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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045741/respiratory-syncytial-virus-genotypes-host-immune-profiles-and-disease-severity-in-young-children-hospitalized-with-bronchiolitis
#1
Rosa Rodriguez-Fernandez, Lorena I Tapia, Chin-Fen Yang, Juan Pablo Torres, Susana Chavez-Bueno, Carla Garcia, Lisa M Jaramillo, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Hasan S Jafri, Mark E Peeples, Pedro A Piedra, Octavio Ramilo, Asuncion Mejias
Background: Data on how RSV genotypes influence disease severity and host immune responses is limited. We characterized the genetic variability of RSV during five seasons, and evaluated the role of RSV subtypes, genotypes and viral loads on disease severity and host transcriptional profiles. Methods: Prospective, observational study including a convenience sample of healthy infants hospitalized with RSV bronchiolitis. Nasopharyngeal samples for viral load quantitation, typing and genotyping, and blood samples for transcriptome analyses were obtained within 24h of hospitalization...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042873/comparison-of-cytokine-expression-profiles-in-infants-with-a-rhinovirus-induced-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-with-or-without-wheezing-a-comparison-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#2
Da Eun Roh, Sook-Hyun Park, Hee Joung Choi, Yeo Hyang Kim
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether infants with rhinovirus (RV) infection-induced wheezing and those with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection-induced wheezing have different cytokine profiles in the acute stage. METHODS: Of the infants with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) between September 2011 and May 2012, 88 were confirmed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and hospitalized. Systemic interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and Treg-type cytokine (IL-10) responses were examined with multiplex assay using acute phase serum samples...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042834/improving-palivizumab-compliance-rough-a-pharmacist-managed-rsv-prevention-clinic
#3
Jennifer W Chow, Michael F Chicella, Anthony M Christensen, Carolyn S Moneymaker, John Harrington, James E Dice
OBJECTIVES: Palivizumab is a monoclonal antibody approved for the prevention of serious lower respiratory tract infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in high-risk pediatric patients. While palivizumab is more effective if used correctly, compliance with the monthly dosing is suboptimal. We established a pharmacist-managed RSV prevention clinic in an effort to improve compliance. The primary objective of this study was to determine the impact of a pharmacist-managed RSV prevention clinic on palivizumab compliance...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042674/knockout-of-maternal-cd163-protects-fetuses-from-infection-with-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-prrsv
#4
Randall S Prather, Kevin D Wells, Kristin M Whitworth, Maureen A Kerrigan, Melissa S Samuel, Alan Mileham, Luca N Popescu, Raymond R R Rowland
After infection of the porcine dam at about 90 days of gestation, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) crosses the placenta and begins to infect fetuses. Outcomes of include abortion, fetal death and respiratory disease in newborn piglets. CD163 is the receptor for the virus. In this study, CD163-positive fetuses, recovered between 109 days of gestation or 20 days after maternal infection, were completely protected from PRRSV in dams possessing a complete knockout of the CD163 receptor...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041909/cost-utility-analysis-of-palivizumab-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-prophylaxis-in-preterm-infants-update-based-on-the-clinical-evidence-in-spain
#5
M Sanchez-Luna, R Burgos-Pol, I Oyagüez, J Figueras-Aloy, M Sánchez-Solís, F Martinón-Torres, X Carbonell-Estrany
BACKGROUND: This study aimed at estimating the efficiency of palivizumab in the prevention of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection and its sequelae in preterm infants (32(day 1)-35(day 0)weeks of gestational age -wGA-) in Spain. METHODS: A decision-tree model was developed to compare health benefits (Quality Adjusted Life Years-QALYs) and costs of palivizumab versus a non-prophylaxis strategy over 6 years. A hypothetical cohort of 1,000 preterm infants, 32(day 1)-35(day 0) wGA (4...
October 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040527/in-and-out-of-hospital-mortality-associated-with-seasonal-and-pandemic-influenza-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-south-africa-2009-2013
#6
Cheryl Cohen, Sibongile Walaza, Florette K Treurnicht, Meredith McMorrow, Shabir A Madhi, Johanna M McAnerney, Stefano Tempia
Background: Estimates of influenza- and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated mortality burden are important to guide policy for control. Data are limited on the contribution of out-of-hospital deaths to this mortality. Methods: We modeled excess mortality attributable to influenza and RSV infection by applying regression models to weekly deaths from national vital statistics from 2009 through 2013, using influenza and RSV laboratory surveillance data as covariates...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039734/computational-analysis-of-a-species-d-human-adenovirus-provides-evidence-of-a-novel-virus
#7
Emilio E Espínola, Julio C Barrios, Graciela Russomando, Santiago Mirazo, Juan Arbiza
A human adenovirus (HAdV) species D, was isolated from a hospitalised child with severe lower respiratory infection. It was initially detected in the nasopharyngeal aspirate of the child followed by conventional PCR amplification of the hexon, penton base, and fibre genes. Sanger DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses showed characteristics of a recombinant genome not described before. Next Generation Sequencing analysis was performed to reconstruct its complete DNA genome after viral isolation in adenocarcinoma human cell line (A549)...
October 17, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039322/antiviral-activity-of-salidroside-from-the-leaves-of-nigerian-mistletoe-loranthus-micranthus-linn-parasitic-on-hevea-brasiliensis-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#8
Matthias Onyebuchi Agbo, Damian Chukwu Odimegwu, Festus Basden Chiedu Okoye, Patience Ogoamaka Osadebe
Isolated Salidroside from the leaves of Nigerian mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus Linn) parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis was evaluated for its antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus. Semi- preparative HPLC separation of the ethyl acetate fraction of the leave extract of Loranthus micranthus Linn parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis led to the isolation of a polyphenol. Using spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR and mass spectroscopic data) as well as by comparison with literature data the structure of the compound was determined as 6-O-galloyl salidroside...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038056/worldwide-prevalence-of-viral-infection-in-aecopd-patients-a-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Habib Jafarinejad, Mohsen Moghoofei, Shayan Mostafaei, Jafar Salimian, Sadegh Azimzadeh, Ali Ahmadi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic progressive lung disease. On the other hand, viral infections of the airway are associated with the acute exacerbations of COPD. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to determine the prevalence rate of viral infections in acute exacerbations of COPD patients. METHODS: PubMed database was systematically searched for population-based prevalence studies (1930-2017). Fixed and random effects models were used for estimation of summary effect-sizes...
October 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038024/structural-insights-of-a-self-assembling-9-residue-peptide-from-the-c-terminal-tail-of-the-sars-corona-virus-e-protein-in-dpc-and-sds-micelles-a-combined-high-and-low-resolution-spectroscopic-study
#10
Anirban Ghosh, Dipita Bhattacharyya, Anirban Bhunia
In recent years, several studies based on the interaction of self-assembling short peptides derived from Viroporins with model membranes, have improved our understanding of the molecular mechanism of Corona virus (CoV) infection under physiological conditions. In this study, we have characterized the mechanism of membrane interaction of a short, 9-residue peptide TK9 (T(55)VYVYSRVK(63)) that had been derived from the carboxyl terminal of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Corona virus (SARS CoV) Envelope (E) protein...
October 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037975/modular-cell-based-platform-for-high-throughput-identification-of-compounds-that-inhibit-a-viral-interferon-antagonist-of-choice
#11
Andri Vasou, Christina Paulus, Janina Narloch, Zoe O Gage, Marie-Anne Rameix-Welti, Jean-François Eléouët, Michael Nevels, Richard E Randall, Catherine S Adamson
Viral interferon (IFN) antagonists are a diverse class of viral proteins that counteract the host IFN response, which is important for controlling viral infections. Viral IFN antagonists are often multifunctional proteins that perform vital roles in virus replication beyond IFN antagonism. The critical importance of viral IFN antagonists is highlighted by the fact that almost all viruses encode one of these proteins. Inhibition of viral IFN antagonists has the potential to exert pleiotropic antiviral effects and thus this important protein class represents a diverse plethora of novel therapeutic targets...
October 13, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036724/etiology-and-clinical-characteristics-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-with-airway-malacia-in-children
#12
Wang Yu-Qing, Hao Chuang-Li, Ji Wei, Chen Zheng-Rong, Zhang Xin-Xin, Gu Wen-Jing
Objective: The objective of this article is to study the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in children with airway malacia. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 428 pneumonia patients. All patients underwent bronchoscopy, and bronchoalveolar lavage samples were processed for microbiological assessment. Results: In a total of 428 cases reviewed, 60 were found to have airway malacia. Pathogens were identified in 44 of the 60 specimens (73...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036487/prospective-and-retrospective-evaluation-of-the-performance-of-the-fda-approved-cepheid-xpert-flu-rsv-xc-assay
#13
Sophie Arbefeville, Elizabeth Thonen-Kerr, Patricia Ferrieri
Rapid and accurate detection of respiratory viruses is important in patient care and in guiding therapy and infection prevention policy. Rapid viral antigen assays are simple to perform and provide results within 15 to 30 minutes but are limited by their modest-to-moderate sensitivity. Molecular assays are more sensitive and specific but require more technical time and expertise and are more expensive. We verified the performance of the Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay prospectively, using patient respiratory samples from the 2014-2015 respiratory season, and, retrospectively, with frozen patient samples from the previous respiratory season...
September 29, 2017: Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036182/proteome-analysis-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage-from-calves-infected-with-bovine-respiratory-syncytial-virus-insights-in-pathogenesis-and-perspectives-for-new-treatments
#14
Sara Hägglund, Krister Blodörn, Katarina Näslund, Karin Vargmar, Sara Bergström Lind, Jia Mi, Mariluz Araínga, Sabine Riffault, Geraldine Taylor, John Pringle, Jean François Valarcher
Human and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses (HRSV/BRSV) are major causes of severe lower respiratory tract infections in children and calves, respectively. Shared epidemiological, clinical, pathological and genetic characteristics of these viruses make comparative research highly relevant. To characterise the host response against BRSV infection, bronchoalveolar lavage supernatant (BAL) from i) non-vaccinated, BRSV-infected ii) vaccinated, BRSV-infected and iii) non-infected calves was analysed by tandem mass spectrometry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034936/synergistic-antiviral-effect-of-curcumin-functionalized-graphene-oxide-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#15
Xiao Xi Yang, Chun Mei Li, Yuan Fang Li, Jian Wang, Cheng Zhi Huang
The diseases attributable to viruses remain a global burden. The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which is considered as the major viral pathogen of the lower respiratory tract of infants, has been implicated in severe lung disease. In this contribution, we developed a β-cyclodextrin (CD) functionalized graphene oxide (GO) composite, which displayed excellent antiviral activity and could load curcumin efficiently. RSV, a negative-sense single-stranded enveloped RNA virus, was employed as a model virus to investigate the antiviral activity of multifunctional GO...
October 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034326/bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-destabilizes-influenza-viruses
#16
Christopher Bandoro, Jonathan A Runstadler
Depending on the specific viral pathogen, commensal bacteria can promote or reduce the severity of viral infection and disease progression in their hosts. Influenza A virus (IAV) has a broad host range, comprises many subtypes, and utilizes different routes of transmission, including the fecal-oral route in wild birds. It has been previously demonstrated that commensal bacteria can interact with the host's immune system to protect against IAV pathogenesis. However, it is unclear whether bacteria and their products may be interacting directly with IAV to impact virion stability...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034325/collection-of-viable-aerosolized-influenza-virus-and-other-respiratory-viruses-in-a-student-health-care-center-through-water-based-condensation-growth
#17
Maohua Pan, Tania S Bonny, Julia Loeb, Xiao Jiang, John A Lednicky, Arantzazu Eiguren-Fernandez, Susanne Hering, Z Hugh Fan, Chang-Yu Wu
The dynamics and significance of aerosol transmission of respiratory viruses are still controversial, for the major reasons that virus aerosols are inefficiently collected by commonly used air samplers and that the collected viruses are inactivated by the collection method. Without knowledge of virus viability, infection risk analyses lack accuracy. This pilot study was performed to (i) determine whether infectious (viable) respiratory viruses in aerosols could be collected from air in a real world environment by the viable virus aerosol sampler (VIVAS), (ii) compare and contrast the efficacy of the standard bioaerosol sampler, the BioSampler, with that of the VIVAS for the collection of airborne viruses in a real world environment, and (iii) gain insights for the use of the VIVAS for respiratory virus sampling...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033947/interferon-%C3%AE-s-front-line-guardians-of-immunity-and-homeostasis-in-the-respiratory-tract
#18
REVIEW
Evangelos Andreakos, Maria Salagianni, Ioanna E Galani, Ourania Koltsida
Type III interferons (IFNs), also termed lambda IFNs (IFNλs) or interleukins-28/29, constitute a new addition to the IFN family. They are induced upon infection and are particularly abundant at barrier surfaces, such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Although they signal through a unique heterodimeric receptor complex comprising IFNLR1 and IL10RB, they activate a downstream signaling pathway remarkably similar to that of type I IFNs and share many functions with them. Yet, they also have important differences which are only now starting to unfold...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031546/influenza-virus-but-not-mers-coronavirus-circulation-in-iran-2013-2016-comparison-between-pilgrims-and-general-population
#19
Jila Yavarian, Nazanin Zahra Shafiei Jandaghi, Maryam Naseri, Peyman Hemmati, Mohhamadnasr Dadras, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Talat Mokhtari Azad
BACKGROUND: The pilgrimage to Mecca and Karbala bring many Muslims to a confined area. Respiratory tract infections are the most common diseases transmitted during mass gatherings in Hajj, Umrah and Karbala. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and influenza virus infections among Iranian general population and pilgrims with severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) returning from Mecca and Karbala during 2013-2016...
October 11, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030631/viscosity-is-an-important-factor-of-resistance-to-alcohol-based-disinfectants-by-pathogens-present-in-mucus
#20
Ryohei Hirose, Takaaki Nakaya, Yuji Naito, Tomo Daidoji, Yohei Watanabe, Hiroaki Yasuda, Hideyuki Konishi, Yoshito Itoh
Alcohol-based disinfectants play an important role in the prevention of healthcare-acquired infection (HAI). We investigated whether pathogens present in mucus acquire resistance to alcohol-based disinfectants, and elucidated the underlying mechanism. Both the resistance of influenza A virus and Escherichia coli to alcohol-based disinfectants or ultraviolet irradiation and the diffusion rate of ethanol were determined in artificial mucus or sputum samples obtained from 27 individuals with acute upper respiratory infection...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
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