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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231269/a-mouse-model-of-paralytic-myelitis-caused-by-enterovirus-d68
#1
Alison M Hixon, Guixia Yu, J Smith Leser, Shigeo Yagi, Penny Clarke, Charles Y Chiu, Kenneth L Tyler
In 2014, the United States experienced an epidemic of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) cases in children coincident with a nationwide outbreak of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) respiratory disease. Up to half of the 2014 AFM patients had EV-D68 RNA detected by RT-PCR in their respiratory secretions, although EV-D68 was only detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from one 2014 AFM patient. Given previously described molecular and epidemiologic associations between EV-D68 and AFM, we sought to develop an animal model by screening seven EV-D68 strains for the ability to induce neurological disease in neonatal mice...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231264/precision-engineering-for-prrsv-resistance-in-pigs-macrophages-from-genome-edited-pigs-lacking-cd163-srcr5-domain-are-fully-resistant-to-both-prrsv-genotypes-while-maintaining-biological-function
#2
Christine Burkard, Simon G Lillico, Elizabeth Reid, Ben Jackson, Alan J Mileham, Tahar Ait-Ali, C Bruce A Whitelaw, Alan L Archibald
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is a panzootic infectious disease of pigs, causing major economic losses to the world-wide pig industry. PRRS manifests differently in pigs of all ages but primarily causes late-term abortions and stillbirths in sows and respiratory disease in piglets. The causative agent of the disease is the positive-strand RNA PRRS virus (PRRSV). PRRSV has a narrow host cell tropism, limited to cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. CD163 has been described as a fusion receptor for PRRSV, whereby the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain 5 (SRCR5) region was shown to be an interaction site for the virus in vitro...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228336/evaluation-of-hydrophobic-chitosan-based-particulate-formulations-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-vaccine-candidate-t-cell-antigens
#3
Helen Mokhtar, Lucia Biffar, Satyanarayana Somavarapu, Jean-Pierre Frossard, Sarah McGowan, Miriam Pedrera, Rebecca Strong, Jane C Edwards, Margarita Garcia-Durán, Maria Jose Rodriguez, Graham R Stewart, Falko Steinbach, Simon P Graham
PRRS control is hampered by the inadequacies of existing vaccines to combat the extreme diversity of circulating viruses. Since immune clearance of PRRSV infection may not be dependent on the development of neutralising antibodies and the identification of broadly-neutralising antibody epitopes have proven elusive, we hypothesised that conserved T cell antigens represent potential candidates for development of a novel PRRS vaccine. Previously we had identified the M and NSP5 proteins as well-conserved targets of polyfunctional CD8 and CD4 T cells...
February 3, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228284/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infects-regulatory-b-cells-in-human-neonates-via-chemokine-receptor-cx3cr1-and-promotes-lung-disease-severity
#4
Dania Zhivaki, Sébastien Lemoine, Annick Lim, Ahsen Morva, Pierre-Olivier Vidalain, Liliane Schandene, Nicoletta Casartelli, Marie-Anne Rameix-Welti, Pierre-Louis Hervé, Edith Dériaud, Benoit Beitz, Maryline Ripaux-Lefevre, Jordi Miatello, Brigitte Lemercier, Valerie Lorin, Delphyne Descamps, Jenna Fix, Jean-François Eléouët, Sabine Riffault, Olivier Schwartz, Fabrice Porcheray, Françoise Mascart, Hugo Mouquet, Xiaoming Zhang, Pierre Tissières, Richard Lo-Man
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and is characterized by pulmonary infiltration of B cells in fatal cases. We analyzed the B cell compartment in human newborns and identified a population of neonatal regulatory B lymphocytes (nBreg cells) that produced interleukin 10 (IL-10) in response to RSV infection. The polyreactive B cell receptor of nBreg cells interacted with RSV protein F and induced upregulation of chemokine receptor CX3CR1. CX3CR1 interacted with RSV glycoprotein G, leading to nBreg cell infection and IL-10 production that dampened T helper 1 (Th1) cytokine production...
February 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226273/acute-respiratory-infections-among-returning-hajj-pilgrims-jordan-2014
#5
Mohammad Mousa Al-Abdallat, Brian Rha, Sultan Alqasrawi, Daniel C Payne, Ibrahim Iblan, Alison M Binder, Aktham Haddadin, Mohannad Al Nsour, Tarek Alsanouri, Jawad Mofleh, Brett Whitaker, Stephen L Lindstrom, Suxiang Tong, Sami Sheikh Ali, Rebecca Moritz Dahl, LaShondra Berman, Jing Zhang, Dean D Erdman, Susan I Gerber
BACKGROUND: The emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has prompted enhanced surveillance for respiratory infections among pilgrims returning from the Hajj, one of the largest annual mass gatherings in the world. OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology and etiologies of respiratory illnesses among pilgrims returning to Jordan after the 2014 Hajj. STUDY DESIGN: Surveillance for respiratory illness among pilgrims returning to Jordan after the 2014 Hajj was conducted at sentinel health care facilities using epidemiologic surveys and molecular diagnostic testing of upper respiratory specimens for multiple respiratory pathogens, including MERS-CoV...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226227/protective-and-harmful-immunity-to-rsv-infection
#6
Peter J M Openshaw, Chris Chiu, Fiona J Culley, Cecilia Johansson
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an exceptional mucosal pathogen. It specializes in infection of the ciliated respiratory epithelium, causing disease of variable severity with little or no direct systemic effects. It infects virtually all children by the age of three years and then repeatedly infects throughout life; this it does despite relatively slight variations in antigenicity, apparently by inducing selective immunological amnesia. Inappropriate or dysregulated responses to RSV can be pathogenic, causing disease-enhancing inflammation that contributes to short- and long-term effects...
February 6, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225804/an-outbreak-of-acute-respiratory-disease-caused-by-a-virus-associated-rna-ii-gene-mutation-strain-of-human-adenovirus-7-in-china-2015
#7
Xiaoxia Yang, Qiongshu Wang, Beibei Liang, Fuli Wu, Hao Li, Hongbo Liu, Chunyu Sheng, Qiuxia Ma, Chaojie Yang, Jing Xie, Peng Li, Leili Jia, Ligui Wang, Xinying Du, Shaofu Qiu, Hongbin Song
Human adenovirus 7 (HAdV-7) strains are a major cause of acute respiratory disease (ARD) among adults and children, associated with fatal pneumonia. An ARD outbreak caused by HAdV-7 that involved 739 college students was reported in this article. To better understand the underlying cause of this large-scale epidemic, virus strains were isolated from infected patients and sequence variations of the whole genome sequence were detected. Evolutionary trees and alignment results indicated that the major capsid protein genes hexon and fibre were strongly conserved among serotype 7 strains in China at that time...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225711/reactive-oxygen-therapy-a-novel-therapy-in-soft-tissue-infection
#8
Matthew Dryden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The global burden of disease in skin and soft tissue lesions is enormous. Many chronic, poorly healing lesions get treated with antibiotics despite the lack of evidence for long-term antibiotics. There is a global antibiotic resistance crisis driven largely by inappropriate use of large volumes of antibiotics. One solution is to reduce the selection pressure on bacteria by reducing the volume of antibiotic use in medicine, agriculture and the environment. There are few novel antimicrobials...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224112/intravenous-vitamin-c-as-adjunctive-therapy-for-enterovirus-rhinovirus-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#9
Alpha A Fowler Iii, Christin Kim, Lawrence Lepler, Rajiv Malhotra, Orlando Debesa, Ramesh Natarajan, Bernard J Fisher, Aamer Syed, Christine DeWilde, Anna Priday, Vigneshwar Kasirajan
We report a case of virus-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) treated with parenteral vitamin C in a patient testing positive for enterovirus/rhinovirus on viral screening. This report outlines the first use of high dose intravenous vitamin C as an interventional therapy for ARDS, resulting from enterovirus/rhinovirus respiratory infection. From very significant preclinical research performed at Virginia Commonwealth University with vitamin C and with the very positive results of a previously performed phase I safety trial infusing high dose vitamin C intravenously into patients with severe sepsis, we reasoned that infusing identical dosing to a patient with ARDS from viral infection would be therapeutic...
February 4, 2017: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223680/uncomplicated-cystitis-in-an-adult-male-following-influenza-b-virus-infection
#10
Robert J Allen, Marios Koutsakos, Aeron C Hurt, Katherine Kedzierska
BACKGROUND Influenza B viruses cause seasonal epidemics of respiratory illness, circulating concurrently with influenza A viruses. However, virological and clinical knowledge of influenza B viruses is less well advanced than for influenza A, and in particular, complications associated with influenza B infection are not as commonly reported. Complications of influenza B infection predominantly include neurological and musculoskeletal pathologies, while a review of the literature shows that bacterial infections associated with influenza B viruses often involve Gram-positive organisms, with a smaller subset featuring Gram-negative species...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222748/identification-of-host-cellular-proteins-that-interact-with-the-m-protein-of-a-highly-pathogenic-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-vaccine-strain
#11
Qian Wang, Yanwei Li, Hong Dong, Li Wang, Jinmei Peng, Tongqing An, Xufu Yang, Zhijun Tian, Xuehui Cai
BACKGROUND: The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) continues to pose one of the greatest threats to the swine industry. M protein is the most conserved and important structural protein of PRRSV. However, information about the host cellular proteins that interact with M protein remains limited. METHODS: Host cellular proteins that interact with the M protein of HP-PRRSV were immunoprecipitated from MARC-145 cells infected with PRRSV HuN4-F112 using the M monoclonal antibody (mAb)...
February 22, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219838/natural-helper-cells-are-associated-with-the-exacerbated-airway-inflammation-seen-during-rsv-reinfection-of-neonatally-primed-mice
#12
Jianqi Wu, Haiyan Hu, Lei Xu, Feifei Qi, Song Bai, Yulin Cui, Ruonan Chai, Dandan Wang, Beixing Liu
Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in neonatal mice causes more aggressive airway disease when the mice are reinfected with the same virus as adults. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are not entirely defined. Natural helper (NH) cells are considered a key factor for virus-induced or exacerbated airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness by producing type 2 cytokines. To confirm whether NH cells are involved in the aggravated lung pathology seen during reinfection, BALB/c mice were initially infected as neonates and reinfected in adulthood...
February 16, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218288/detection-of-viral-respiratory-pathogens-in-mild-and-severe-acute-respiratory-infections-in-singapore
#13
Lili Jiang, Vernon Jian Ming Lee, Lin Cui, Raymond Lin, Chyi Lin Tan, Linda Wei Lin Tan, Wei-Yen Lim, Yee-Sin Leo, Louie Low, Martin Hibberd, Mark I-Cheng Chen
To investigate the performance of laboratory methods and clinical case definitions in detecting the viral pathogens for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) from a prospective community cohort and hospital inpatients, nasopharyngeal swabs from cohort members reporting ARIs (community-ARI) and inpatients admitted with ARIs (inpatient-ARI) were tested by Singleplex Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (SRT-PCR), multiplex RT-PCR (MRT-PCR) and pathogen-chip system (PathChip) between April 2012 and December 2013...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216237/development-of-an-anti-ferret-cd4-monoclonal-antibody-for-the-characterisation-of-ferret-t-lymphocytes
#14
Daniel S Layton, Xiaowen Xiao, John D Bentley, Louis Lu, Cameron R Stewart, Andrew G D Bean, Timothy E Adams
The ferret is an established animal model for a number of human respiratory viral infections, such as influenza virus and more recently, Ebola virus. However, a paucity of immunological reagents has hampered the study of cellular immune responses. Here we describe the development and characterisation of a novel monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the ferret CD4 antigen and the characterisation of ferret CD4 T lymphocytes. Recombinant production and purification of the ferret CD4 ectodomain soluble protein allowed hybridoma generation and the generation of a mAb (FeCD4) showing strong binding to ferret CD4 protein and lymphoid cells by flow cytometry...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215617/genetic-engineering-alveolar-macrophages-for-host-resistance-to-prrsv
#15
REVIEW
Randall S Prather, Kristin M Whitworth, Susan K Schommer, Kevin D Wells
Standard strategies for control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have not been effective, as vaccines have not reduced the prevalence of disease and many producers depopulate after an outbreak. Another method of control would be to prevent the virus from infecting the pig. The virus was thought to infect alveolar macrophages by interaction with a variety of cell surface molecules. One popular model had PRRSV first interacting with heparin sulfate followed by binding to sialoadhesin and then being internalized into an endosome...
February 10, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214181/-adult-immunisation-general-points-hot-topics-and-perspectives
#16
P Loubet, O Launay
Vaccination in immunocompetent adult mainly concerns booster vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio and pertussis. Some chronic diseases may also require the achievement of pneumococcal and influenza vaccines. In addition, from the age of 65, annual influenza vaccination as well as one dose of a live attenuated shingles vaccine between 64 and 75 years are recommended. Immunocompromised adults, due to the increased risk of serious infections responsible of significant morbidity and mortality, are particularly concerned by vaccination...
February 14, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214160/laboratory-based-surveillance-of-hospital-acquired-respiratory-virus-infection-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#17
Hye-Suk Choi, Mi-Na Kim, Heungsup Sung, Jeong-Young Lee, Hee-Youn Park, Sun-Hee Kwak, Young-Ju Lim, Min-Jee Hong, Sun-Kyung Kim, So-Yeon Park, Hyeon-Jeong Kim, Kyu-Ri Kim, Hye-Ran Choi, Jae Sim Jeong, Sang-Ho Choi
Of 7,772 laboratory-confirmed cases of respiratory viral infection among hospitalized patients, 22.8% were categorized as having hospital-acquired infection. The overall incidence of hospital-acquired respiratory viral infection was 3.9 (95% confidence interval, 3.7-4.1) cases per 1,000 admitted patients. Rhinovirus was the most common virus (30.3%), followed by influenza virus (17.6%) and parainfluenza virus (15.6%).
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213974/molecular-characterization-and-clinical-epidemiology-of-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-hrsv-a-and-b-in-hospitalized-children-southern-brazil
#18
F B Moreira, C S Rosario, J S Santos, V M Avanzi, M B Nogueira, L R Vidal, S M Raboni
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a major etiologic agent of pediatric respiratory infections. Genetic variability of its glycoprotein G enables HRSV to evade the immune response and determines its seasonal dissemination. This study reports genetic variability and clinical profiles of HRSV-infected patients from Southern Brazil. Seventy positive samples, 78% type A and 22% type B, were analyzed. Of the patients (median age, 6 months; interquartile range, 2-11 years) 16% had co-morbidities and 17% developed severe disease...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212305/epigenetic-landscape-during-coronavirus-infection
#19
Alexandra Schäfer, Ralph S Baric
Coronaviruses (CoV) comprise a large group of emerging human and animal pathogens, including the highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) strains. The molecular mechanisms regulating emerging coronavirus pathogenesis are complex and include virus-host interactions associated with entry, replication, egress and innate immune control. Epigenetics research investigates the genetic and non-genetic factors that regulate phenotypic variation, usually caused by external and environmental factors that alter host expression patterns and performance without any change in the underlying genotype...
February 15, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209439/post-polio-syndrome-cases-report-and-review-of-literature
#20
Żanna Pastuszak, Adam Stępień, Kazimierz Tomczykiewicz, Renata Piusińska-Macoch, Dariusz Galbarczyk, Agnieszka Rolewska
It is estimated that around 15 million people survived polio infection worldwide since early twentieth century. In 1950 effective vaccination was used for first time. Since that time number of affected people decreased. The last epidemic of Haine-Medine disease in Poland was in 1950s. Another rare cases of infections were observed till 1970s. About at least 15 years after polio virus infection, slowly progressive muscle limbs paresis with muscle atrophy, joints pain, paresthesia were observed in polio survivors...
February 3, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
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