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respiratory virus infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666961/a-novel-sampling-method-to-detect-airborne-influenza-and-other-respiratory-viruses-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-a-feasibility-study
#1
Alicia B Mitchell, Benjamin Tang, Maryam Shojaei, Lachlan S Barnes, Marek Nalos, Brian G Oliver, Anthony S McLean
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viruses circulate constantly in the ambient air. The risk of opportunistic infection from these viruses can be increased in mechanically ventilated patients. The present study evaluates the feasibility of detecting airborne respiratory viruses in mechanically ventilated patients using a novel sample collection method involving ventilator filters. METHODS: We collected inspiratory and expiratory filters from the ventilator circuits of mechanically ventilated patients in an intensive care unit over a 14-month period...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665348/identification-of-etiologic-agents-of-the-pertussis-like-syndrome-in-children-by-real-time-pcr-method
#2
Shima Mahmoudi, Maryam Banar, Babak Pourakbari, Hediyeh Sadat Alavi, Hamid Eshaghi, Alireza Aziz Ahari, Setareh Mamishi
The aim of this study was to recognize the identity and frequency of etiologic agents of the pertussis-like syndrome in children < 2 years of age. A cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted from August 2014 to August 2015. All children < 2 years of age (n=100) who were suspected as pertussis infected were enrolled in this study and tested for Bordetella pertussis, adenovirus (Adv), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and influenza virus A (INF-A) by real-time PCR technique...
2018: Prague Medical Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663810/dual-catalytic-synthesis-of-antiviral-compounds-based-on-metallocarbene-azide-cascade-chemistry
#3
Bren Jordan P Atienza, Lionel Dylan Jensen, Sarah L Noton, Anil Kumar Victoria Ansalem, Tom Hobman, Rachel Fearns, David J Marchant, F G West
Aryl azides trap ortho metallocarbene intermediates to generate indolenones possessing a reactive C-acylimine moiety, which can react with added indole nucleophiles to afford the 2-(3-indolyl)indolin-3-one scaffold found in the antiviral natural product isatisine A. This overall process occurs through a dual catalytic sequence at room temperature. Redox activation of the Cu(OTf)2 precatalyst by indole results in catalytically competent Cu(I) required for azide-metallocarbene coupling. The Brønsted acid that is also formed from Cu(OTf)2 reduction is responsible for catalysis of the C-C bond-forming indole addition step...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663718/epidemiology-and-genetic-characterization-of-peste-des-petits-ruminants-virus-in-bangladesh
#4
Mohammed Z Rahman, Najmul Haider, Emily S Gurley, Sadia Ahmed, Mozaffar G Osmani, Muhammad B Hossain, Ariful Islam, Shahneaz A Khan, Mohammad Enayet Hossain, Jonathan H Epstein, Nord Zeidner, Mustafizur Rahman
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute, highly contagious disease responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates in susceptible sheep and goats. Adequate knowledge of the diversity of circulating strains of PPR virus will help livestock authorities choose appropriate vaccines. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of PPR and characterize the strains circulating in Bangladesh. Veterinarians enrolled goats showing signs consistent with PPR, including diarrhoea, fever and respiratory distress, from three veterinary hospitals...
March 8, 2018: Veterinary Medicine and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663439/sero-prevalence-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-specific-antibodies-in-dromedary-camels-in-tabuk-saudi-arabia
#5
Rafik Harrath, Faisel M Abu Duhier
The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel Coronavirus which was responsible of the first case of human acute respiratory syndrome in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), 2012. Dromedary camels are considered as potential reservoirs for the virus and seem to be the only animal host which may transmit the infection to human. Further studies are required to better understand the animal sources of zoonotic transmission route and the risks of this infection. A primary sero-prevalence study of MERS-CoV preexisting neutralizing antibodies in Dromedary camel serum was conducted in Tabuk, western north region of KSA, in order to assess the seopositivity of these animals and to explain their possible role in the transmission of the infection to Human...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663420/phase-1-first-in-human-single-and-multiple-ascending-dose-and-food-effect-studies-to-assess-the-safety-tolerability-and-pharmacokinetics-of-presatovir-for-the-treatment-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#6
Polina German, Yan Xin, Jason W Chien, Winnie Weng, Richard Mackman, Sandra A Lewis, Amy Meng, John Ling, Anita Mathias
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated respiratory tract infection is a leading cause of hospitalizations in infants for which no effective treatment exists. RSV infection is also an important cause of respiratory disease in adults and immunocompromised patients. Presatovir (GS-5806) is an orally bioavailable antiviral agent that inhibits fusion of RSV with host cell membranes. Here, results from 2 phase 1 studies that evaluated safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of presatovir in healthy adults following administration of single and multiple (7 days) once- or twice-daily ascending doses (first-in-human study) and in the presence or absence of food (food effect study) are described...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660826/human-coronaviruses-and-other-respiratory-infections-in-young-adults-on-a-university-campus-prevalence-symptoms-and-shedding
#7
Brian M Davis, Betsy Foxman, Arnold S Monto, Ralph S Baric, Emily T Martin, Amra Uzicanin, Jeanette J Rainey, Allison E Aiello
BACKGROUND: The prevalence, symptom course, and shedding in persons infected with the four most common human coronaviruses (HCoV) -229E, HKU1, NL63 and OC43 are poorly described OBJECTIVES: We estimate their prevalence and associated symptoms among college students identified via a social network study design. PATIENTS/METHODS: We collected 1-3 samples (n=250 specimens) from 176 participants between October 2012 and January 17, 2013: participants with acute respiratory infection (ARI) (cough and body aches or chills or fever/feverishness) and their social contacts...
April 16, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660819/increase-of-ctgf-mrna-expression-by-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-is-abrogated-by-caffeine-in-lung-epithelial-cells
#8
Steffen Kunzmann, Christine Krempl, Silvia Seidenspinner, Kirsten Glaser, Christian P Speer, Markus Fehrholz
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in early childhood. Underlying pathomechanisms of elevated pulmonary morbidity in later infancy are largely unknown. We found that RSV-infected H441 cells showed increased mRNA expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a key factor in airway remodeling. Additional dexamethasone treatment led to further elevated mRNA levels, indicating additive effects. Caffeine treatment prevented RSV-mediated increase of CTGF mRNA...
April 16, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660756/use-of-palivizumab-in-germany-report-from-the-german-synagis%C3%A2-registry-2009-2016
#9
Arne Simon, Susanne Gehrmann, Gudrun Wagenpfeil, Stefan Wagenpfeil
BACKGROUND: Following national recommendations, palivizumab is administered in Germany to high-risk infants to prevent hospitalizations related to Respiratory Syncytial Virus infection. METHODS: In this post marketing observational study (German SYNAGIS™ Registry) data on risk factors and the clinical course of children, who received at least one palivizumab injection between 2009-2016 (01 September to June 30) were entered into an internet-based data entry system by the attending physicians after informed consent...
April 16, 2018: Klinische Pädiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659748/burden-etiology-and-risk-factors-of-respiratory-virus-infections-among-symptomatic-preterm-infants-in-the-tropics-a-retrospective-single-center-cohort-study
#10
Kee Thai Yeo, Rowena de la Puerta, Nancy Wen Sim Tee, Koh Cheng Thoon, Victor S Rajadurai, Chee Fu Yung
Background: The burden of respiratory viral infections (RVIs) among preterm infants in the first few years of life, especially those living in the tropics with year-long transmissions of respiratory viruses, remains unknown. We aimed to describe the clinical epidemiology and associated risk factors for RVIs among symptomatic preterm infants ≤32 weeks up to two years of life. Methods: We performed a data linkage analysis of clinical and hospital laboratory databases for preterm infants born at KK Women's & Children's Hospital, Singapore, from 2005 - 2015...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656244/human-organoid-cultures-transformative-new-tools-for-human-virus-studies
#11
REVIEW
Sasirekha Ramani, Sue E Crawford, Sarah E Blutt, Mary K Estes
Studies of human infectious diseases have been limited by the paucity of functional models that mimic normal human physiology and pathophysiology. Recent advances in the development of multicellular, physiologically active organotypic cultures produced from embryonic and pluripotent stem cells, as well as from stem cells isolated from biopsies and surgical specimens are allowing unprecedented new studies and discoveries about host-microbe interactions. Here, we summarize recent developments in the use of organoids for studying human viral pathogens, including intestinal infections with human rotavirus, norovirus, enteroviruses and adenoviruses (intestinal organoids and enteroids), neuronal infections with Zika virus (cerebral organoids) and respiratory infections with respiratory syncytial virus in (lung bud organoids)...
April 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655370/descriptive-study-of-severe-hospitalized-cases-of-laboratory-confirmed-influenza-during-five-epidemic-seasons-2010-2015
#12
Núria Torner, Ana Martínez, Luca Basile, MMar Mosquera, Andrés Antón, Cristina Rius, M Rosa Sala, Sofia Minguell, Elsa Plasencia, Mónica Carol, Pere Godoy, Núria Follia, Irene Barrabeig, M Angeles Marcos, Tomàs Pumarola, Mireia Jané
OBJECTIVE: The Plan of Information on Acute Respiratory Infections in Catalonia (PIDIRAC) included the surveillance of severe hospitalized cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza (SHCLCI) in 2009. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical, epidemiological and virological features of SHCLCI recorded in 12 sentinel hospitals during five influenza seasons. RESULTS: From a sample of SHCLCI recorded during the 5 influenza epidemics seasons from 2010-2011 to 2014-2015, Cases were confirmed by PCR and/or viral isolation in cell cultures from respiratory samples...
April 14, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652870/surveillance-for-the-identification-of-cases-of-acute-respiratory-infection-by-enterovirus-d68-in-children-in-a-tertiary-level-care-hospital-during-2014-2016
#13
Ana Estela Gamiño-Arroyo, José Luis Sánchez-Huerta, Alicia Elhaín de la Garza-López, Israel Parra-Ortega, Noé Escobar-Escamilla, Edgar Mendieta-Condado, Fabiola Garcés-Ayala, Gisela Barrera-Badillo, José Ernesto Ramírez-González, José Alberto Díaz-Quiñonez, Daniela de la Rosa-Zamboni
Background: The reemergence of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infections in the United States was reported from August-October 2014 (691 cases). In Mexico, an outbreak at the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases was reported (24 cases). The results of epidemiological surveillance of Enterovirus sp. (EV) and other respiratory viruses in a national pediatric tertiary care level hospital are presented. Methods: Following the alert issued by the reemergence of EV-D68 in 2014, epidemiological surveillance -which only detected respiratory viruses by PCR in patients with influenza-like illness using nasopharyngeal swabs- expanded to include children with asthma exacerbation or acute respiratory distress...
2018: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651984/ifn-%C3%AE-prevents-influenza-virus-spread-from-the-upper-airways-to-the-lungs-and-limits-virus-transmission
#14
Jonas Klinkhammer, Daniel Schnepf, Liang Ye, Marilena Schwaderlapp, Hans Henrik Gad, Rune Hartmann, Dominique Garcin, Tanel Mahlakõiv, Peter Staeheli
Host factors restricting the transmission of respiratory viruses are poorly characterized. We analyzed the contribution of type I and type III interferon (IFN) using a mouse model in which the virus is selectively administered to the upper airways, mimicking a natural respiratory virus infection. Mice lacking functional IFN-λ receptors ( Ifnlr1-/- ) no longer restricted virus dissemination from the upper airways to the lungs. Ifnlr1-/- mice shed significantly more infectious virus particles via the nostrils and transmitted the virus much more efficiently to naïve contacts compared with wild-type mice or mice lacking functional type I IFN receptors...
April 13, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651734/palivizumab-use-in-infants-with-down-syndrome-report-from-the-german-synagis%C3%A2-registry-2009-2016
#15
Arne Simon, Susanne Gehrmann, Gudrun Wagenpfeil, Stefan Wagenpfeil
Infants with Down syndrome (DS) face an increased risk of respiratory tract infections. Recent studies describe DS as independent risk factor for a complicated clinical course in infants with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. The prospective observational German Synagis™ Registry comprises data from 249 children below 25 months of age with DS and palivizumab prophylaxis 2009-2016 (1191 administrations; mean 4.8 per patient and season). The median gestational age and the birth weight in patients without and with DS were 31 versus 37 weeks (P < 0...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651410/analysis-of-micrornas-expression-profiles-in-madin-darby-bovine-kidney-cells-infected-with-caprine-parainfluenza-virus-type-3
#16
Jizong Li, Li Mao, Wenliang Li, Fei Hao, Chunyan Zhong, Xing Zhu, Xinqin Ji, Leilei Yang, Wenwen Zhang, Maojun Liu, Jieyuan Jiang
Caprine parainfluenza virus type 3 (CPIV3) is a newly emerging pathogenic respiratory agent infecting both young and adult goats, and it was identified in eastern China in 2013. Cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be important modulators of the intricate virus-host interactions. In order to elucidate the role of miRNAs in madin-darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells during CPIV3 infection. In this study, we performed high-throughput sequencing technology to analyze small RNA libraries in CPIV3-infected and mock-infected MDBK cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650033/enterovirus-serotypes-in-patients-with-central-nervous-system-and-respiratory-infections-in-viet-nam-1997-2010
#17
Nguyen Thi Thuy Chinh B'Krong, Ngo Ngoc Quang Minh, Phan Tu Qui, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Ho Dang Trung Nghia, Lien Anh Ha Do, Nguyen Ngoc Nhung, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Guy Thwaites, Le Van Tan, H Rogier van Doorn, Tran Tan Thanh
BACKGROUND: Enteroviruses are the most common causative agents of human illness. Enteroviruses have been associated with regional and global epidemics, recently, including with severe disease (Enterovirus A71 and D68), and are of interest as emerging viruses. Here, we typed Enterovirus A-D (EV) from central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory infections in Viet Nam. METHODS: Data and specimens from prospective observational clinical studies conducted between 1997 and 2010 were used...
April 12, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649550/healthcare-workers-exposure-to-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-corona-virus-mers-cov-revision-of-screening-strategies-urgently-needed
#18
Hala Amer, Abdulrahman S Alqahtani, Faisal Alaklobi, Juhaina Altayeb, Ziad A Memish
OBJECTIVES: MERS-CoV continues to cause frequent hospital outbreaks in Saudi Arabia with emergency departments as the initial site of the spread of this virus. METHODS: We assessed the transmission risks of MERS-CoV infection to HCWs in an outbreak in Riyadh. All HCWs with unprotected exposure to confirmed cases were tested after 24hours of exposure. Two negative results for MERS-CoV 3days apart and being free of any suggestive signs and symptoms were used to stop their isolation...
April 9, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644247/quantification-of-torque-teno-virus-and-epstein-barr-virus-is-of-limited-value-for-predicting-the-net-state-of-immunosuppression-after-lung-transplantation
#19
Rickard Nordén, Jesper Magnusson, Anna Lundin, Ka-Wei Tang, Staffan Nilsson, Magnus Lindh, Lars-Magnus Andersson, Gerdt C Riise, Johan Westin
Background: Major hurdles for survival after lung transplantation are rejections and infectious complications. Adequate methods for monitoring immune suppression status are lacking. Here, we evaluated quantification of torque teno virus (TTV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as biomarkers for defining the net state of immunosuppression in lung-transplanted patients. Methods: This prospective single-center study included 98 patients followed for 2 years after transplantation...
April 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643245/recombinant-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-expressing-membrane-bound-il-15-as-immunomodulatory-adjuvant-enhances-nk-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-responses-and-confers-heterologous-protection
#20
Qian M Cao, Yan-Yan Ni, Dianjun Cao, Debin Tian, Danielle M Yugo, C Lynn Heffron, Christopher Overend, Sakthivel Subramaniam, Adam J Rogers, Nicholas Catanzaro, Tanya LeRoith, Paul C Roberts, Xiang-Jin Meng
Cytokines are often used as adjuvants to improve vaccine immunogenicity, since they are important in initiating and shaping the immune response. The available commercial modified live-attenuated vaccines (MLVs) against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are unable to mount sufficient heterologous protection, as they typically induce weak innate and inadequate T cell responses. In this study, we investigated the immunogenicity and vaccine efficacy of recombinant PRRSV MLVs incorporated with porcine cytokine IL-15 or IL-18 gene fusing to a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) modification signal that can anchor the cytokines to cell membrane...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Virology
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