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respiratory virus infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550754/linear-polysialoside-outperforms-dendritic-analogs-for-inhibition-of-influenza-virus-infection-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#1
Sumati Bhatia, Daniel Lauster, Markus Bardua, Kai Ludwig, Stefano Angioletti-Uberti, Nicole Popp, Ute Hoffmann, Florian Paulus, Matthias Budt, Marlena Stadtmüller, Thorsten Wolff, Alf Hamann, Christoph Böttcher, Andreas Herrmann, Rainer Haag
Inhibition of influenza A virus infection by multivalent sialic acid inhibitors preventing viral hemagglutinin binding to host cells of the respiratory tract is a promising strategy. However, optimal geometry and optimal ligand presentation on multivalent scaffolds for efficient inhibition both in vitro and in vivo application are still unclear. Here, by comparing linear and dendritic polyglycerol sialosides (LPGSA and dPGSA) we identified architectural requirements and optimal ligand densities for an efficient multivalent inhibitor of influenza virus A/X31/1 (H3N2)...
May 20, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550120/hiv-1-decreases-nrf2-are-activity-and-phagocytic-function-in-alveolar-macrophages
#2
Bashar S Staitieh, Lingmei Ding, Wendy A Neveu, Paul Spearman, David M Guidot, Xian Fan
Respiratory complications occur frequently in individuals living with human immunodeficiency-1 virus (HIV) infection, and there is evidence that HIV-related oxidative stress impairs alveolar macrophage immune function. We hypothesized that nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), a master transcription factor that activates the antioxidant response element (ARE) and regulates antioxidant defenses, has an important role in alveolar macrophage (AMs) immune dysfunction in individuals with HIV infections...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546965/ribonuclease-from-bacillus-acts-as-an-antiviral-agent-against-negative-and-positive-sense-single-stranded-human-respiratory-rna-viruses
#3
Raihan Shah Mahmud, Christin Müller, Yulia Romanova, Ahmed Mostafa, Vera Ulyanova, Stephan Pleschka, Olga Ilinskaya
Bacillus pumilus ribonuclease (binase) was shown to be a promising antiviral agent in animal models and cell cultures. However, the mode of its antiviral action remains unknown. To assess the binase effect on intracellular viral RNA we have selected single stranded negative- and positive-sense RNA viruses, influenza virus, and rhinovirus, respectively, which annually cause respiratory illnesses and are characterized by high contagious nature, mutation rate, and antigen variability. We have shown that binase exerts an antiviral effect on both viruses at the same concentration, which does not alter the spectrum of A549 cellular proteins and expression of housekeeping genes...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545321/virus-detection-by-pcr-following-vaccination-of-naive-calves-with-intranasal-or-injectable-multivalent-modified-live-viral-vaccines
#4
Paul H Walz, Benjamin W Newcomer, Kay P Riddell, Daniel W Scruggs, Victor S Cortese
We evaluated duration of PCR-positive results following administration of modified-live viral (MLV) vaccines to beef calves. Twenty beef calves were randomly assigned to either group 1 and vaccinated intranasally with a MLV vaccine containing bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), or to group 2 and vaccinated subcutaneously with a MLV vaccine containing bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2 (BVDV-1, -2), BoHV-1, BRSV, and BPIV-3...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544152/a-risk-adapted-approach-to-treating-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-human-parainfluenza-virus-in-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-recipients-with-oral-ribavirin-therapy-a-pilot-study
#5
José Luis Piñana, Juan Carlos Hernández-Boluda, Marisa Calabuig, Isabel Ballester, Manuela Marín, Silvia Madrid, Anabel Teruel, María-José Terol, David Navarro, Carlos Solano
Here we report the applicability of a protocol based on clinical conditions and risk factors (RFs) for managing 35 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients who developed a total of 52 episodes of respiratory viral infections (RVIs) caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; n=19), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV; n=29), or both (n=4) over a 2-year study period. Risk categories were classified as high risk (cat-1) when the immunodeficiency scoring index) was ≥ 3 and/or ≥ 3 RFs and/or ≥ 1 co-infective virus(es) were present; the remaining cases were classified as low risk (cat-0)...
May 19, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542662/-dengue-with-unusual-clinical-features-in-an-infant-case-report
#6
Nina Méndez-Domínguez, Kikey Achach-Medina, Yareni María Morales-Gual, Salvador Gómez-Carro
The state of Yucatan, in Mexico, is an endemic area for dengue. During 2015, there was an unpredicted increase in the number of expected cases of dengue fever. OBJECTIVE: To describe and analyse the clinical presentation, progress, and management of a case of dengue infection with non-specific clinical manifestations in an infant which resulted in a dengue shock syndrome. CASE REPORT: One month old infant admitted to hospital with a generalised rash and a history of being bitten by an insect...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542661/-benign-acute-childhood-myositis-clinical-series-and-literature-review
#7
Felipe Cavagnaro S M, Alejandra Aird G, Ingrid Harwardt R, Carmen Gloria Marambio Q
Benign acute childhood myositis (BACM) is a rare clinical condition that mainly affects pre-school and school age-children. It is usually preceded by a viral illness, particularly influenza virus infection. OBJECTIVE: To describe a cluster of BACM cases that were seen in a paediatric unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective series of cases that presented with a clinical picture suggestive of BACM between August and November 2012 in the paediatric emergency department of a private clinic...
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542609/potent-and-selective-inhibition-of-pathogenic-viruses-by-engineered-ubiquitin-variants
#8
Wei Zhang, Ben A Bailey-Elkin, Robert C M Knaap, Baldeep Khare, Tim J Dalebout, Garrett G Johnson, Puck B van Kasteren, Nigel J McLeish, Jun Gu, Wenguang He, Marjolein Kikkert, Brian L Mark, Sachdev S Sidhu
The recent Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Ebola and Zika virus outbreaks exemplify the continued threat of (re-)emerging viruses to human health, and our inability to rapidly develop effective therapeutic countermeasures. Many viruses, including MERS-CoV and the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) encode deubiquitinating (DUB) enzymes that are critical for viral replication and pathogenicity. They bind and remove ubiquitin (Ub) and interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) from cellular proteins to suppress host antiviral innate immune responses...
May 18, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542541/varicella-zoster-virus-glycoprotein-c-increases-chemokine-mediated-leukocyte-migration
#9
Víctor González-Motos, Carina Jürgens, Birgit Ritter, Kai A Kropp, Verónica Durán, Olav Larsen, Anne Binz, Werner J D Ouwendijk, Tihana Lenac Rovis, Stipan Jonjic, Georges M G M Verjans, Beate Sodeik, Thomas Krey, Rudolf Bauerfeind, Thomas F Schulz, Benedikt B Kaufer, Ulrich Kalinke, Amanda E I Proudfoot, Mette M Rosenkilde, Abel Viejo-Borbolla
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a highly prevalent human pathogen that establishes latency in neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Primary infection causes varicella whereas reactivation results in zoster, which is often followed by chronic pain in adults. Following infection of epithelial cells in the respiratory tract, VZV spreads within the host by hijacking leukocytes, including T cells, in the tonsils and other regional lymph nodes, and modifying their activity. In spite of its importance in pathogenesis, the mechanism of dissemination remains poorly understood...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542324/epidemiology-of-influenza-b-yamagata-and-b-victoria-lineages-in-south-africa-2005-2014
#10
Mpho Seleka, Florette K Treurnicht, Stefano Tempia, Orienka Hellferscee, Senzo Mtshali, Adam L Cohen, Amelia Buys, Johanna M McAnerney, Terry G Besselaar, Marthi Pretorius, Anne von Gottberg, Sibongile Walaza, Cheryl Cohen, Shabir A Madhi, Marietjie Venter
BACKGROUND: Studies describing the epidemiology of influenza B lineages in South Africa are lacking. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study to describe the circulation of influenza B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages among patients of all ages enrolled in South Africa through three respiratory illness surveillance systems between 2005 and 2014: (i) the Viral Watch (VW) program enrolled outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI) from private healthcare facilities during 2005-2014; (ii) the influenza-like illnesses program enrolled outpatients in public healthcare clinics (ILI/PHC) during 2012-2014; and (iii) the severe acute respiratory illnesses (SARI) program enrolled inpatients from public hospitals during 2009-2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542207/metagenomic-sequencing-complements-routine-diagnostics-in-identifying-viral-pathogens-in-lung-transplant-recipients-with-unknown-etiology-of-respiratory-infection
#11
Dagmara W Lewandowska, Peter W Schreiber, Macé M Schuurmans, Bettina Ruehe, Osvaldo Zagordi, Cornelia Bayard, Michael Greiner, Fabienne D Geissberger, Riccarda Capaul, Andrea Zbinden, Jürg Böni, Christian Benden, Nicolas J Mueller, Alexandra Trkola, Michael Huber
BACKGROUND: Lung transplant patients are a vulnerable group of immunosuppressed patients that are prone to frequent respiratory infections. We studied 60 episodes of respiratory symptoms in 71 lung transplant patients. Almost half of these episodes were of unknown infectious etiology despite extensive routine diagnostic testing. METHODS: We re-analyzed respiratory samples of all episodes with undetermined etiology in order to detect potential viral pathogens missed/not accounted for in routine diagnostics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540257/dynamic-interaction-of-enterovirus-71-and-dendritic-cells-in-infected-neonatal-rhesus-macaques
#12
Ting Zhao, Zhixiao Zhang, Ying Zhang, Min Feng, Shengtao Fan, Lichun Wang, Longding Liu, Xi Wang, Qinglin Wang, Xiaolong Zhang, Jingjing Wang, Yun Liao, Zhanlong He, Shuaiyao Lu, Huai Yang, Qihan Li
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the main pathogens responsible for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Infection with EV71 can lead to severe clinical disease via extensive infections of either the respiratory or alimentary tracts in children. Based on the previous pathological study of EV71 infections in neonatal rhesus macaques, our work using this animal model and an EV71 chimera that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-EV71) primarily explored where EV71 localizes and proliferates, and the subsequent initiation of the pathological process...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539863/pulmonary-aspergillosis-as-opportunistic-mycoses-in-a-cohort-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients-report-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-north-india
#13
Ravinder Kaur, Bhanu Mehra, Megh Singh Dhakad, Ritu Goyal, Richa Dewan
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of pulmonary aspergillosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons is rising. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary aspergillosis in a cohort of HIV-positive patients (n = 71) presenting with lower respiratory tract infection at a tertiary care medical center in India. METHODS: Sputum samples were collected, and potassium hydroxide mount, cultural characteristics, and lactophenol cotton blue preparations were employed to aid in the identification of Aspergillus species...
April 2017: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539639/the-absence-of-interferon-%C3%AE-promotor-stimulator-1-ips-1-predisposes-to-bronchiolitis-and-asthma-like-pathology-in-response-to-pneumoviral-infection-in-mice
#14
Jennifer Simpson, Jason P Lynch, Zhixuan Loh, Vivian Zhang, Rhiannon B Werder, Kirsten Spann, Simon Phipps
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-bronchiolitis is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality and a risk factor for subsequent asthma. We showed previously that toll-like receptor (TLR)7 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) is critical for protection against bronchiolitis and asthma in mice infected with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), the mouse homolog of RSV. This lack of redundancy was unexpected as interferon-β promotor stimulator-1 (IPS-1) signalling, downstream of RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) and not TLR7 activation, contributes to host defence in hRSV-inoculated adult mice...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539444/improved-prefusion-stability-optimized-codon-usage-and-augmented-virion-packaging-enhance-the-immunogenicity-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-fusion-protein-in-a-vectored-vaccine-candidate
#15
Bo Liang, Joan O Ngwuta, Sonja Surman, Barbora Kabatova, Xiang Liu, Matthias Lingemann, Xueqiao Liu, Lijuan Yang, Richard Herbert, Joanna Swerczek, Man Chen, Syed M Moin, Azad Kumar, Jason S McLellan, Peter D Kwong, Barney S Graham, Peter L Collins, Shirin Munir
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important viral agent of severe pediatric respiratory tract disease worldwide, but lacks a licensed vaccine or suitable antiviral drug. A live-attenuated chimeric bovine/human parainfluenza virus type-3 (rB/HPIV3) was developed previously as a vector expressing RSV fusion (F) protein to confer bivalent protection against RSV and HPIV3. In a previous clinical trial in virus-naïve children, rB/HPIV3 was well-tolerated but the immunogenicity of wildtype RSV F was unsatisfactory...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539439/contribution-of-human-lung-parenchyma-and-leukocyte-influx-to-oxidative-stress-and-immune-mediated-pathology-following-nipah-infection
#16
Olivier Escaffre, Tais B Saito, Terry L Juelich, Tetsuro Ikegami, Jennifer K Smith, David D Perez, Colm Atkins, Corri B Levine, Matthew B Huante, Rebecca J Nusbaum, Janice J Endsley, Alexander N Freiberg, Barry Rockx
Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic emerging paramyxovirus that can cause a fatal respiratory illness or encephalitis in humans. Despite many efforts, the molecular mechanisms of NiV-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remain unclear. We previously showed that NiV replicates to high titers in human lung grafts in NOD scid gamma mice, resulting in a robust inflammatory response. Interestingly, these mice can undergo human immune system reconstitution by the Bone marrow, Liver, and Thymus (BLT) reconstitution method, in addition to lung tissue engraftment, giving altogether a realistic model to study human respiratory viral infections...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539342/multicenter-clinical-evaluation-of-the-luminex-aries%C3%A2-flu-a-b-rsv-assay-for-pediatric-and-adult-respiratory-tract-specimens
#17
Stefan Juretschko, James Mahony, Richard S Buller, Ryhana Manjj, Sherry Dunbar, Kimberly Walker, Arundhati Rao
Influenza A and B viruses and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are three common viruses implicated in seasonal respiratory tract infections and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in adults and children worldwide. In recent years, an increasing number of commercial molecular tests have become available to diagnose respiratory viral infections. The Luminex® ARIES® Flu A/B & RSV Assay is a fully automated sample-to-answer molecular diagnostic assay for the detection of influenza A, influenza B and RSV...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538705/uk-pigs-at-the-time-of-slaughter-investigation-into-the-correlation-of-infection-with-prrsv-and-hev
#18
Jean-Pierre Frossard, Sylvia Grierson, Tanya Cheney, Falko Steinbach, Bhudipa Choudhury, Susanna Williamson
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and are both globally prevalent in the pig population. While HEV does not cause clinical disease in pigs, its zoonotic potential has raised concerns in the food safety sector. PRRS has become endemic in the United Kingdom (UK) since its introduction in 1991, and continues to cause considerable economic losses to the swine industry. A better understanding of the current prevalence and diversity of PRRSV and HEV in the UK, and their potential association, is needed to assess risks and target control measures appropriately...
May 24, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538182/targeting-metabolic-reprogramming-by-influenza-infection-for-therapeutic-intervention
#19
Heather S Smallwood, Susu Duan, Marie Morfouace, Svetlana Rezinciuc, Barry L Shulkin, Anang Shelat, Erika E Zink, Sandra Milasta, Resha Bajracharya, Ajayi J Oluwaseum, Martine F Roussel, Douglas R Green, Ljiljana Pasa-Tolic, Paul G Thomas
Influenza is a worldwide health and financial burden posing a significant risk to the immune-compromised, obese, diabetic, elderly, and pediatric populations. We identified increases in glucose metabolism in the lungs of pediatric patients infected with respiratory pathogens. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we found metabolic changes occurring after influenza infection in primary human respiratory cells and validated infection-associated increases in c-Myc, glycolysis, and glutaminolysis. We confirmed these findings with a metabolic drug screen that identified the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 as a regulator of infectious virus production...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537249/airway-t-cells-protect-against-rsv-infection-in-the-absence-of-antibody
#20
E Kinnear, L Lambert, J U McDonald, H M Cheeseman, L J Caproni, J S Tregoning
Tissue resident memory T (Trm) cells act as sentinels and early responders to infection. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-specific Trm cells have been detected in the lungs after human RSV infection, but whether they have a protective role is unknown. To dissect the protective function of Trm cells, BALB/c mice were infected with RSV; infected mice developed antigen-specific CD8(+) Trm cells (CD103(+)/CD69(+)) in the lungs and airways. Intranasally transferring cells from the airways of previously infected animals to naïve animals reduced weight loss on infection in the recipient mice...
May 24, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
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