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respiratory virus infection

Bruce Barrett, Mary S Hayney, Daniel Muller, David Rakel, Roger Brown, Aleksandra E Zgierska, Shari Barlow, Supriya Hayer, Jodi H Barnet, Elisa R Torres, Christopher L Coe
BACKGROUND: Practice of meditation or exercise may enhance health to protect against acute infectious illness. OBJECTIVE: To assess preventive effects of meditation and exercise on acute respiratory infection (ARI) illness. DESIGN: Randomized controlled prevention trial with three parallel groups. SETTING: Madison, Wisconsin, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Community-recruited adults who did not regularly exercise or meditate...
2018: PloS One
Brian Rha, Rebecca M Dahl, Jocelyn Moyes, Alison M Binder, Stefano Tempia, Sibongile Walaza, Daoling Bi, Michelle J Groome, Ebrahim Variava, Fathima Naby, Kathleen Kahn, Florette Treurnicht, Adam L Cohen, Susan I Gerber, Shabir A Madhi, Cheryl Cohen
Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) in young children, but data on surveillance case definition performance in estimating burdens have been limited. Methods: We enrolled children aged <5 years hospitalized for ALRTI (or neonatal sepsis in young infants) through active prospective surveillance at 5 sentinel hospitals in South Africa and collected nasopharyngeal aspirates from them for RSV molecular diagnostic testing between 2009 and 2014...
June 21, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Eunice C Chan, Chunguang Ren, Zhihui Xie, Joseph A Jude, Tolga Barker, Cynthia A Koziol-White, Michelle Ma, Reynold A Panettieri, Dianqing Wu, Helene F Rosenberg, Kirk M Druey
Neutrophils are white blood cells that are mobilized to damaged tissues and to sites of pathogen invasion, providing the first line of host defense. Chemokines displayed on the surface of blood vessels promote migration of neutrophils to these sites, and tissue-and pathogen derived chemoattractant signals, including N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) elicit further migration to sites of infection. Although nearly all chemoattractant receptors use heterotrimeric G proteins to transmit signals, many of the mechanisms lying downstream of chemoattractant receptors that either promote or limit neutrophil motility are incompletely defined...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Rob Lambkin-Williams, Nicolas Noulin, Alex Mann, Andrew Catchpole, Anthony S Gilbert
The Human Viral Challenge (HVC) model has, for many decades, helped in the understanding of respiratory viruses and their role in disease pathogenesis. In a controlled setting using small numbers of volunteers removed from community exposure to other infections, this experimental model enables proof of concept work to be undertaken on novel therapeutics, including vaccines, immunomodulators and antivirals, as well as new diagnostics.Crucially, unlike conventional phase 1 studies, challenge studies include evaluable efficacy endpoints that then guide decisions on how to optimise subsequent field studies, as recommended by the FDA and thus licensing studies that follow...
June 22, 2018: Respiratory Research
Huan Zhang, Liurong Fang, Xinyu Zhu, Dang Wang, Shaobo Xiao
Protein lysine ubiquitination is a dynamic reversible post-translational modification that plays key roles in modulating different cellular processes. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a notorious pathogen, causing tremendous economic losses for the global swine industry. The possible involvement of ubiquitination in PRRSV infection is unclear. So anti-ubiquitination-based enrichment and LC-MS were performed to investigate the global ubiquitination events triggered by PRRSV infection in pulmonary alveolar macrophages...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Daniil A Korenkov, Karen L Laurie, Patrick C Reading, Louise A Carolan, Kok Fei Chan, Irina I Isakova-Sivak, Tatiana A Smolonogina, Kanta Subbarao, Ian G Barr, Julie Villanueva, Svetlana Shcherbik, Tatiana Bousse, Larisa G Rudenko
Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) are promising tools for the induction of broad protection from influenza due to their ability to stimulate cross-reactive T cells against influenza pathogens. One of the major targets for cytotoxic T-cell immunity is viral nucleoprotein (NP), which is relatively conserved among antigenically distant influenza viruses. Nevertheless, a diversity of epitope composition has been found in the NP protein of different lineages of influenza A viruses. The H2N2 master donor virus which is currently used as a backbone for the LAIV and donor of the six genomic segments encoding the internal proteins, A/Leningrad/134/17/57 (MDV Len/17), was isolated 60 years ago...
June 18, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Abigail L Coughtrie, Denise E Morris, Rebecca Anderson, Nelupha Begum, David W Cleary, Saul N Faust, Johanna M Jefferies, Alex R Kraaijeveld, Michael V Moore, Mark A Mullee, Paul J Roderick, Andrew Tuck, Robert N Whittaker, Ho Ming Yuen, C Patrick Doncaster, Stuart C Clarke
PURPOSE: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are responsible for over 2.8 million deaths per year worldwide with pathobiont carriage a required precursor to infection. We sought to determine carriage epidemiology for both bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens as part of a large population-based cross-sectional carriage study. METHODOLOGY: Nose self-swab samples were collected in two separate time-points, May to August 2012 (late spring/summer) and February to April 2013 (winter/early spring)...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Saulius Diktanas, Edita Vasiliauskiene, Katazyna Polubenko, Edvardas Danila, Indre Celedinaite, Evelina Boreikaite, Kipras Misiunas
BACKGROUND: Non-conversion of sputum smear and culture prolongs the infectivity of the patient and has been associated with unfavorable outcomes. We aimed to evaluate factors associated with persistent sputum positivity at the end of two months of treatment of new case pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: Data of 87 human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients with culture-positive drug-susceptible pulmonary TB admitted to local university hospital between September 2015 and September 2016 were reviewed...
June 19, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Fang Liu, Chunfang Wang, Yuantao Gao, Xiao Li, Feng Tian, Yongtao Zhang, Mingyang Fu, Pengfei Li, Yali Wang, Fei Wang
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are an attractive new agent with potential as a therapeutic tool because of its ability to inhibit specific genes for many conditions, including viral infections and cancers. However, despite this potential, many challenges remain, including off-target effects, difficulties with delivery, immune responses, and toxicity. Traditional genetic vectors do not guarantee that siRNAs will silence genes in vivo. Rational design strategies, such as chemical modification, viral vectors, and non-viral vectors, including cationic liposomes, polymers, nanocarriers, and bioconjugated siRNAs, provide important opportunities to overcome these challenges...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
Jeong Yoon Lee, Ji Sun Lee, Emma C Materne, Rahul Rajala, Ashrafali M Ismail, Donald Seto, David W Dyer, Jaya Rajaiya, James Chodosh
Adenovirus infections in humans are common and sometimes lethal. Adenovirus-derived vectors are also commonly chosen for gene therapy in human clinical trials. We have shown in previous work that homologous recombination between adenoviral genomes of human adenovirus species D (HAdV-D), the largest and fastest growing HAdV species, is responsible for the rapid evolution of this species. Because adenovirus infection initiates in mucosal epithelia, particularly at the gastrointestinal, respiratory, genitourinary, and ocular surfaces, we sought to determine a possible role for mucosal microbiota in adenovirus genome diversity...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Mathieu Dubé, Alain Le Coupanec, Alan H M Wong, James M Rini, Marc Desforges, Pierre J Talbot
Human coronaviruses (HCoV) are recognized respiratory pathogens for which accumulating evidence indicates that in vulnerable patients, the infection can cause more severe pathologies. HCoVs are not always confined to the upper respiratory tract and can invade the CNS upon still unclear circumstances. HCoV-induced neuropathologies in human are difficult to diagnose early enough to allow therapeutic interventions. Making use of our already described animal model of HCoV neuropathogenesis, we describe the route of neuropropagation from the nasal cavity to the olfactory bulb, piriform cortex then brainstem...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
Christine Burkard, Tanja Opriessnig, Alan J Mileham, Tomasz Stadejek, Tahar Ait-Ali, Simon G Lillico, C Bruce A Whitelaw, Alan L Archibald
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) has a narrow host cell tropism, limited to cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. CD163 protein is expressed at high levels on the surface of specific macrophage types and a soluble form is circulating in blood. CD163 has been described as a fusion receptor for PRRSV, with the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain 5 (SRCR5) region having been shown to be the interaction site for the virus.As reported earlier, we have generated pigs in which Exon 7 of the CD163 gene has been deleted using CRISPR/Cas9 editing in pig zygotes...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
H R Sowman, N J Cave, M Dunowska
AIMS: To determine which of the common canine respiratory pathogens circulate among selected populations of healthy and diseased dogs in New Zealand. METHODS: Coagulated blood samples for serology and oropharyngeal swabs for virology were collected from healthy dogs (n=47) and from dogs with acute respiratory disease (n=49). For diseased dogs a convalescent blood sample was also collected 3-4 weeks later. Oropharyngeal swabs were subjected to virus isolation and tested for canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), canine adenovirus (CAdV) 2, canine herpesvirus (CHV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine influenza virus (CIV), canine distemper virus (CDV), Bordetella bronchiseptica, Streptococcus equi subsp...
June 20, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Toshimitsu Yanagisawa, Tomohiko Nakamura
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial viral (RSV) infection is one of the major causes of hospitalization of children during the winter months in Nagano, Japan. This investigation was conducted to understand the details of hospitalized patients infected with RSV in Nagano. METHODS: The study used a questionnaire to survey children who were hospitalized with RSV infection in the pediatric wards of 11 major hospitals in Nagano. RESULTS: Between April 2016 and March 2017, 438 patients were hospitalized with RSV infection in the 11 participating hospitals...
June 20, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
D Kowalczyk, K Szymański, K Cieślak, E Hallmann-Szelińska, L B Brydak
Influenza viruses cause respiratory infections every epidemic season regardless of the patient's age. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of respiratory viruses in the epidemic season 2016/2017 in Poland, with particular emphasis on influenza viruses among people aged over 14. There were 2982 clinical samples taken from patients from four age groups: 15-25, 26-44, 45-64, and ≥ 65 years tested under the Sentinel and non-Sentinel surveillance programs. The presence of influenza viruses was confirmed in more than 40% of cases, the predominant type was influenza A virus unsubtyped, followed by subtype A/H3N2/...
June 20, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jasmine Lee-Barber, Taylor E English, Jacquelyn F Britton, Nara Sobreira, Jason Goldstein, David Valle, Hans Tomas Bjornsson
Transaldolase deficiency (MIM#: 606003) is a rare autosomal recessive defect in the pentose phosphate pathway. Affected individuals are at risk for progressive liver failure and hepatocarcinoma. In the transaldolase-deficient mouse model (Taldo1 -/- ), these hepatic complications are accentuated by oxidative stress related to acetaminophen administration. We report a 13-month-old transaldolase-deficient male who developed mild liver failure after receiving standard doses of acetaminophen during a febrile respiratory syncytial virus infection...
June 20, 2018: JIMD Reports
Ahd A Mansour, Sukalyani Banik, Ragavan V Suresh, Hardeep Kaur, Meenakshi Malik, Alison A McCormick, Chandra S Bakshi
Francisella tularensis , the causative agent of the fatal human disease known as tularemia is classified as a Category A Select Agent by the Centers for Disease Control. No licensed vaccine is currently available for prevention of tularemia in the United States. Previously, we published that a tri-antigen tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) vaccine confers 50% protection in immunized mice against respiratory tularemia caused by F. tularensis . In this study, we refined the TMV-vaccine formulation to improve the level of protection in immunized C57BL/6 mice against respiratory tularemia...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zetao Cheng, Yuqian Yan, Shuping Jing, Wen-Gang Li, Wei-Wei Chen, Jing Zhang, Min Li, Shan Zhao, Na Cao, Junxian Ou, Suhui Zhao, Xianbo Wu, Bin Cao, Qiwei Zhang
Human adenovirus type 55 (HAdV-B55) is a recently identified acute respiratory disease (ARD) pathogen in HAdV species B with a recombinant genome between renal HAdV-B11 and respiratory HAdV-B14. Since HAdV-B55 first appeared in China school in 2006, no more ARD cases associated with it had been reported until 2011, when there was an outbreak of adult severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Beijing, China. Reported here is the bioinformatics analysis of the re-emergent HAdV-B55 responsible for this outbreak...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
E Akdesir, F C Origgi, J Wimmershoff, J Frey, C F Frey, M-P Ryser-Degiorgis
BACKGROUND: Although mustelids occur worldwide and include a wide range of species, little is known about the diseases affecting them. Mustelids have regularly been submitted for post mortem investigation in the framework of the program for general wildlife health surveillance in Switzerland, which has been in place for nearly 60 years. We performed a retrospective analysis of the necropsy reports on mustelids submitted to the diagnostic service of the University of Bern. The aims of this study were to present an overview of the causes of mortality and morbidity observed in these carnivores, to assess differences among species, to assess changes in disease detection over the study period, and to describe the pathology of selected diseases...
June 19, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
D Z Tan, Y Feng, Y Hu, A H Yan
Objective: The relationship between viral infection and the occurrence of nasal polyps was explored to help us understand the etiology and pathogenesis of nasal polyps, and to provide scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of nasal polyps through a Meta-analysis. Method: By searching Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CNKI, Wanfang Database, and VIP Database, time starts from database building until January 1, 2018, a comprehensive case-control study on the relationship between human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), respiratory virus infection and nasal polyps published at home and abroad has been conducted...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
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