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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819261/modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-preferentially-targets-antigen-presenting-cells-in-vitro-ex-vivo-and-in-vivo
#1
Arwen F Altenburg, Carolien E van de Sandt, Bobby W S Li, Ronan J MacLoughlin, Ron A M Fouchier, Geert van Amerongen, Asisa Volz, Rudi W Hendriks, Rik L de Swart, Gerd Sutter, Guus F Rimmelzwaan, Rory D de Vries
Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a promising vaccine vector with an excellent safety profile. However, despite extensive pre-clinical and clinical testing, surprisingly little is known about the cellular tropism of MVA, especially in relevant animal species. Here, we performed in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experiments with recombinant MVA expressing green fluorescent protein (rMVA-GFP). In both human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and mouse lung explants, rMVA-GFP predominantly infected antigen presenting cells...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818896/genome-sequences-of-three-novel-isolates-of-human-parainfluenza-virus-2-associated-with-acute-respiratory-infection
#2
J L Kennedy, J C Kincaid, K C Schwalm, A N Stoner, T J Abramo, T M Thompson, O Hardin, C Putt, D L Dinwiddie
Using target capture of viral nucleic acid and next-generation sequencing, we generated the genome sequences of three novel human parainfluenza virus 2 isolates. Isolates ACRI_0185 (GenBank accession number MF077311), ACRI_0230 (MF077312), and ACRI_0248 (MF077313) were collected in October 2016, February 2017, and March 2017, respectively, from pediatric patients with acute respiratory infection in Arkansas.
August 17, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818749/a-conjugate-protein-containing-hiv-tat-isg20-and-a-prrsv-polymerase-binding-inhibits-prrsv-replication-and-may-be-a-novel-therapeutic-platform
#3
Ke Liu, Yuming Li, Bin Zhou, Feifei Wang, Beili Huan, Donghua Shao, Jianchao Wei, Yafeng Qiu, Beibei Li, Yingjuan Qian, Yong-Sam Jung, Denian Miao, Guangzhi Tong, Zhiyong Ma
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), which is caused by Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) infection, has caused substantial economic losses for the global swine industry. To date, there are limited commercially available measures to control the spread of PRRSV. The available vaccines are unstable and there is no anti-PRRSV therapeutic available. Therefore, this study designed a novel recombinant antiviral protein that included a novel polypeptide that binds to the PRRSV polymerase (p9), the transduction ability of the HIV TAT, and the nucleotide degradation activity of interferon stimulated gene 20 (ISG20)...
August 10, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818113/respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-entry-is-inhibited-by-serine-protease-inhibitor-aebsf-when-present-during-an-early-stage-of-infection
#4
Winke Van der Gucht, Annelies Leemans, Marjorie De Schryver, Annick Heykers, Guy Caljon, Louis Maes, Paul Cos, Peter L Delputte
BACKGROUND: Host proteases have been shown to play important roles in many viral activities such as entry, uncoating, viral protein production and disease induction. Therefore, these cellular proteases are putative targets for the development of antivirals that inhibit their activity. Host proteases have been described to play essential roles in Ebola, HCV, HIV and influenza, such that specific protease inhibitors are able to reduce infection. RSV utilizes a host protease in its replication cycle but its potential as antiviral target is unknown...
August 17, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815644/role-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-exacerbated-airway-inflammation-during-reinfection-of-neonatally-primed-mice-in-adulthood
#5
Jianqi Wu, Lei Xu, Xu Han, Haiyan Hu, Feifei Qi, Song Bai, Ruonan Chai, Yuee Teng, Beixing Liu
Age at primary infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a crucial factor in determining the outcome of reinfection. However, how neonatal RSV infection affects the immune system and renders the host more susceptible to reinfection in later life is poorly understood. In the present study, by using BALB/c mice that were first infected with RSV as neonates, the role of γδ T cells in the development of airway inflammation during reinfection in adulthood was investigated. We found that neonatal RSV infection resulted in an aggravated infiltration of mononuclear cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids, in parallel with a significant increase in the levels of type 2 cytokines in lungs on day 4 after reinfection...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814240/structure-properties-and-mechanisms-of-action-of-naturally-originated-phenolic-acids-and-their-derivatives-against-human-viral-infections
#6
Yi-Hang Wu, Bing-Yi Zhang, Li-Peng Qiu, Rong-Fa Guan, Zi-Hong Ye, Xiao-Ping Yu
BACKGROUND: A great effort has been made to develop efficacious antiviral drugs, but many viral infections are still lack of efficient antiviral therapies so far. The related exploration of natural products to fight viruses has been raised in recent years. Natural compounds with structural diversity and complexity offer a great chance to find new antiviral agents. Particularly, phenolic acids have attracted considerable attention owing to their potent antiviral abilities and unique mechanisms...
August 14, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813689/large-scale-machine-learning-of-media-outlets-for-understanding-public-reactions-to-nation-wide-viral-infection-outbreaks
#7
Sungwoon Choi, Jangho Lee, Min-Gyu Kang, Hyeyoung Min, Yoon-Seok Chang, Sungroh Yoon
From May to July 2015, there was a nation-wide outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in Korea. MERS is caused by MERS-CoV, an enveloped, positive-sense, single stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. Despite expert opinions that the danger of MERS might be exaggerated, there was an overreaction by the public according to the Korean mass media, which led to a noticeable reduction in social and economic activities during the outbreak. To explain this phenomenon, we presumed that machine learning-based analysis of media outlets would be helpful and collected a number of Korean mass media articles and short-text comments produced during the 10-week outbreak...
August 13, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813449/influenza-virus-infections-among-patients-attending-emergency-department-according-to-main-reason-to-presenting-to-ed-a-3-year-prospective-observational-study-during-seasonal-epidemic-periods
#8
Enrique Casalino, Stephanie Antoniol, Nadhira Fidouh, Christophe Choquet, Jean-Christophe Lucet, Xavier Duval, Benoit Visseaux, Laurent Pereira
OBJECTIVE: The role of influenza virus in patients presenting at ED during seasonal-epidemic periods has not previously been specified. Our objective was to determine its frequency according to clinical presentation. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study conducted during three-consecutive seasonal Influenza epidemics (2013-2015), including patients presenting i) community-acquired pneumonia (CAP); ii) severe acute symptoms (SAS): respiratory failure (RF), hemodynamic failure (HF), cardiac failure (CF), and miscellaneous symptoms (M); iii) symptoms suggesting influenza (PSSI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812530/feline-herpesvirus-pneumonia-investigations-into-the-pathogenesis
#9
Josep Maria Monne Rodriguez, Gail Leeming, Kernt Köhler, Anja Kipar
Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FeHV-1) is one of the etiological agents of feline respiratory disease. FeHV-1 is an epitheliotropic and cytopathic virus that mainly causes rhinitis and conjunctivitis, although pneumonia is also occasionally seen. In this study, the authors investigated the pathogenesis of FeHV-1-associated pneumonia, comparing natural cases with viral infection of tracheal ring and cell cultures in vitro, using histology, immunohistology, double immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy as investigative tools...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812393/innate-lymphoid-cells-the-role-in-respiratory-infections-and-lung-tissue-damage
#10
Anna Głobińska, Marek L Kowalski
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) represent a diverse family of cells of the innate immune system, which play an important role in regulation of tissue homeostasis, immunity and inflammation. Emerging evidence has highlighted the importance of ILCs in both protective immunity to respiratory infections and their pathological roles in the lungs. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge, interpret and integrate it into broader perspective, enabling greater insight into the role of ILCs in respiratory diseases...
August 16, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808938/advances-in-vaccines-to-prevent-viral-respiratory-illnesses-in-children
#11
Aleisha J Anderson, Tom L Snelling, Hannah C Moore, Christopher C Blyth
Childhood vaccination has played a critical role in the reduction of morbidity and mortality from communicable diseases, including specific respiratory pathogens. Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) of both bacterial and viral aetiology continues to impact global child health. Key bacterial pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenza type b are specifically targeted with current vaccination programmes, while at present there are less effective strategies for the prevention of viral disease...
August 14, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807812/evaluation-and-clinical-validation-of-two-field-deployable-reverse-transcription-insulated-isothermal-pcr-assays-for-the-detection-of-the-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus
#12
Yun Young Go, Yeon-Sook Kim, Shinhye Cheon, Sangwoo Nam, Keun Bon Ku, Meehyein Kim, Nam Hyuk Cho, Hyun Park, Pei-Yu Alison Lee, Yu-Chun Lin, Yun-Long Tsai, Hwa-Tang Thomas Wang, Udeni B R Balasuriya
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is an emerging zoonotic viral respiratory disease that was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012. In 2015, the largest MERS outbreak outside of the Middle East region occurred in the Republic of Korea. The rapid nosocomial transmission of MERS-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Korean healthcare settings highlighted the importance and urgent need for a rapid and reliable on-site diagnostic assay to implement effective control and preventive measures. Here, we describe the evaluation and validation of two newly developed reverse transcription-insulated isothermal PCR (RT-iiPCR) methods targeting the ORF1a and upE genes of MERS-CoV...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806976/quantitative-detection-of-human-malawi-polyomavirus-in-nasopharyngeal-aspirates-sera-and-feces-in-beijing-china-using-real-time-taqman-based-pcr
#13
Fen-Lian Ma, Dan-di Li, Tian-Li Wei, Jin-Song Li, Li-Shu Zheng
BACKGROUND: Human Malawi polyomavirus (MWPyV) was discovered in 2012, but its prevalence and clinical characteristics are largely unknown. METHODS: We used real-time TaqMan-based PCR to detect MWPyV in the feces (n = 174) of children with diarrhea, nasopharyngeal aspirates (n = 887) from children with respiratory infections, and sera (n = 200) from healthy adults, and analyzed its clinical characteristics statistically. All the MWPyV-positive specimens were also screened for other common respiratory viruses...
August 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805308/lymphocyte-profile-and-cytokine-mrna-expression-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-patients-with-recurrent-respiratory-papillomatosis-suggest-dysregulated-cytokine-mrna-response-and-impaired-cytotoxic-capacity
#14
Anna Holm, Olga Nagaeva, Ivan Nagaev, Christos Loizou, Göran Laurell, Lucia Mincheva-Nilsson, Karin Nylander, Katarina Olofsson
OBJECTIVES: Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a relatively rare, chronic disease caused by Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) 6 and 11, and characterized by wart-like lesions in the airway affecting voice and respiratory function. The majority of HPV infections are asymptomatic and resolve spontaneously, however, some individuals are afflicted with persistent HPV infections. Failure to eliminate HPV 6 and 11 due to a defect immune responsiveness to these specific genotypes is proposed to play a major role in the development of RRP...
August 14, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804020/porcine-2-5-oligoadenylate-synthetase-2-inhibits-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-replication-in-vitro
#15
Mengmeng Zhao, Bo Wan, Huawei Li, Jian He, Xinxin Chen, Linjian Wang, Yinbiao Wang, Sha Xie, Songlin Qiao, Gaiping Zhang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is acknowledged a fulminating infectious pathogen affecting the pig farming industry, and current vaccines and drugs could hardly inhibit this virus. The 2', 5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OASs) have antiviral activities, but the role(s) played by porcine OAS2 in protection against PRRSV infection are unknown. Here we found that endogenous expression of the porcine OAS2 gene could be promoted by interferon (IFN)-beta or PRRSV infection in porcine alveolar macrophages...
August 10, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803969/molecular-detection-and-characterization-of-influenza-c-viruses-from-western-india
#16
V A Potdar, D D Hinge, M R Dakhave, A Manchanda, N Jadhav, P B Kulkarni, M S Chadha
Since 2003, India has had a well-established influenza surveillance network, though Influenza C virus was not the focus of study. We therefore retrospectively analyzed clinical samples from Pune, western India collected during January 2009 to August 2015, by real-time RT-PCR. Three of 2530 samples of patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) showed positivity for Influenza C virus infection, while 105 and 31 samples were positive for Influenza A and B viruses respectively...
August 10, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802185/diagnostic-yield-and-clinical-impact-of-routine-cell-culture-for-respiratory-viruses-among-children-with-a-negative-multiplex-rt-pcr-result
#17
M AlGhounaim, Y Xiao, C Caya, J Papenburg
BACKGROUND: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the reference standard for respiratory virus testing. However, cell culture may still have added value in identifying viruses not detected by PCR. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the yield and clinical impact of routine respiratory virus culture among children with a negative PCR result. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was performed from Jan. 2013 to Sept. 2015. Respiratory samples from hospitalized or immunocompromised patients <18years old were routinely inoculated on traditional tube cell culture monolayers if they tested negative by a PCR assay for 12 respiratory viruses...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802158/lipidation-increases-antiviral-activities-of-coronavirus-fusion-inhibiting-peptides
#18
Jung-Eun Park, Tom Gallagher
Coronaviruses (CoVs) can cause life-threatening respiratory diseases. Their infectious entry requires viral spike (S) proteins, which attach to cell receptors, undergo proteolytic cleavage, and then refold in a process that catalyzes virus-cell membrane fusion. Fusion-inhibiting peptides bind to S proteins, interfere with refolding, and prevent infection. Here we conjugated fusion-inhibiting peptides to various lipids, expecting this to secure peptides onto cell membranes and thereby increase antiviral potencies...
August 9, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800119/new-insights-contributing-to-the-development-of-effective-vaccines-and-therapies-to-reduce-the-pathology-caused-by-hrsv
#19
REVIEW
Nicolás M S Gálvez, Jorge A Soto, Alexis M Kalergis
Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) is one of the major causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI) worldwide, leading to significant levels of immunocompromisation as well as morbidity and mortality in infants. Its main target of infection is the ciliated epithelium of the lungs and the host immune responses elicited is ineffective at achieving viral clearance. It is thought that the lack of effective immunity against hRSV is due in part to the activity of several viral proteins that modulate the host immune response, enhancing a Th2-like pro-inflammatory state, with the secretion of cytokines that promote the infiltration of immune cells to the lungs, with consequent damage...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798254/oxygen-dependent-changes-in-lung-development-do-not-affect-epithelial-infection-with-influenza-a-virus
#20
William Domm, Min Yee, Ravi S Misra, Robert Gelein, Aitor Nogales, Luis Martinez Sobrido, Michael A O'Reilly
Infants born prematurely often require supplemental oxygen that contributes to aberrant lung development and increased pulmonary morbidity following a respiratory viral infection. We have been using a mouse model to understand how early-life hyperoxia affects the adult lung response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Prior studies showed how neonatal hyperoxia (100% oxygen) increased sensitivity of adult mice to infection with influenza A virus (IAV (A/Hong Kong/X31) H3N2) as defined by persistent inflammation, pulmonary fibrosis, and mortality...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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