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Clinical lab

Joham Choque-Velasquez, Franklin Miranda-Solis, Roberto Colasanti, Luis Angel Ccahuantico-Choquevilca, Juha Hernesniemi
OBJECTIVE: In the last decades endoscopic techniques have been increasingly used in neurosurgery as they may offer a valuable close-up view of the working area through a minimally invasive surgical corridor. Herein, we present an inexpensive and efficient endoscopic surgical model using a borescope, which was used for a "modified pure endoscopic approach" to the pineal region. METHODS: A borescope video camera was connected to a 16 inches personal computer monitor...
June 20, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Xin Zhang, Jane E Hartung, Andrey V Bortsov, Seungtae Kim, Sandra C O'Buckley, Julia Kozlowski, Andrea G Nackley
Functional pain syndromes, such as fibromyalgia and temporomandibular disorder, are associated with enhanced catecholamine tone and decreased levels of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT; an enzyme that metabolizes catecholamines). Consistent with clinical syndromes, our lab has shown that sustained 14-day delivery of the COMT inhibitor OR486 in rodents results in pain at multiple body sites and pain-related volitional behaviors. The onset of COMT-dependent functional pain is mediated by peripheral β2 - and β3 -adrenergic receptors (β2 - and β3 ARs) through the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)...
June 20, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Linoj P Samuel
Clinical microbiology is a highly challenging technical discipline, which makes it difficult to harmonize processes and protocols. In addition, the lack of scientific consensus on some diagnostic algorithms and the need to address the diverse needs of different patient populations contribute to the lack of interlaboratory consistency. Laboratories utilize a number of measures and metrics, but the lack of standardized approaches and data collection means that they cannot effectively evaluate their performance against their peers...
June 23, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
A Haehner, T Hummel, W Heinritz, S Krueger, M Meinhardt, K L Whitcroft, R Sabatowski, G Gossrau
Mutations in the sodium-channel Nav 1.7, encoded by the gene SCN9A, are known to cause pain disorders. In particular, gain-of-function missense mutations in Nav 1.7 have been shown to be causal in primary erythromelalgia. We present a patient with erythromelalgia, pain attacks and hyperosmia with a mutation within the sodium channel gene SCN9A. A 50-year-old woman presented with burning pain in both feet and abdominal pain attacks developed over the course of 10 years. Furthermore, this patient experienced a hypersensitivity for odors...
June 23, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Markéta Bloomfield, Veronika Kanderová, Zuzana Paračková, Petra Vrabcová, Michael Svatoň, Eva Froňková, Martina Fejtková, Radana Zachová, Michal Rataj, Irena Zentsová, Tomáš Milota, Adam Klocperk, Tomáš Kalina, Anna Šedivá
PURPOSE: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 gain-of-function (STAT1 GOF) mutations are the most common cause of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). We aim to report the effect of oral ruxolitinib, the Janus kinase (JAK) family tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on clinical and immune status of a 12-year-old boy with severe CMC due to a novel STAT1 GOF mutation. METHODS: Clinical features and laboratory data were analyzed, particularly lymphocyte subsets, ex vivo IFNγ- and IFNα-induced STAT1, 3, 5 phosphorylation dynamics during the course of JAK1/2 inhibition therapy, and Th17-related, STAT1- and STAT3-inducible gene expression before and during the treatment...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Paz L D Ruiz, German Tapia, Inger J Bakken, Siri E Håberg, Olav Hungnes, Hanne L Gulseth, Lars C Stene
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Case reports have linked influenza infections to the development of type 1 diabetes. We investigated whether pandemic and seasonal influenza infections were associated with subsequent increased risk of type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In this population-based registry study, we linked individual-level data from national health registries for the entire Norwegian population under the age of 30 years for the years 2006-2014 (2.5 million individuals). Data were obtained from the National Registry (population data), the Norwegian Patient Registry (data on inpatient and outpatient specialist care), the Primary Care Database, the Norwegian Prescription Database and the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases...
June 22, 2018: Diabetologia
Xiaojing Xia, Xin Wang, Xiaobing Wei, Jinqing Jiang, Jianhe Hu
One of the most important zoonotic pathogens worldwide, Streptococcus suis is a swine pathogen that is responsible for meningitis, toxic shock and even death in humans. S. suis infection develops rapidly with nonspecific clinical symptoms in the early stages and a high fatality rate. Recently, much attention has been paid to the high prevalence of S. suis as well as the increasing incidence and its epidemic characteristics. As laboratory-acquired infections of S. suis can occur and it is dangerous to public health security, timely and early diagnosis has become key to controlling S...
June 23, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Isabella Zhang, Philip Gilbo, Nina Kohn, Brett Cox
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: Radium-223 prolongs survival and decreases symptomatic skeletal events in men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer and is indicated in patients with painful bone metastases. However, pain responses are rarely reported and often asked about by patients. Further, patients and their physicians are concerned about a lack of pain response portending a poor treatment response and may be inclined to change systemic therapies before completing 6 cycles. We evaluated the likelihood and time course of pain response, potential predictors of response, and its prognostic value in patients receiving radium-223...
May 16, 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
Hua-Kung Wang, Mong-Hong Lee, Yee-Chun Chen, Po-Ren Hsueh, Shan-Chwen Chang
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory factors associated with disease severity and mortality from confirmed leptospirosis patients in Taiwan are not well known. This retrospective study examined patients with suspected leptospirosis admitted to En-Chu-Kong Hospital, a regional teaching hospital in northern Taiwan. METHODS: From January 2002 to July 2014, 733 suspected cases were reported to the National Reference Laboratory, 57 of which were identified as laboratory and clinical confirmed...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Denny John, Prabir Chatterjee, Shruti Murthy, Ramesh Bhat, Baba Maiyaki Musa
BACKGROUND: In India, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients are usually treated in hospitals. Decentralised care model, however, has been suggested as a possible alternative by the World Health Organization (WHO). In the "End TB Strategy", the WHO highlights, as one of the key targets for 2035, that 'no TB-affected families should face catastrophic hardship due to the tuberculosis'. Removal of financial barriers to health-care access and mitigation of catastrophic expenditures are therefore considered vital to achieve the universal health coverage (UHC) goal...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Justin D Duval, Jessica M Pang, Søren R Boysen, Nigel A Caulkett
Various anesthetic protocols are used in laboratory swine, each with specific advantages and disadvantages. Partial intravenousanesthetic techniques (PIVA) help minimize dose-dependent cardiopulmonary effects of inhalant drugs. The aim of thisstudy was to determine the cardiopulmonary effects of a PIVA in laboratory swine. In a prospective, nonrandomized clinicalstudy, 8 healthy juvenile Landrace-White pigs were premedicated with azaperone (0.20 ± 0.20 mg/kg IM), dexmedetomidine(0.02 ± 0.002 mg/kg IM), and alfaxalone (2...
June 22, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Corinna N Beale, Michael Y Esmail, Ariel M Aguiar, Lily Coughlin, Anne L Merley, Tania M Alarcon Falconi, Scott E Perkins
Laboratory mice (Mus musculus) are susceptible to hypothermia, especially during anesthetic events, disease states, andexposure to environmental stressors. Thermal support devices for small mammals are numerous, but often require a power source and may be impractical to use for cages on a rack. Air-activated thermal devices (AATD) are mixtures of chemicals that cause an exothermic reaction. In this study, we examined the environmental effects of AATD on internal cage temperatures without the use of additional equipment as well as the physiologic effects of AATD as postoperative thermal support in mice...
June 22, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
R Taylor Ripley, Deborah R Surman, Laurence P Diggs, Jane B Trepel, Min-Jung Lee, Jeremy Ryan, Jeremy L Davis, Seth M Steinberg, Jonathan M Hernandez, Choung Hoang, Cara M Kenney, Colleen D Bond, Tricia F Kunst, Anthony Letai, David S Schrump
BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancers accounted for nearly 16,000 deaths in 2016. The number of patients with esophageal cancers increases every year. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) prior to esophagectomy is a standard treatment for esophageal cancers. The patients who have no residual tumor (pathological complete response (pCR)) at surgery are the most likely to experience long term survival. Accurately determining which patients will have a pCR will improve prognostic information for patients and families, confirm lack of response to nCRT, or avoid surgery if no residual tumor is present...
June 22, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
Pınar Zarakolu, Çağlayan Merve Ayaz, Gökhan Metan
Carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is a bacterium that causes various hospital acquired infections, primarily ventilator-associated pneumonia and bloodstream infections. The multidrug resistance problem of the bacteria all over the world, is also a problem in our center. As the treatment options are decreasing combination therapies become a current issue. It is believed that in vitro synergy tests may guide to the selection of antibiotic combinations. The aim of this study was to present the antibiotic combinations used in the treatment of carbapenem resistant A...
April 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Tuba Dal, Ziya Cibali Açıkgöz, Tuğcan Başyiğit, Hasan Zeybek, Rıza Durmaz
The diagnosis of human brucellosis requires culture or serological tests for the conformation of the clinical findings. Isolation of the bacteria is used as a gold standard, however it is time consuming and processing of positive cultures has a potential risk for laboratory acquired human brucellosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods have offered new approaches for early diagnosis of brucellosis and reduce the risk of laboratory acquired human brucellosis. A major limitation of the PCR method is the difficulty to remove the inhibitors in specimens...
April 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Takahisa Kawamura, Hidefumi Kasai, Valentina Fermanelli, Toshiaki Takahashi, Yukinori Sakata, Toshiyuki Matsuoka, Mika Ishii, Yusuke Tanigawara
Post-marketing surveillance is useful to collect safety data in real-world clinical settings. In this study, we firstly applied the post-marketing real-world data on a mechanistic model analysis for neutropenic profiles of eribulin in patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer (RBC/MBC). Demographic and safety data were collected using an active surveillance method from eribulin-treated RBC/MBC patients. Changes in neutrophil counts over time were analyzed using a mechanistic pharmacodynamic model...
June 22, 2018: Cancer Science
Rejane Reich, Eneida Rejane Rabelo-Silva, Simone Marques Dos Santos, Miriam de Abreu Almeida
OBJECTIVE: To map the production of knowledge on vascular access complications in patients undergoing percutaneous procedures in hemodynamic laboratories. METHODS: Scoping review study. The search strategy was developed in three stages, considering the period from July 2005 to July 2015 in the PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and LILACS databases. The collected data were analyzed and summarized in a narrative form. RESULTS: One-hundred twenty-eight publications that made it possible to map the contexts of study of complications, occurrence according to access routes, as well as an understanding of diagnosis and clinical management, were included...
June 7, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Thomas J Walsh, Molly M Shores, Chloe A Krakauer, Christopher W Forsberg, Alexandra E Fox, Kathryn P Moore, Anna Korpak, Susan R Heckbert, Steven B Zeliadt, Chloe E Kinsey, Mary Lou Thompson, Nicholas L Smith, Alvin M Matsumoto
PURPOSE: Testosterone treatment of men with low testosterone is common and, although relatively short-term, has raised concern regarding an increased risk of prostate cancer (CaP). We investigated the association between modest-duration testosterone treatment and incident aggressive CaP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective inception cohort study of male Veterans aged 40 to 89 years with a laboratory-defined low testosterone measurement from 2002 to 2011 and recent prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing; excluding those with recent testosterone treatment, prostate or breast cancer, high PSA or prior prostate biopsy...
2018: PloS One
Mercedes Marín, Adrián Ruiz, Cristina Iglesias, Lidia Quiroga, Emilia Cercenado, Pablo Martín-Rabadán, Emilio Bouza, Belén Rodríguez-Sánchez
OBJECTIVES: The identification of Nocardia isolates still represents a challenge for MALDI-TOF MS despite its acceptance for most bacterial and fungal isolates. In this study we evaluate the identification of Nocardia isolates using direct spotting and an updated database. METHODS: Overall, 82 Nocardia isolates belonging to 13 species were identified by DNA sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and secA1 genes. Nine of these well-characterized isolates from 6 Nocardia species were used to create an in-house library...
June 19, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Marina Bockaj, Barnabas Fung, Michael Tsoulis, Lauren Warren Foster, Leyla Soleymani
Currently, a blood test for the diagnosis of endometriosis, a common estrogen-dependent gynecological disease, does not exist. Recent studies suggest that circulating concentrations of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have potential for the diagnosis of endometriosis. However, at present BDNF can only be measured by ELISA which requires a clinic visit, a routine blood sample, and laboratory testing. Therefore, we developed a point-of-care device (EndoChip) for use with small blood volumes that can be collected through a finger prick...
June 22, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
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