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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458156/how-to-isolate-identify-and-determine-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-anaerobic-bacteria-in-routine-laboratories
#1
REVIEW
Elisabeth Nagy, Lyudmila Boyanova, Ulrik S Justesen
BACKGROUND: There has been an increased interest in the study of anaerobic bacteria, which cause human infection during the past decade. Many new genera and species have been described by to use 16S rRNA gene sequencing of clinical isolates obtained from different infection sites with commercially available special culture media to support the growth of anaerobes. Several systems, such as anaerobic pouches, boxes, jars and chambers provide suitable anaerobic culture conditions to isolate even strict anaerobic bacteria successfully from clinical specimens...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458095/rapid-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-detection-of-coeliac-disease-risk-alleles
#2
Michael Erlichster, Jason A Tye-Din, Michael D Varney, Efstratios Skafidas, Patrick Kwan
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping has become a useful investigation in the diagnostic work-up of coeliac disease (CD), with utility in risk stratification and screening. However, broad application of this technology has been hindered by the cost and time burden of conventional laboratory-based assays. We have developed and validated CD-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (CD-LAMP), a LAMP assay, which enables rapid identification of the signature CD risk genotypes, HLA-DQ2.5, HLA-DQ8, HLA-DQ2.2, and HLA-DQA1*05...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457989/propylthiouracil-induced-anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibody-associated-vasculitis-mimicking-kawasaki-disease
#3
Yoshihiro Aoki, Katsuhiko Kitazawa, Hironobu Kobayashi
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is rare in children and is characterised as necrotising vasculitis predominantly affecting small and medium-sized vessels. Propylthiouracil (PTU), an antithyroid drug, has been implicated in drug-induced AAV. In contrast, Kawasaki disease (KD) is a common systemic vasculitis, typically observed in children, which affects the medium-sized vessels, including the coronary arteries. An 11-year-old girl who developed AAV while receiving PTU therapy for Graves' disease is described...
February 19, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457961/examination-of-16s-23s-rrna-intergenic-spacer-region-isr-heterogeneity-in-a-population-of-clinical-streptococcus-pneumoniae-a-new-laboratory-epidemiological-genotyping-tool-to-aid-outbreak-analysis
#4
J E Moore, J Hirayama, K Hayashi, C Mason, W Coulter, M Matsuda, C E Goldsmith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2018: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457840/population-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacogenomics-of-apixaban-in-japanese-adult-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#5
Satoshi Ueshima, Daiki Hira, Yuuma Kimura, Ryo Fujii, Chiho Tomitsuka, Takuya Yamane, Yohei Tabuchi, Tomoya Ozawa, Hideki Itoh, Seiko Ohno, Minoru Horie, Tomohiro Terada, Toshiya Katsura
AIMS: This study aimed to analyse the effects of genetic polymorphisms in drug transporters and metabolising enzymes, and clinical laboratory data on the pharmacokinetic parameters of apixaban. METHODS: Data were collected from 81 Japanese patients with atrial fibrillation. Pharmacogenomic data were stratified by ABCB1, ABCG2, and CYP3A5 polymorphisms. The pharmacokinetic profile of apixaban was described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted using non-linear mixed effect modelling (NONMEM™) program...
February 19, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457665/comparative-analysis-of-lipid-mediated-crispr-cas9-genome-editing-techniques
#6
Kelsey P Ringer, Mark G Roth, Mitchell S Garey, Ted B Piorczynski, Arminda Suli, Jason M Hansen, Jonathan K Alder
CRISPR-Cas technology has revolutionized genome engineering. While Cas9 was not the first programmable endonuclease identified, its simplicity of use has driven widespread adoption in a short period of time. While CRISPR-Cas genome editing holds enormous potential for clinical applications, its use in laboratory settings for genotype-phenotype studies and genome-wide screens has led to breakthroughs in the understanding of many molecular pathways. Numerous protocols have been described for introducing CRISPR-Cas components into cells, and here we sought to simplify and optimize a protocol for genome editing using readily available and inexpensive tools...
February 19, 2018: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457639/hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-large-cohort-study-in-yunnan-province-china
#7
Shiyi Zhou, Li Ren, Xueshan Xia, Zhijiang Miao, Fen Huang, Yunlong Li, Mei Zhu, Zhenrong Xie, Yu Xu, Yuan Qian, Qiuwei Pan, Kunhua Wang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in immunocompromised patients often results in distinct outcome, compared to the infection in general population. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, potential risk factors and clinical features of HEV infection among HIV patients treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Yunnan province, China. METHODS: A total of 770 HIV-infected patients between May 2015 and February 2016 were enrolled in Yunnan, China...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457317/effects-of-alcohol-intoxication-on-self-reported-drinking-patterns-expectancies-motives-and-personality-a-randomized-controlled-experimental-study
#8
Sören Kuitunen-Paul, Elisabeth Obst, Ruth Schmidt, Christian Sommer, Paula T Kuitunen, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Ulrich S Zimmermann
Alcohol intoxication may affect self-reports of alcohol use and related constructs, such as impulsivity and dependence symptoms. Improved knowledge about potential systematic reporting biases induced by alcohol, e.g. through disinhibition, may be relevant for the assessment of intoxicated individuals both in clinical routine and research. We therefore randomly assigned 54 socially drinking males aged 18 to 19 without lifetime diagnosis of DSM-IV alcohol dependence to one of two experimental arms: either placebo infusion at day 1 and alcohol infusion at day 2, or vice versa...
February 19, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457209/agreement-between-integrated-management-of-childhood-illness-and-final-diagnosis-in-acute-respiratory-tract-infections
#9
Sıddika Songül Yalçın, Beril Özdemir, Sadriye Özdemir, Esra Baskın
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the agreement between integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) and final diagnosis in patients presenting with cough at the second and third level health institutions. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 373 children aged 2-60 mo who presented with cough at the pediatric emergency and outpatient clinics in the Department of Pediatrics. After clinical examination of children, body temperature, respiratory rate, saturation, presence or absence of the chest indrawing, rales, wheezing and laryngeal stridor were recorded...
February 19, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457022/a-case-report-of-compound-heterozygous-cyp24a1-mutations-leading-to-nephrolithiasis-successfully-treated-with-ketoconazole
#10
Emma Davidson Peiris, Raghav Wusirika
CYP24A1 is an enzyme that inactivates vitamin D. Loss-of-function mutations in this enzyme are rare but have been linked with idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia as well as adult-onset nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. Genetic testing for this mutation should be considered in the presence of calciuria, elevated serum calcium, elevated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and suppressed parathyroid hormone. We present a case with these lab findings as well as an elevated 25-hydroxyvitamin D/24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D ratio in whom compound heterozygous CYP24A1 mutations were found...
September 2017: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457001/control-of-infectious-diseases-in-the-era-of-european-clinical-microbiology-laboratory-consolidation-new-challenges-and-opportunities-for-the-patient-and-for-public-health-surveillance
#11
Olivier Vandenberg, Zisis Kozlakidis, Jacques Schrenzel, Marc Jean Struelens, Judith Breuer
Many new innovative diagnostic approaches have been made available during the last 10 years with major impact on patient care and public health surveillance. In parallel, to enhance the cost-effectiveness of the clinical microbiology laboratories (CMLs), European laboratory professionals have streamlined their organization leading to amalgamation of activities and restructuring of their professional relationships with clinicians and public health specialists. Through this consolidation process, an operational model has emerged that combines large centralized clinical laboratories performing most tests on one high-throughput analytical platform connected to several distal laboratories dealing locally with urgent analyses at near point of care...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456978/a-case-of-tyrosinemia-type-iii-with-status-epilepticus-and-mental-retardation
#12
Reza Najafi, Neda Mostofizadeh, Mahin Hashemipour
Tyrosinemia type III is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of 4- hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4-HPPD). It is characterized by elevated levels of blood tyrosine and massive excretion of its derivatives into the urine. Clinical findings of tyrosinemia type III include neurological symptoms and mental retardation. Only a few patients presenting with this disease have been described, and the clinical phenotype remains variable and unclear. We present a case, who was admitted to the hospital at the age of 4 months for recurrent seizures...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456618/an-unusual-presentation-of-adult-t-cell-leukemia-lymphoma
#13
Mohammed Tag-Adeen, Keiichi Hashiguchi, Yuko Akazawa, Ken Ohnita, Sawayama Yasushi, Niino Daisuke, Kazuhiko Nakao
Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL) is a rare disease, related to human T-lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1) and presented mainly in adulthood by generalised lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, skin lesions and hypercalcaemia, with rare gastrointestinal and/or oral manifestations. We reported this case to raise awareness and demonstrate the therapeutic challenges of this rare disease. A 49-year-old Japanese female presented with skin papules on both forearms, painful mouth ulcers and multiple neck swellings since early February 2017...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456387/clinico-epidemiological-profile-of-pediatric-rheumatology-disorders-in-eastern-india
#14
Pratap Kumar Patra, Manish Kumar
Background: Data on rheumatological disorders in children from developing countries like India are scarce. Hence, this study aimed to understand the clinical and epidemiological profile of rheumatological disorders in children as this can help organize comprehensive evidence-based health care services. Methodology: A retrospective hospital-based study was designed in pediatric rheumatology clinic of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, India, from January 2015 to December 2016...
January 2018: Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456353/the-utility-of-preoperative-acth-cortisol-ratio-for-the-diagnosis-and-prognosis-of-cushing-s-disease
#15
Alev Selek, Berrin Cetinarslan, Zeynep Canturk, Ilhan Tarkun, Ozlem Zeynep Akyay, Burak Cabuk, Savas Ceylan
Purpose: Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare disease having diagnostic difficulties. Many diagnostic tests have been defined but none of these are diagnostic alone. Determination of the cause is another problem which sometimes requires more sophisticated and invasive procedures. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the utility of pretreatment plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)/cortisol ratios in patients with confirmed endogenous CS for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of CS. Materials and Methods: This retrospective evaluation included 145 patients with the diagnosis of CS, 119 patients with Cushing's disease (CD), and 26 patients with ACTH-independent CS (AICS), in a university hospital...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456342/immune-mediated-neuropathies-our-experience-over-3-years
#16
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Venkata Raviteja Karru, M A Mukheem Mudabbir, Subashree Ramakrishnan, Anitha Mahadevan
Introduction: Immune-mediated peripheral neuropathy is the term applied to a spectrum of peripheral nerve disorders where immune dysregulation plays a role. Therefore, they are treatable. We analyzed the cases seen in the past 3 years by us and evaluated the clinical, laboratory, and outcome parameters in these patients. Patients and Methods: Consecutive patients seen by the authors and diagnosed as immune-mediated neuropathy were analyzed for etiology, pathology, and outcome assessed...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456226/three-cases-of-prune-belly-syndrome-at-the-lagos-state-university-teaching-hospital-ikeja
#17
Adaobi U Solarin, Elizabeth A Disu, Henry O Gbelee, Adeola B Animasahaun, Oluwatosin E Aremu, Eucharia Ogbuokiri, Gbemisola O Ogunnaike, Alaba Oladimeji
Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital disorder affecting 2.5 to 3.8/100,000 live births worldwide. Our objective of this report is to describe clinical manifestation, laboratory, and radiological characteristics of PBS in our patients, to highlight the limitations to offering appropriate patient care due to parents demanding discharge against medical advice and the need to increase the awareness regarding this rare disease. We report three cases; all referred after birth with lax abdominal wall, congenital anomalies of kidney, and urinary tract...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456208/morbidity-and-mortality-of-hospitalized-hip-fractures-in-chronic-hemodialysis
#18
Georgios Vlachopanos, Theodoras Kassimatis, Anastasia Kokkona, Adamantia Zerva, Eirini Stavroulaki, Charilaos Zacharogiannis, Athanasios Agrafiotis
Abnormal bone architecture contributes to high incidence of hip fractures in chronichemodialysis (HD) patients. Their clinical epidemiology is incompletely described. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess the implications ofhospitalization with hip fracture in HD patients compared to the nonchronic kidney disease population. Thirty-three chronic HD patients admitted with hip fracture overfiveyears were age- and sex-matched on a 1:1 ratio with controls that had hip fracture and normal renal function...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456191/comparative-efficacy-of-low-dose-versus-standard-dose-azithromycin-for-patients-with-yaws-a-randomised-non-inferiority-trial-in-ghana-and-papua-new-guinea
#19
Michael Marks, Oriol Mitjà, Christian Bottomley, Cynthia Kwakye, Wendy Houinei, Mathias Bauri, Paul Adwere, Abdul A Abdulai, Fredrick Dua, Laud Boateng, James Wangi, Sally-Ann Ohene, Regina Wangnapi, Shirley V Simpson, Helen Miag, Kennedy K Addo, Laud A Basing, Damien Danavall, Kai H Chi, Allan Pillay, Ronald Ballard, Anthony W Solomon, Cheng Y Chen, Sibauk V Bieb, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, David C W Mabey, Kingsley Asiedu
BACKGROUND: A dose of 30 mg/kg of azithromycin is recommended for treatment of yaws, a disease targeted for global eradication. Treatment with 20 mg/kg of azithromycin is recommended for the elimination of trachoma as a public health problem. In some settings, these diseases are co-endemic. We aimed to determine the efficacy of 20 mg/kg of azithromycin compared with 30 mg/kg azithromycin for the treatment of active and latent yaws. METHODS: We did a non-inferiority, open-label, randomised controlled trial in children aged 6-15 years who were recruited from schools in Ghana and schools and the community in Papua New Guinea...
February 15, 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455953/the-comprehensive-characterization-of-adrenocortical-steroidogenesis-using-two-dimensional-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#20
Gellért Karvaly, Krisztián Kovács, Katalin Mészáros, Ibolya Kocsis, Attila Patócs, Barna Vásárhelyi
The perturbation of the homeostasis of adrenocortical steroids plays a fundamental role in several pathological conditions. Currently, only a few of the substances involved in steroidogenesis are routinely analysed in clinical laboratories for the diagnosis of these conditions. Recently, interest has grown over the development of clinical assays of endogenous steroids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). However, no approaches have assessed the adrenocortical steroidogenesis comprehensively...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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