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cardiac stimulation

Laura Denise Mendes da Silva, Mariana Gatto, Mariana Miziara de Abreu Teodoro, Marjorie de Assis Golim, Érika Alessandra Pelisson Nunes da Costa, Francilene Capel Tavares Carvalho, Daniela Ramos Rodrigues, Paulo Câmara Marques Pereira, Ângela Maria Victoriano de Campos Soares, Sueli Aparecida Calvi
Chagas disease (CD), caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is a serious public health issue. Its evolution involves an acute stage, characterized by no specific symptoms, and the chronic stage during most individuals are asymptomatic, but about 30 to 40% of them become symptomatic presenting the cardiac or digestive disease. Host immune response mechanisms involved in symptomatic or asymptomatic chronic disease are not fully understood. The pro-inflammatory cytokines are crucial in host resistance. However, a fine control of this inflammatory process, by action of anti-inflammatory cytokines, is necessary to avoid tissue injury...
October 26, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Douglas Y Mah, Divya Shakti, Kimberlee Gauvreau, Steven D Colan, Mark E Alexander, Dominic J Abrams, David W Brown
Left atrial (LA) dilation has been shown to be associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) in the adult population, with some studies indicating that larger LAs are more prone to AF recurrence. The relation of LA size to AF in the pediatric and young adult population has not been investigated. In this study, all pediatric patients (aged ≤22 years) who presented to Boston Children's Hospital from January 2002 to December 2012 with AF were reviewed. Patients with significant congenital heart disease, cardiomyopathies, proven channelopathies, previous cardiac surgery, end-stage renal disease, or severe lung disease/cystic fibrosis were excluded...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Xin Yu Leong, Punniyakoti Veeraveedu Thanikachalam, Manisha Pandey, Srinivasan Ramamurthy
BACKGROUND: Swertiamarin, is a secoiridoid glycoside found in genera of Enicostemma Species (Enicostemma littorale and Enicostemma axillare) belonging to the family of gentianaceae, which has been reported to cure many diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, arthritis, malaria and abdominal ulcers. However, to the best of our knowledge, till date systematic studies to understand the molecular basis of cardiac and metabolic disease preventing properties of swertiamarin has not been reported...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jack H Crawford, Matthew S Hull, Santiago Borasino, Brad L Steenwyk, Kristal M Hock, Kevin Wall, Jeffrey A Alten
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may lead to adrenal insufficiency (AI). Emerging evidence supports association of AI with morbidity after cardiac surgery. AIMS: The aim of this study was to define AI incidence in neonates undergoing complex cardiac surgery with CPB and its association with intraoperative post-CPB outcomes. METHODS: Forty subjects enrolled in a prior randomized control trial who received preoperative methylprednisolone as part of our institutional neonatal bypass protocol were included...
October 25, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Mark M Smits, Lennart Tonneijck, Marcel H A Muskiet, Trynke Hoekstra, Mhh Kramer, Michaela Diamant, Daniël H van Raalte
OBJECTIVE: To examine mechanisms underlying resting heart rate (RHR) increments of GLP-1 receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes patients. DESIGN: Acute and 12-week randomised placebo-controlled, double-blind, single-centre parallel-group trial. METHODS: 57 type 2 diabetes patients (mean±SD age 62.8±6.9 years; BMI 31.8±4.1 kg/m2; HbA1c 7.3±0.6%), treated with metformin and/or sulfonylureas, were included between July 2013 and August 2015...
October 24, 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Bin Wang, Suijun Liu, Ling Li, Qiuming Yao, Ronghua Song, Xiaoqing Shao, Qian Li, Xiaohong Shi, Jin-An Zhang
BACKGROUND: Non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) is characterized by decreased serum triiodothyronine level without increased thyroid-stimulating hormone level during critical illness. The summary data on the prevalence of NTIS in cardiovascular patients are lacking, and its prognostic role in cardiovascular patients is also unclear. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to comprehensively determine the prevalence and the prognostic role of NTIS in cardiovascular patients...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Ulrike Herberg, Katharina Linden, Oliver Dewald, Eva Gatzweiler, Matthias Seehase, Georg Daniel Duerr, Jonas Dörner, Stephanie Kleppe, Dennis Ladage, Johannes Breuer
BACKGROUND: Pressure-volume loops (PVL) provide vital information regarding ventricular performance and pathophysiology in cardiac disease. Unfortunately, acquisition of PVL by conductance technology is not feasible in neonates and small children due to the available human catheter size and resulting invasiveness. The aim of the study was to validate the accuracy of PVL in small hearts using volume data obtained by real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and simultaneously acquired pressure data...
2016: PloS One
Narayan R Kissoon, Bryan C Hoelzer, David P Martin, Tim J Lamer
BACKGROUND: New advances in spinal cord stimulation have led to improved treatment of patients suffering from chronic pain. While the overall safety of newer stimulation devices has been established, no published reports exist regarding safety considerations when these devices are implanted in patients with a preexisting cardiac device. CASE REPORT: An 83-year-old man with a history of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest secondary to an episode of ventricular fibrillation underwent automated implantable cardiac defibrillator placement...
October 22, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Roberta Carvalho Basile, Natalino Hajime Yoshinari, Elenice Mantovani, Virgínia Nazário Bonoldi, Delphim da Graça Macoris, Antonio de Queiroz-Neto
Borreliosis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a cosmopolitan zoonosis studied worldwide; it is called Lyme disease in many countries of the Northern Hemisphere and Lyme-like or Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome in Brazil. However, despite the increasing number of suspect cases, this disease is still neglected in Brazil by the medical and veterinary communities. Brazilian Lyme-like borreliosis likely involves capybaras as reservoirs and Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus ticks as vectors. Thus, domestic animals can serve as key carriers in pathogen dissemination...
October 4, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Emilia Pachulec, Vanessa Neitzke-Montinelli, João P B Viola
Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) 2 null mutant mice die in utero of cardiac failure, precluding analysis of the role of NFAT2 in lymphocyte responses. Only the NFAT2(-/-)/Rag-1(-/-) chimeric mice model gave insight into the role of NFAT2 transcription factor in T lymphocyte development, activation, and differentiation. As reports are mainly focused on the role of NFAT2 in CD4(+) T lymphocytes activation and differentiation, we decided to investigate NFAT2's impact on CD8(+) T lymphocyte responses...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Matías Hernández, Susana Wicz, Ricardo S Corral
BACKGROUND: Diverse cardiovascular signaling routes have been considered critical for Chagas cardiomyopathy caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Along this line, T. cruzi infection and endothelin-1 (ET-1) have been shown to cooperatively activate the Ca(2+)/NFAT cascade in cardiomyocytes, leading to cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2) induction and increased release of prostanoids and prohypertrophic peptides. PURPOSE: To determine whether the well-known cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin (Cur) could be helpful to interfere with this key machinery for pathogenesis of Chagas myocarditis...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Marek Sramko, Dan Wichterle, Josef Kautzner
This study evaluated hemodynamic feasibility and reproducibility of a new method for in vivo simulation of human atrial fibrillation (AF). The method was tested during sinus rhythm in 10 patients undergoing catheter ablation for AF. A simple electronic device was assembled that allowed triggering a cardiac stimulator by predefined series of RR intervals. Irregular RR interval sequences with a mean heart rate of 90/min and 130/min were obtained from ECG recordings of another patients with AF. Simultaneous atrioventricular pacing was delivered by catheters placed inside the coronary sinus and at the His bundle region...
2016: PloS One
Ruijie Liu, Hadi Khalil, Suh-Chin J Lin, Michelle A Sargent, Allen J York, Jeffery D Molkentin
Nemo-like kinase (NLK) is an evolutionary conserved serine/threonine protein kinase implicated in development, proliferation and apoptosis regulation. Here we identified NLK as a gene product induced in the hearts of mice subjected to pressure overload or myocardial infarction injury, suggesting a potential regulatory role with pathological stimulation to this organ. To examine the potential functional consequences of increased NLK levels, cardiac-specific transgenic mice with inducible expression of this gene product were generated, as well as cardiac-specific Nlk gene-deleted mice...
2016: PloS One
Daria Bałczewska, Krzysztof Kaczmarek, Paweł Ptaszyński, Jerzy Krzysztof Wranicz, Iwona Cygankiewicz
Syncope is a symptom of the disease with diverse etiology and can be evidence of both benign and very serious life-threatening conditions. Vasovagal syncope(VVS), with prevalence about 35% of the general population, is most frequent causes of transient loss of consciousness (T-LOC). Most cases of vasovagal syncope requires conservative treatment. Although cardioinhibitory type of VVS characterized by a significant bradycardia or pause of the heart rate and can be treated with continuous electrotherapy. This article discuss cardiac pacing and technical solutions for the treatment of VVS...
October 19, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Rita I Jabr, Fiona S Hatch, Samantha C Salvage, Alejandro Orlowski, Paul D Lampe, Christopher H Fry
Cardiac arrhythmias are associated with raised intracellular [Ca(2+)] and slowed action potential conduction caused by reduced gap junction (GJ) electrical conductance (Gj). Ventricular GJs are composed of connexin proteins (Cx43), with Gj determined by Cx43 phosphorylation status. Connexin phosphorylation is an interplay between protein kinases and phosphatases but the precise pathways are unknown. We aimed to identify key Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation sites on Cx43 that regulate cardiac gap junction conductance and action potential conduction velocity...
October 19, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Stephen B Smith, Zhaobin Xu, Tatiana Novitskaya, Bo Zhang, Elena Chepurko, Xin-An Pu, Debra G Wheeler, Mark Ziolo, Richard J Gumina
AIMS: Prior work suggests that ischemic preconditioning increases the level of CD39 in the heart and contributes to cardiac protection. Therefore, we examined if targeted cardiac expression of CD39 protects against myocardial injury. MAIN METHODS: Mice with cardiac-specific expression of human CD39 (αMHC/hCD39-Tg) were generated, characterized and subjected to left coronary artery ischemia-reperfusion injury and infarct size at 24h following injury quantified. KEY FINDINGS: αMHC/hCD39-Tg mice have increased in cardiac ATPase and ADPase activity compared to WT littermates...
October 15, 2016: Life Sciences
Michael J Murray, Heidi DeBlock, Brian Erstad, Anthony Gray, Judi Jacobi, Che Jordan, William McGee, Claire McManus, Maureen Meade, Sean Nix, Andrew Patterson, M Karen Sands, Richard Pino, Ann Tescher, Richard Arbour, Bram Rochwerg, Catherine Friederich Murray, Sangeeta Mehta
OBJECTIVE: To update the 2002 version of "Clinical practice guidelines for sustained neuromuscular blockade in the adult critically ill patient." DESIGN: A Task Force comprising 17 members of the Society of Critical Medicine with particular expertise in the use of neuromuscular-blocking agents; a Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation expert; and a medical writer met via teleconference and three face-to-face meetings and communicated via e-mail to examine the evidence and develop these practice guidelines...
November 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Caojian Zuo
OBJECTIVE: Cardiac fibroblasts play a vital role in the progression of fibrotic cardiac remodeling in hypertensive and failing heart. Osteoglycin (OGN) is implicated as a key regulator of left ventricular mass. However, its precise molecular role in cardiac fibrosis remains unknown. This study aims to investigate the impact of OGN in hypertensive cardiac remodeling. DESIGN AND METHOD: OGN deficient mice and its wildtype (WT) littermates were subjected to either angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion or pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Peter F Davies, Elisabetta Manduchi, Christian J Stoeckert, Yi-Zhou Jiang
Hemodynamics creates a constantly changing physical and chemical environment to which the arterial endothelium is exquisitely sensitive. Biomechanical stresses are intrinsic to blood flow characteristics and blood pressure and therefore are important considerations in hypertension. Near branching anatomical sites in arteries, blood flow separates from the main flow to undergo complex multi-directional characteristics for a part of each cardiac cycle (collectively referred to as disturbed flow). Atherosclerosis and aneurysmal pathology develop preferentially at disturbed flow locations, particularly when an additional cardiovascular risk factor such as hypercholesterolemia or high blood pressure are present...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Riccardo Sarzani
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) are the cardiac natriuretic peptides (NP), true "cardiometabolic" hormones well known for their renal, endocrine and cardiovascular activities leading to reduced sodium reabsorption and arterial blood pressure. These effects are mainly mediated by the second messenger cGMP that also stimulates lipolysis, mitochondriogenesis and a thermogenic program with potency similar to catecholamines. Two distinct NP receptors modulate the final response to cardiac NP: the cGMP-signaling receptor NPRA and the clearance receptor NPRC...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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