ubiquitylation controls many processes that are fundamental for development, such as cell division, fate specification and migration...
September 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927767/gem-dithioacetylated-indole-derivatives-as-novel-antileishmanial-agents
#7
Sharad Porwal, Suman Gupta, Prem M S Chauhan
In this communication we report a serendipitously discovered hybrid molecule 1, combining fragment of 3 (an in vivo active antileishmanial molecule) with H2S donor moiety (known for bimodal behavior of cytoprotection and apoptosis), as antileishmanial agent. Compound 1 suppresses 99.82% parasitemia of L. donovani infected macrophages at 12.5μg/ml without even deforming them (CC50>100μg/ml). This compound appears cytotoxic for intracellular amastigotes while cytoprotective to host macrophages. The concept can be utilized to develop high therapeutic index NCE (New Chemical Entities) for other macrophage mediated diseases like tuberculosis and cancer...
September 8, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926001/ketamine-differential-neurophysiological-dynamics-in-functional-networks-in-the-rat-brain
#8
A Ahnaou, H Huysmans, R Biermans, N V Manyakov, W H I M Drinkenburg
Recently, the N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine has emerged as a fast-onset mechanism to achieve antidepressant activity, whereas its psychomimetic, dissociative and amnestic effects have been well documented to pharmacologically model schizophrenia features in rodents. Sleep-wake architecture, neuronal oscillations and network connectivity are key mechanisms supporting brain plasticity and cognition, which are disrupted in mood disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. In rats, we investigated the dynamic effects of acute and chronic subcutaneous administration of ketamine (2...
September 19, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924686/psychosocial-impact-of-personalized-therapies-in-oncology
#9
Georgia Schilling, Frank Schulz-Kindermann
Personalized medicine is a keyword in modern oncology summarizing biomarker-driven targeted therapies. Those novel agents enhance our therapeutic portfolio and offer new options for our patients. But the term is often misleading and implicates a tailored therapy to the individual person, but it rather means a treatment stratified on genetic characteristics of the tumor. Molecular therapies raise expectations of curability or long-term treatments making former life-threatening diseases to more chronic ones but this is true only for some patients...
2018: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924602/factors-defining-expertise-in-screening-colonoscopy
#10
Kinesh Patel, Anna Pinto, Omar Faiz, Matt Rutter, Siwan Thomas-Gibson
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS:  There is very little literature defining characteristics of expert endoscopists. It is hypothesised that previously undetermined human factors may correlate with high performance in screening colonoscopists. The aim of this study was to determine factors contributing towards expertise in screening colonoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  A focus group was used to hypothesise skills considered to be relevant to high performance in colonoscopy...
September 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920855/pfma-a-novel-quorum-quenching-n-acylhomoserine-lactone-acylase-from-pseudoalteromonas-flavipulchra
#11
Na Liu, Min Yu, Youbin Zhao, Jingguang Cheng, Ke An, Xiao-Hua Zhang
Many bacteria, such as Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes, use N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) as quorum-sensing (QS) signal molecules for communication. Enzymatic degradation of AHLs, such as AHL acylase and AHL lactonase, can degrade AHLs (quorum quenching, QQ) to attenuate or disarm the virulence of pathogens. QQ is confirmed to be common in marine bacterial communities. Many genes encoding AHL acylases are found in marine bacteria and metagenomic collections, but only a few of these have been characterized in detail...
September 18, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920054/controlling-extra-and-intramacrophagic-mycobacterium-abscessus-by-targeting-mycolic-acid-transport
#12
Albertus Viljoen, Jean-Louis Herrmann, Oluseye K Onajole, Jozef Stec, Alan P Kozikowski, Laurent Kremer
Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) causing serious infections especially among cystic fibrosis patients. Extremely limited therapeutic options against M. abscessus and a rise in infections with this mycobacterium require novel chemotherapies and a better understanding of how the bacterium causes infection. Different from most RGM, M. abscessus can survive inside macrophages and persist for long durations in infected tissues. We recently delineated differences in the infective programs followed by smooth (S) and rough (R) variants of M...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919737/bacterial-membrane-vesicles-as-novel-nanosystems-for-drug-delivery
#13
REVIEW
Sapna Jain, Jonathan Pillai
Bacterial membrane vesicles (BMVs) are closed spherical nanostructures that are shed naturally and ubiquitously by most bacterial species both in vivo and in vitro. Researchers have elucidated their roles in long-distance transport of a wide array of cargoes, such as proteins, toxins, antigens, virulence factors, microbicidal agents and antibiotics. Given that these natural carriers are important players in intercellular communication, it has been hypothesized that they are equally well attuned for transport and delivery of exogenous therapeutic cargoes...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919014/regulation-and-function-of-endothelial-glycocalyx-layer-in-vascular-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Irina Sieve, Anja Münster-Kühnel, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner
In the vascular system, the endothelial surface layer (ESL) as the inner surface of blood vessels affects mechanotransduction, vascular permeability, rheology, thrombogenesis, and leukocyte adhesion. It creates barriers between endothelial cells and blood and neighbouring cells. The glycocalyx, composed of glycoconjugates and proteoglycans, is an integral component of the ESL and a key element in inter- and intracellular communication and tissue homeostasis. In pathophysiological conditions (atherosclerosis, infection, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes, trauma and acute lung injury) glycocalyx-degrading factors, i...
September 12, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913345/a-yeast-model-for-the-mechanism-of-the-epstein-barr-virus-immune-evasion-identifies-a-new-therapeutic-target-to-interfere-with-the-virus-stealthiness
#15
COMMENT
María José Lista, Rodrigo Prado Martins, Gaelle Angrand, Alicia Quillévéré, Chrysoula Daskalogianni, Cécile Voisset, Marie-Paule Teulade-Fichou, Robin Fåhraeus, Marc Blondel
The oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) evades the immune system but has an Achilles heel: its genome maintenance protein EBNA1. Indeed, EBNA1 is essential for viral genome replication and maintenance but also highly antigenic. Hence, EBV evolved a system in which the glycine-alanine repeat (GAr) of EBNA1 limits the translation of its own mRNA at a minimal level to ensure its essential function thereby, at the same time, minimizing immune recognition. Defining intervention points where to interfere with EBNA1 immune evasion is an important step to trigger an immune response against EBV-carrying cancers...
August 31, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912682/extracellular-vesicles-in-brain-tumors-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Federica Ciregia, Andrea Urbani, Giuseppe Palmisano
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) can be classified into apoptotic bodies, microvesicles (MVs), and exosomes, based on their origin or size. Exosomes are the smallest and best characterized vesicles which derived from the endosomal system. These vesicles are released from many different cell types including neuronal cells and their functions in the nervous system are investigated. They have been proposed as novel means for intercellular communication, which takes part not only to the normal neuronal physiology but also to the transmission of pathogenic proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912498/reproducible-and-scalable-purification-of-extracellular-vesicles-using-combined-bind-elute-and-size-exclusion-chromatography
#17
Giulia Corso, Imre Mäger, Yi Lee, André Görgens, Jarred Bultema, Bernd Giebel, Matthew J A Wood, Joel Z Nordin, Samir El Andaloussi
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a pivotal role in cell-to-cell communication and have been shown to take part in several physiological and pathological processes. EVs have traditionally been purified by ultracentrifugation (UC), however UC has limitations, including resulting in, operator-dependant yields, EV aggregation and altered EV morphology, and moreover is time consuming. Here we show that commercially available bind-elute size exclusion chromatography (BE-SEC) columns purify EVs with high yield (recovery ~ 80%) in a time-efficient manner compared to current methodologies...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904540/assessing-emergency-nurses-clinical-competency-an-exploratory-factor-analysis-study
#18
Atefeh Ghanbari, Fateme Hasandoost, Ehsan Kazemnezhad Lyili, Rasoul Tabari Khomeiran, Maryam Momeni
BACKGROUND: Nursing as a clinical discipline is developing in the emergency wards. Health care systems should continuously assess and prioritize indicators of clinical competency in these wards. The lack of clear standards of clinical competency indicators challenges evaluation. The purpose of this study was to determine clinical competency indicators and its priority based on nurses' views in educational and therapeutic centers in Guilan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Q methodology was conducted in three phases, that is, phase I (determining the clinical competency indicators), phase II (classifying clinical competency indicators by an expert panel), and phase III (prioritizing clinical competency indicators)...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903061/lymphatic-drainage-system-of-the-brain-a-novel-target-for-intervention-of-neurological-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Bao-Liang Sun, Li-Hua Wang, Tuo Yang, Lei-Lei Mao, Jing-Yi Sun, Ming-Feng Yang, Hui Yuan, Robert A Colvin, Xiao-Yi Yang
The belief that the vertebrate brain functions normally without classical lymphatic drainage vessels has been held for many decades. On the contrary, new findings show that functional lymphatic drainage does exist in the brain. The brain lymphatic drainage system is composed of basement membrane-based perivascular pathway, a brain-wide glymphatic pathway, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage routes including sinus-associated meningeal lymphatic vessels and olfactory/cervical lymphatic routes. The brain lymphatic systems function physiological as a route of drainage for interstitial fluid (ISF) from brain parenchyma to nearby lymph nodes...
September 10, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899762/the-role-of-non-endothelial-cells-on-the-penetration-of-nanoparticles-through-the-blood-brain-barrier
#20
REVIEW
Rui Pedro Moura, Andreia Almeida, Bruno Sarmento
The blood brain barrier (BBB) is a well-established cell-based membrane that circumvents the central nervous system (CNS), protecting it from harmful substances. Due to its robustness and cell integrity, it is also an outstanding opponent when it comes to the delivery of several therapeutic agents to the brain, which requires the crossing through its highly-organized structure. This regulation and cell-cell communications occur mostly between astrocytes, pericytes and endothelial cells. Therefore, alternative ways to deliver drugs to the CNS, overcoming the BBB are required, to improve the efficacy of brain target drugs...
September 9, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
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