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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158260/the-actin-organizing-formin-protein-fhod3-is-required-for-postnatal-development-and-functional-maintenance-of-the-adult-heart-in-mice
#1
Tomoki Ushijima, Noriko Fujimoto, Sho Matsuyama, Meikun Kan-O, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Go Shioi, Yohko Kage, Sho Yamasaki, Ryu Takeya, Hideki Sumimoto
Cardiac development and function require actin-myosin interactions in the sarcomere, a highly organized contractile structure. Sarcomere assembly mediated by formin homology 2 domain-containing 3 (Fhod3), a member of formins that direct formation of straight actin filaments, is essential for embryonic cardiogenesis. However, the role of Fhod3 in the neonatal and adult stages has remained unknown. Here we generated floxed Fhod3 mice to bypass the embryonic lethality of an Fhod3 knockout (KO). Perinatal KO of Fhod3 in the heart caused juvenile lethality at around day 10 after birth with enlarged hearts composed of severely impaired myofibrils, indicating that Fhod3 is crucial for postnatal heart development...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157081/regulation-of-becn1-mediated-autophagy-by-hspb6-insights-from-a-human-hspb6-s10f-mutant
#2
Guan-Sheng Liu, Hongyan Zhu, Wen-Feng Cai, Xiaohong Wang, Min Jiang, Kobina Essandoh, Elizabeth Vafiadaki, Kobra Haghighi, Chi Keung Lam, George Gardner, George Adly, Persoulla Nicolaou, Despina Sanoudou, Qiangrong Liang, Jack Rubinstein, Guo-Chang Fan, Evangelia G Kranias
HSPB6/Hsp20 (heat shock protein family B [small] member 6) has emerged as a novel cardioprotector against stress-induced injury. We identified a human mutant of HSPB6 (HSPB6(S10F)) exclusively present in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients. Cardiac expression of this mutant in mouse hearts resulted in remodeling and dysfunction, which progressed to heart failure and early death. These detrimental effects were associated with reduced interaction of mutant HSPB6(S10F) with BECN1/Beclin 1, leading to BECN1 ubiquitination and its proteosomal degradation...
November 20, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155072/a-protocol-to-study-ex-vivo-mouse-working-heart-at-human-like-heart-rate
#3
Han-Zhong Feng, Jian-Ping Jin
Genetically modified mice are widely used as experimental models to study human heart function and diseases. However, the fast rate of normal mouse heart at 400-600bpm limits its capacity of assessing kinetic parameters that are important for the physiology and pathophysiology of human heart that beats at a much slower rate (75-180bpm). To extend the value of mouse models, we established a protocol to study ex vivo mouse working hearts at a human-like heart rate. In the presence of 300μM lidocaine to lower pacemaker and conductive activities and prevent arrhythmia, a stable rate of 120-130bpm at 37°C is achieved for ex vivo mouse working hearts...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152614/ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated-kinase-role-in-myocardial-remodeling
#4
Patsy Thrasher, Mahipal Singh, Krishna Singh
Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) is a serine/threonine kinase. Mutations in the ATM gene cause a rare autosomal multisystemic disease known as Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). Individuals with mutations in both copies of the ATM gene suffer from increased susceptibility to ionizing radiation, predisposition to cancer, insulin resistance, immune deficiency, and premature aging. Patients with one mutated allele make-up ~1.4 to 2% of the general population. These individuals are spared from most of the symptoms of the disease...
2017: Journal of Rare Diseases Research & Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151481/a-low-normal-free-triiodothyronine-level-is-associated-with-adverse-prognosis-in-euthyroid-patients-with-heart-failure-receiving-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy
#5
Yu-Yang Chen, Xiao-Rong Shu, Zi-Zhuo Su, Rong-Jie Lin, Hai-Feng Zhang, Wo-Liang Yuan, Jing-Feng Wang, Shuang-Lun Xie
Thyroid dysfunction is prevalent in patients with heart failure (HF) and hypothyroidism is related to the adverse prognosis of HF subjects receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). We aim to investigate whether low-normal free triiodothyronine (fT3) level is related to CRT response and the prognosis of euthyroid patients with HF after CRT implantation.One hundred and thirteen euthyroid patients who received CRT therapy without previous thyroid disease and any treatment affecting thyroid hormones were enrolled...
November 17, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150445/the-antiapoptotic-protein-hax-1-mediates-half-of-phospholamban-s-inhibitory-activity-on-calcium-cycling-and-contractility-in-the-heart
#6
Philip A Bidwell, Kobra Haghighi, Evangelia G Kranias
The antiapoptotic protein HS-associated protein X-1 (HAX-1) localizes to sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in the heart and interacts with the small membrane protein phospholamban (PLN), inhibiting the cardiac sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA2a) in the regulation of overall calcium handling and heart muscle contractility. However, because global HAX-1 deletion causes early lethality, how much endogenous HAX-1 contributes to PLN's inhibitory activity on calcium cycling is unknown. We therefore generated a cardiac-specific and inducible knockout mouse model...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148059/theophilline-as-an-adjunct-to-control-malignant-ventricular-arrhythmia-associated-with-early-repolarization
#7
Tilman Perrin, Regis Guieu, Linda Koutbi, Frédéric Franceschi, Jérôme Hourdain, Michele Brignole, Jean-Claude Deharo
Early repolarization (ER) has been associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest. Interestingly, ventricular arrhythmias seem to be triggered by parasympathetic stimulation. In the present case report, we describe complete control of highly frequent malignant ventricular arrhythmias after adding theophylline to ineffective oral hydroquinidine and high-rate pacing in a patient suffering from malignant ER. We hypothesize that the theophylline-mediated enhanced beta-adrenergic stimulation could reduce the transmural myocardial voltage discrepancy by increasing the inward ICa,L current...
November 16, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147138/an-update-on-prucalopride-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-constipation
#8
REVIEW
Anam Omer, Eamonn M M Quigley
Chronic constipation (CC) is a highly prevalent and often under-appreciated gastrointestinal disorder associated with significant impairment in quality of life. Symptoms of constipation are typically present for a number of years prior to a patient seeking help. Lifestyle modifications followed by, or coupled with, over-the-counter laxatives represent the initial treatment option; however, relief for many is limited and dissatisfaction rates for these approaches remain high. Over recent years, therefore, considerable effort has been exerted on the development of novel pharmacological approaches...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146733/effects-of-chronically-increased-vegf-a-on-the-aging-heart
#9
Alexander G Marneros
Whether approaches to chronically increase VEGF-A in the heart may have beneficial effects and prevent the development of heart failure, in part by improving cardiac perfusion, or whether this increase could have detrimental effects on cardiac performance in the aging heart, has not been tested yet. In this study, a genetic mouse model with a chronic increase in VEGF-A in the heart is shown to have increased cardiac angiogenesis and develop cardiac hypertrophy with enhanced basal cardiac performance with age progression...
November 16, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138752/the-effect-of-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-on-the-progression-of-atherosclerosis-in-animal-models-a-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Manli Liu, Kejian Liu, Dongdong Chen, Hongzhi Chen, Kunming Sun, Xinxin Ju, Jiaojiao Lan, Yang Zhou, Weishan Wang, Lijuan Pang
Background: Atherosclerosis is a common inflammatory disease. Stem cell and endothelial progenitor cell treatments can improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a mobilisation agent, mobilising stem cells from the bone marrow to circulation in the blood. G-CSF may constitute a treatment of atherosclerosis. We have conducted meta-analysis to evaluate the current evidence for the effect of G-CSF on the progression of atherosclerosis in animal models and to provide reference for preclinical experiments and future human clinical trials of atherosclerosis treatment...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138472/functional-characterization-of-the-ucp1-associated-oxidative-phenotype-of-human-epicardial-adipose-tissue
#11
Kanta Chechi, Pierre Voisine, Patrick Mathieu, Mathieu Laplante, Sébastian Bonnet, Frédéric Picard, Philippe Joubert, Denis Richard
Brown fat presence and metabolic activity has been associated with lower body mass index, higher insulin sensitivity and better cardiometabolic profile in humans. We, and others, have previously reported the presence of Ucp1, a marker of brown adipocytes, in human epicardial adipose tissue (eAT). Characterization of the metabolic activity and associated physiological relevance of Ucp1 within eAT, however, is still awaited. Here, we validate the presence of Ucp1 within human eAT and its 'beige' nature. Using in-vitro analytical approaches, we further characterize its thermogenic potential and demonstrate that human eAT is capable of undergoing enhanced uncoupling respiration upon stimulation...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137319/effects-of-growth-hormone-on-cardiac-remodeling-and-soleus-muscle-in-rats-with-aortic-stenosis-induced-heart-failure
#12
Aline R R Lima, Luana U Pagan, Ricardo L Damatto, Marcelo D M Cezar, Camila Bonomo, Mariana J Gomes, Paula F Martinez, Daniele M Guizoni, Dijon H S Campos, Felipe C Damatto, Katashi Okoshi, Marina P Okoshi
Background: Skeletal muscle wasting is often observed in heart failure (HF). The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis is impaired in HF. In this study, we evaluated the effects of GH on soleus muscle and cardiac remodeling in rats with aortic stenosis (AS)-induced HF. Methods: AS was created by placing a stainless-steel clip on the ascending aorta. After clinically detecting HF, GH (2 mg/kg/day) was subcutaneously injected for 14 days (AS-GH group)...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137144/impact-of-labile-zinc-on-heart-function-from-physiology-to-pathophysiology
#13
REVIEW
Belma Turan, Erkan Tuncay
Zinc plays an important role in biological systems as bound and histochemically reactive labile Zn(2+). Although Zn(2+) concentration is in the nM range in cardiomyocytes at rest and increases dramatically under stimulation, very little is known about precise mechanisms controlling the intracellular distribution of Zn(2+) and its variations during cardiac function. Recent studies are focused on molecular and cellular aspects of labile Zn(2+) and its homeostasis in mammalian cells and growing evidence clarified the molecular mechanisms underlying Zn(2+)-diverse functions in the heart, leading to the discovery of novel physiological functions of labile Zn(2+) in parallel to the discovery of subcellular localization of Zn(2+)-transporters in cardiomyocytes...
November 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136335/sii-ang-ii-potentiates-insulin-receptor-signalling-and-glycogen-synthesis-in-hepatocytes
#14
Samra Joke Sanni, Christina Lyngsø, Steen Gammeltoft, Jakob Lerche Hansen
The angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) is involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Excessive activation of AT1R by angiotensin II (Ang II) leads to cardiovascular disease and may be involved in the development of insulin resistance and diabetes. Functionally selective Ang II analogues, such as the [Sar1, Ile4, Ile8]-angiotensin II (SII Ang II) analogue that only activates a subset of signalling networks have been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular function in certain settings, including lowering blood pressure and increasing cardiac performance...
November 14, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136112/local-production-of-tenascin-c-acts-as-a-trigger-for-monocyte-macrophage-recruitment-that-provokes-cardiac-dysfunction
#15
Dounia Abbadi, Fanny Laroumanie, Mathilde Bizou, Joffrey Pozzo, Danièle Daviaud, Christine Delage, Denis Calise, Fréderique Gaits-Iacovoni, Marianne Dutaur, Florence Tortosa, Edith Renaud-Gabardos, Victorine Douin-Echinard, Anne-Catherine Prats, Jerome Roncalli, Angelo Parini, Nathalie Pizzinat
Aims: Tenascin-C (TNC) is an endogenous danger signal molecule strongly associated with inflammatory diseases and with poor outcome in patients with cardiomyopathies. Its function within pathological cardiac tissue during pressure overload remains poorly understood. Methods and results: We showed that TNC accumulates after 1 week of transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in the heart of 12-week-old male mice. By cross bone marrow transplantation experiments, we determined that TNC deposition relied on cardiac cells and not on haematopoietic cells...
November 10, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135437/an-adaptation-of-astronomical-image-processing-enables-characterization-and-functional-3d-mapping-of-individual-sites-of-excitation-contraction-coupling-in-rat-cardiac-muscle
#16
Qinghai Tian, Lars Kaestner, Laura Schröder, Jia Guo, Peter Lipp
In beating cardiomyocytes, synchronized localized Ca(2+) transients from thousands of active excitation-contraction coupling sites (ECC couplons) comprising plasma and sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane calcium channels are important determinants of the heart's performance. Nevertheless, our knowledge about their properties is limited by the lack of appropriate experimental and analysis strategies. We designed CaCLEAN to untangle fundamental characteristics of ECC couplons by combining the astronomer's CLEAN algorithm with known properties of calcium diffusion...
November 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133340/effects-of-hawthorn-crataegus-pentagyna-leaf-extract-on-electrophysiologic-properties-of-cardiomyocytes-derived-from-human-cardiac-arrhythmia-specific-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#17
Sara Pahlavan, Marziyeh Shalchi Tousi, Mahdi Ayyari, Abolfazl Alirezalu, Hassan Ansari, Tomo Saric, Hossein Baharvand
Cardiac arrhythmias are major life-threatening conditions. The landmark discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells has provided a promising in vitro system for modeling hereditary cardiac arrhythmias as well as drug development and toxicity testing. Nowadays, nutraceuticals are frequently used as supplements for cardiovascular therapy. Here we studied the cardiac effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pentagyna) leaf extract using cardiomyocytes (CMs) differentiated from healthy human embryonic stem cells, long QT syndrome type 2 (LQTS2), and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia type 1 (CPVT1) patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells...
November 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132212/oil-exposure-impairs-in-situ-cardiac-function-in-response-to-%C3%AE-adrenergic-stimulation-in-cobia-rachycentron-canadum
#18
Georgina Kimberly Cox, Dane A Crossley, John D Stieglitz, Rachael M Heuer, Daniel D Benetti, Martin Grosell
Aqueous crude oil spills expose fish to varying concentrations of dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which can have lethal and sub-lethal effects. The heart is particularly vulnerable in early life stages, as PAH toxicity causes developmental cardiac abnormalities and impaired cardiovascular function. However, cardiac responses of juvenile and adult fish to acute oil exposure remain poorly understood. We sought to assess cardiac function in a pelagic fish species, the cobia (Rachycentron canadum), following acute (24 hr) exposure to two ecologically relevant levels of dissolved PAH's...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129349/electrical-and-mechanical-alternans-during-ventricular-tachycardia-with-moderate-chronic-heart-failure
#19
Ikeotunye Royal Chinyere, Talal Moukabary, Steven Goldman, Elizabeth Juneman
A chronic heart failure (CHF) rat underwent epicardial programmed electrical stimulation (PES). Ventricular tachycardia (VT) developed during PES. Mechanical alternans was noted despite fixed tachycardia cycle length. Anti-tachycardia pacing attempts initiated a second VT that generated pulse intermittently and then degenerated into pulseless VT with electrical alternans.To our knowledge electrical and mechanical alternans have not been recorded in animal models of CHF during VT. The distinct events of mechanical alternans and electrical alternans may be indicative of progressively worsened calcium handling in the compromised cardiomyocytes...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128355/upregulation-of-eif6-inhibits-cardiac-hypertrophy-induced-by-phenylephrine
#20
Romano Nicla, Sara Ricciardi, Gallo Paolo, Ceci Marcello
Cardiac hypertrophy is determined by an increase of cell size in cardiomyocytes (CMCs). Among the cellular processes regulating the growth of cell size, the increase of protein synthesis rate represents a critical event. Most of translational factors promoting protein synthesis stimulate cardiac hypertrophy. In contrast, activity of translational repressor factors, in cardiac hypertrophy, is not fully determined yet. Here we report the effect of a translational modulator, eIF6/p27(BBP) in the hypertrophy of neonatal rat CMCs...
November 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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