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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442228/effect-of-an-88-amino-acid-deletion-in-nsp2-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-on-virus-replication-and-cytokine-responses-in-vitro
#1
Wei He, Ying Wei, Jing Yao, Xin Xie, Jiabin Huang, Siyuan Lin, Kang Ouyang, Ying Chen, Weijian Huang, Zuzhang Wei
Previously, a spontaneous 88-amino-acid (aa) deletion in nsp2 was associated with cell-adaptation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain JXM100, which arose during passaging of the highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) strain JX143 in MARC-145 cells. Here, to elucidate the biological role of this deletion, we specifically deleted the region of a cDNA clone of HP-PRRSV strain JX143 (pJX143) corresponding to these 88 amino acids. The effect of the deletion on virus replication in cultured cells and transcriptional activation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) was examined...
February 13, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436781/rsv-prophylaxis-guideline-changes-and-outcomes-in-children-with-congenital-heart-disease
#2
Adam S Walpert, Ian D Thomas, Merlin C Lowe, Michael D Seckeler
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare inpatient outcomes and costs for children with respiratory syncytial virus and congenital heart disease before and after the change in management guidelines for respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis. DESIGN: Hospital discharge data from the Vizient (formerly University HealthSystem Consortium) were queried from October 2012 to June 2014 (Era 1) and July 2014 to April 2016 (Era 2) for patients aged <24 months with an any International Classification of Disease (ICD)-9 or ICD-10 code for congenital heart disease (745-747...
February 13, 2018: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433792/clinical-characteristics-of-influenza-virus-induced-lower-respiratory-infection-during-the-2015-to-2016-season
#3
Kazuhiro Uda, Kensuke Shoji, Chitose Koyama-Wakai, Munehiro Furuichi, Noriyasu Iwase, Seiichiro Fujisaki, Shinji Watanabe, Isao Miyairi
BACKGROUND: Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections often manifest severe respiratory symptoms, particularly in patients with a past history of allergic disease. Most of these findings were reported during the 2009 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to detail the clinical characteristics of influenza virus-induced lower respiratory infection (LRI) during the A(H1N1)pdm09-predominant 2015-2016 season. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics of influenza-induced LRI cases in children admitted to a tertiary children's hospital...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433478/case-report-of-severe-myocarditis-in-an-immunocompromised-child-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#4
Hiroki Miura, Fumihiko Hattori, Hidetoshi Uchida, Tadayoshi Hata, Kazuko Kudo, Masatoki Sato, Tetsushi Yoshikawa
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is common and may be severe among patients with preexisting cardiac anomalies, but direct involvement of myocardial damage is not common in those patients. Additionally, myocardial involvement has been rarely described among immune compromised children. CASE PRESENTATION: A 4-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who received maintenance chemotherapy in an outpatient clinic developed systemic inflammatory response syndrome...
February 12, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429813/exceptional-influenza-morbidity-in-summer-season-of-2017-in-israel-may-predict-the-vaccine-efficiency-in-the-coming-winter
#5
Rakefet Pando, Sivan Sharabi, Michal Mandelboim
Influenza infections are the leading cause of respiratory viral infections worldwide, and are mostly common in the winter season. The seasonal influenza vaccine is currently the most effective preventive modality against influenza infection. Immediately following each winter season the World Health Organization (WHO) announces the vaccine composition for the following winter. Unexpectedly, during the summer of 2017, in Israel, we observed in hospitalized patients, an exceptionally high numbers of Influenza positive cases...
February 8, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429554/identification-of-small-non-coding-rna-classes-expressed-in-swine-whole-blood-during-hp-prrsv-infection
#6
Damarius S Fleming, Laura C Miller
It has been established that reduced susceptibility to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a genetic component. This genetic component may take the form of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNA), which are molecules that function as regulators of gene expression. Various sncRNAs have emerged as having an important role in the immune system in humans. The study uses transcriptomic read counts to profile the type and quantity of both well and lesser characterized sncRNAs, such as microRNAs and small nucleolar RNAs to identify and quantify the classes of sncRNA expressed in whole blood between healthy and highly pathogenic PRRSV-infected pigs...
February 8, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427996/respiratory-syncytial-virus-prolifically-infects-n2a-neuronal-cells-leading-to-tlr4-and-nucleolin-protein-modulations-and-rsv-f-protein-co-localization-with-tlr4-and-nucleolin
#7
Xiaoling Yuan, Tao Hu, Hanwen He, Huan Qiu, Xuan Wu, Jingxian Chen, Minmin Wang, Cheng Chen, Shenghai Huang
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects the central nervous system, resulting in neurological symptoms. However, the precise underlying pathogenic mechanisms have not been elucidated. In the present study, the infectivity of RSV on N2a neuronal cells and the possible roles of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nucleolin (C23) during RSV infection were investigated. METHODS: We compared two experimental groups (infected and non-infected) and monitored the RSV viral titers in the culture supernatant by a viral plaque assay...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427985/respiratory-viruses-and-asthma
#8
Peter A B Wark, James Michael Ramsahai, Prabuddha Pathinayake, Bilal Malik, Nathan W Bartlett
Asthma remains the most prevalent chronic respiratory disorder, affecting people of all ages. The relationship between respiratory virus infection and asthma has long been recognized, though remains incompletely understood. In this article, we will address key issues around this relationship. These will include the crucial role virus infection plays in early life, as a potential risk factor for the development of asthma and lung disease. We will assess the impact that virus infection has on those with established asthma as a trigger for acute disease and how this may influence asthma throughout life...
February 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427907/human-coronavirus-circulation-in-the-united-states-2014-2017
#9
Marie E Killerby, Holly M Biggs, Amber Haynes, Rebecca M Dahl, Desiree Mustaquim, Susan I Gerber, John T Watson
BACKGROUND: Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) -OC43, -229E, -NL63 and -HKU1 cause upper and lower respiratory tract infections. HCoVs are globally distributed and the predominant species may vary by region or year. Prior studies have shown seasonal patterns of HCoV species and annual variation in species prevalence but national circulation patterns in the US have not yet been described. OBJECTIVES: To describe circulation patterns of HCoVs -OC43, -229E, -NL63 and -HKU1 in the US...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427763/global-distribution-of-na1-genotype-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-its-evolutionary-dynamics-assessed-from-the-past-11%C3%A2-years
#10
Md Shakir Hussain Haider, Farah Deeba, Wajihul Hasan Khan, Irshad H Naqvi, Sher Ali, Anwar Ahmed, Shobha Broor, Hytham A Alsenaidy, Abdulrahman M Alsenaidy, Shama Parveen
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a potent pathogen having global distribution. The main purpose of this study was to gain an insight into distribution pattern of the NA1 genotype of group A RSV across the globe together with its evolutionary dynamics. We focused on the second hypervariable region of the G protein gene and used the same for Phylogenetic, Bayesian and Network analyses. Eighteen percent of the samples collected from 500 symptomatic pediatric patients with acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) were found to be positive for RSV during 2011-15 from New Delhi, India...
February 7, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427710/pathophysiology-of-peste-des-petits-ruminants-in-sheep-dorper-kajli-and-goats-boer-beetal
#11
Ahrar Khan, M Kashif Saleemi, Farah Ali, Muhammad Abubakar, Riaz Hussain, Rao Zahid Abbas, Imtiaz Ahmad Khan
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), an economically important viral transboundary disease of small ruminants is not only prevalent in Pakistan but also in other countries where people rely on agriculture and animal products. The present study was aimed at describing the pathology and antigen localization in natural PPR infections in local (Kajli sheep; Beetal goats) as well as imported small ruminant breeds (Dorper sheep; Australian Boer goat). Morbidity and mortality rates were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in indigenous Kajli sheep (75...
February 7, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427413/tgf-%C3%AE-1-suppresses-the-type-i-ifn-response-and-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-alveolar-macrophages
#12
Jocelyn R Grunwell, Samantha M Yeligar, Susan Stephenson, Xiao Du Ping, Theresa W Gauthier, Anne M Fitzpatrick, Lou Ann S Brown
TGF-β1 is a pleiotropic cytokine with an established role in fibrosis; however, the immunosuppressive effects of TGF-β1 are less characterized. Elevated levels of TGF-β1 are found in patients with acute and chronic lung diseases, and the underlying disease processes are exacerbated by respiratory viral infections. The alveolar macrophage is the first line of cellular defense against respiratory viral infections, and its response to infections is dependent on environmental cues. Using the mouse alveolar macrophage line, MH-S, and human CD14+ monocyte-derived macrophages, we examined the effects of TGF-β1 on the type I IFN antiviral response, macrophage polarization, and mitochondrial bioenergetics following a challenge with human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426409/porcine-circovirus-type-3-pcv3-infection-in-grower-pigs-from-a-thai-farm-suffering-from-porcine-respiratory-disease-complex-prdc
#13
Roongtham Kedkovid, Yonlayong Woonwong, Jirapat Arunorat, Chaitawat Sirisereewan, Nattaphong Sangpratum, Mongkol Lumyai, Sawang Kesdangsakonwut, Komkrich Teankum, Suphattra Jittimanee, Roongroje Thanawongnuwech
Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) is a newly emerging virus with unknown pathogenesis. The major objective of this study was to investigate the presence of PCV3 in pigs from a farm in Thailand suffering from porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Initially, a Thai PCV3 strain (PCV3/Thailand/PB01/17) was identified from a pig originated from a farm with PRDC problem during grower period and whole genome analysis showed that the Thai PCV3 shared highest nucleotide identity of 99.60% with the South Korean strain PCV3/KU-1602...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426399/induction-of-innate-host-responses-characterized-by-production-of-interleukin-il-1%C3%AE-and-recruitment-of-macrophages-to-the-respiratory-tract-of-chickens-following-infection-with-infectious-bronchitis-virus-ibv
#14
Aruna Amarasinghe, Mohamed Sarjoon Abdul-Cader, Zahraa Almatrouk, Frank van der Meer, Susan C Cork, Susantha Gomis, Mohamed Faizal Abdul-Careem
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection is a major cause of economic losses to the poultry industry. Due to limitations in current control measures, alternative approaches, based on thorough understanding of the host responses are required. As one of the key component of the avian immune system, the innate immune system has a crucial role in limiting virus replication at the initial stage of the infection. As parts of the innate host response, macrophages and cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, are critical components as shown in other host-virus infection models...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426368/oxford-screening-csf-and-respiratory-samples-oscar-results-of-a-pilot-study-to-screen-clinical-samples-from-a-diagnostic-microbiology-laboratory-for-viruses-using-illumina-next-generation-sequencing
#15
Colin Sharp, Tanya Golubchik, William F Gregory, Anna L McNaughton, Nicholas Gow, Mathyruban Selvaratnam, Alina Mirea, Dona Foster, Monique Andersson, Paul Klenerman, Katie Jeffery, Philippa C Matthews
OBJECTIVES: There is increasing interest in the use of metagenomic (next generation sequencing, NGS) approaches for diagnosis of infection. We undertook a pilot study to screen samples submitted to a diagnostic microbiology laboratory in a UK teaching hospital using Illumina HiSeq. In the short-term, this small dataset provides insights into the virome of human respiratory and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. In the longer term, assimilating metagenomic data sets of this nature can inform optimization of laboratory and bioinformatic methods, and develop foundations for the interpretation of results in a clinical context...
February 9, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424696/upper-respiratory-viral-infections-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancies-after-allogeneic-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-retrospective-study
#16
Erden Atilla, Didem Sahin, Pinar Ataca Atilla, Istar Dolapci, Alper Tekeli, Sinem Civriz Bozdag, Meltem Kurt Yuksel, Selami Kocak Toprak, Osman Ilhan, Onder Arslan, Muhit Ozcan, Gunhan Gurman, Pervin Topcuoglu
BACKGROUND: Community respiratory viruses (CRVs) are associated with upper respiratory viral infections (URI), pneumonia or life-threatening respiratory disease in patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Our aim is to demonstrate our URI experience related to CRVs after allo-HSCT. METHODS: From January 2013 to November 2015, 39 post allo-HSCT patients with acute URI symptoms were included to the study. We evaluated CRVs by multiplex PCR from nasopharyngeal wash and throat swabs...
February 9, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424631/occurrence-of-infectious-laryngotracheitis-outbreaks-in-commercial-layer-hens-detected-by-elisa
#17
Zeki Aras, Orhan Yavuz, Gökçenur Sanioğlu Gölen
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute respiratory disease of chickens and it is a cause of great economic loss in commercial layers. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of ILT in the field outbreaks and to compare the characteristics of ILT infected and free flocks of commercial layers. A total of 625 blood serum samples were collected from 25 different layer flocks. The presence of antibodies against Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in each sample was determined by ELISA...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424457/a-point-of-care-diagnostic-system-to-influenza-viruses-using-chip-based-ultra-fast-pcr
#18
Soon-Hwan Kwon, Sujin Lee, Jeyoun Jang, Yujin Seo, Hee-Young Lim
In order to diagnose the infectious disease from clinical samples, the various protocols such as culturing microorganism, rapid diagnostic test using chromatographic method, ELISA, conventional PCR are developed. Since a novel strain of avian influenza can be cross-infected human as well as birds and livestock due to genetic reassortment, some strains of influenza such as H7N9 and H5N1 have emerged as a severe virus which can be threaten the health of poultry as well as human. Therefore we explored the development of simultaneously and rapid diagnostic tool for seasonal influenza (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B) and highly pathogenic avian influenza (A/H5N1, A/H7N9)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424435/diagnostic-performance-of-the-sofia%C3%A2-influenza-a%C3%A2-%C3%A2-b-fluorescent-immunoassay-in-adult-outpatients-in-northern-taiwan
#19
Jeng-How Yang, Po-Yen Huang, Shian-Sen Shie, Shuan Yang, Kuo-Chien Tsao, Tsu-Lan Wu, Ting-Shu Wu, Ching-Tai Huang
To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the Sofia influenza A + B fluorescent immunoassay (Sofia FIA), we performed a prospective study at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan from January 2012 to December 2013. Patients who presented at out-patient clinics or the emergency department with influenza-like illness were included. Upper respiratory tract specimens were collected from oropharynx or nasopharynx. Performance of the Sofia FIA was compared to that of the Formosa One Sure Flu A/B Rapid Test...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422011/comparison-of-the-prevalence-of-respiratory-viruses-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-infections-at-different-hospital-settings-in-north-china-2012-2015
#20
Jianxing Yu, Zhengde Xie, Tiegang Zhang, Yanqin Lu, Hongwei Fan, Donghong Yang, Thomas Bénet, Philippe Vanhems, Kunling Shen, Fang Huang, Jinxiang Han, Taisheng Li, Zhancheng Gao, Lili Ren, Jianwei Wang
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a great public health challenge globally. The prevalence of respiratory viruses in patients with ARIs attending at different hospital settings is fully undetermined. METHODS: Laboratory-based surveillance for ARIs was conducted at inpatient and outpatient settings of 11 hospitals in North China. The first 2-5 patients with ARIs were recruited in each hospital weekly from 2012 through 2015. The presence of respiratory viruses was screened by PCR assays...
February 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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