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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739568/posterior-meningeal-artery-dmso-injection-resulting-in-reproducible-asystole-prior-to-onyx-therapy-of-a-dural-arteriovenous-fistula-a-previously-undescribed-variant-of-the-trigeminocardiac-reflex-or-a-new-phenomenon
#1
Matthew Thomas Crockett, Anthony Ernest Robinson, Harmeet Aneja, Timothy John Phillips
We describe a case of reproducible asystole during endovascular treatment of a posterior fossa dural arteriovenous fistula. Catheterisation of the posterior meningeal artery, a branch of the vertebral artery in this patient, followed by dimethyl sulfoxide injection prior to Onyx administration resulted in two episodes of asystole.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of asystole occurring during endovascular intervention in the posterior meningeal artery. This may represent a previously undescribed variant of the trigemino-cardiac reflex (TGCR) caused by chemical stimulation of small areas of trigeminally innervated posterior fossa dura...
July 24, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739185/novel-atherogenic-pathways-from-the-differential-transcriptome-analysis-of-diabetic-epicardial-adipose-tissue
#2
V Camarena, D Sant, M Mohseni, T Salerno, M L Zaleski, G Wang, G Iacobellis
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To evaluate the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) transcriptome in comparison to subcutaneous fat (SAT) in coronary artery disease (CAD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS AND RESULTS: SAT and EAT samples were obtained from subjects with T2DM and CAD (n = 5) and those without CAD with or without T2DM (=3) undergoing elective cardiac surgery. RNA-sequencing analysis was performed in both EAT and SAT. Gene enrichment analysis was conducted to identify pathways affected by the differentially expressed genes...
June 10, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739174/inhibition-of-mitochondrial-fission-prevents-hypoxia-induced-metabolic-shift-and-cellular-proliferation-of-pulmonary-arterial-smooth-muscle-cells
#3
Valentina Parra, Roberto Bravo-Sagua, Ignacio Norambuena-Soto, Carolina P Hernández-Fuentes, Andrés G Gómez-Contreras, Hugo E Verdejo, Rosemarie Mellado, Mario Chiong, Sergio Lavandero, Pablo F Castro
Inhibition of mitochondrial fission prevents hypoxia-induced metabolic shift and cellular proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Valentina Parra, Roberto Bravo-Sagua, Ignacio Norambuena-Soto, Carolina P. Hernández-Fuentes, Andrés G. Gómez-Contreras, Hugo E. Verdejo, Rosemarie Mellado, Mario Chiong, Sergio Lavandero, Pablo F. Castro. Chronic hypoxia exacerbates proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC), thereby reducing the lumen of pulmonary arteries. This leads to poor blood oxygenation and cardiac work overload, which are the basis of diseases such as pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH)...
July 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736944/short-term-acipimox-treatment-is-associated-with-decreased-cardiac-parasympathetic-modulation
#4
Esben Thyssen Vestergaard, Simon Lebech Cichosz, Niels Møller, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen, Jesper Fleischer
AIM: The nicotinic acid analogue acipimox is an anti-lipolytic agent, which acutely inhibits lipolysis, and suppresses systemic levels of free fatty acids (FFA) and improves insulin sensitivity in obese patients. These effects of acipimox are transient due to a counter-regulatory increase in growth hormone (GH) levels that reverse the anti-lipolytic effect of acipimox. Hypopituitary patients constitute a viable model to study the GH-independent effects of acipimox and the impact of isolated changes in FFA concentrations and insulin sensitivity on parasympathetic nervous activity...
July 23, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736750/a-novel-defibrillation-tool-percutaneously-delivered-partially-insulated-epicardial-defibrillation
#5
Ammar M Killu, Niyada Naksuk, Zdeněk Stárek, Christopher V DeSimone, Faisal F Syed, Prakriti Gaba, Jiří Wolf, Frantisek Lehar, Martin Pesl, Pavel Leinveber, Michal Crha, Dorothy Ladewig, Joanne Powers, Scott Suddendorf, David O Hodge, Gaurav Satam, Miroslav Novák, Tomas Kara, Charles J Bruce, Paul A Friedman, Samuel J Asirvatham
INTRODUCTION: Epicardial defibrillation systems currently require surgical access. We aimed to develop a percutaneous defibrillation system with partially-insulated epicardial coils to focus electrical energy on the myocardium and prevent or minimize extra-cardiac stimulation. METHODS: We tested 2 prototypes created for percutaneous introduction into the pericardial space via a steerable sheath. This included a partially-insulated defibrillation coil and a defibrillation mesh with a urethane balloon acting as an insulator to the face of the mesh not in contact with the epicardium...
July 2017: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736181/succinate-accumulation-impairs-cardiac-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-activity-through-grp91-dependent-and-independent-signaling-pathways-therapeutic-effects-of-ginsenoside-rb1
#6
Jia Li, Yi-Lin Yang, Lan-Zhu Li, Lei Zhang, Qun Liu, Kang Liu, Ping Li, Baolin Liu, Lian-Wen Qi
Altered mitochondrial oxidation increases vulnerability to cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in metabolic disorders. However, the metabolic signaling responsible for the dysfunction remains partly unknown. We sought to test whether or not hypoxic succinate accumulation could inhibit pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity and subsequently aggravate I/R injury. Results showed that saturated fatty acid palmitate stimulation increased fatty acid oxidation and induced hypoxia in cardiomyocytes, leading to succinate accumulation...
July 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734017/evaluation-of-the-impact-of-strain-correction-on-the-orientation-of-cardiac-diffusion-tensors-with-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-porcine-hearts
#7
Pedro F Ferreira, Sonia Nielles-Vallespin, Andrew D Scott, Ranil de Silva, Philip J Kilner, Daniel B Ennis, Daniel A Auger, Jonathan D Suever, Xiaodong Zhong, Bruce S Spottiswoode, Dudley J Pennell, Andrew E Arai, David N Firmin
PURPOSE: To evaluate the importance of strain-correcting stimulated echo acquisition mode echo-planar imaging cardiac diffusion tensor imaging. METHODS: Healthy pigs (n = 11) were successfully scanned with a 3D cine displacement-encoded imaging with stimulated echoes and a monopolar-stimulated echo-planar imaging diffusion tensor imaging sequence at 3 T during diastasis, peak systole, and strain sweet spots in a midventricular short-axis slice. The same diffusion tensor imaging sequence was repeated ex vivo after arresting the hearts in either a relaxed (KCl-induced) or contracted (BaCl2 -induced) state...
July 21, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733677/inductively-powered-wireless-pacing-via-a-miniature-pacemaker-and-remote-stimulation-control-system
#8
Parinaz Abiri, Ahmad Abiri, René R Sevag Packard, Yichen Ding, Alireza Yousefi, Jianguo Ma, Malcolm Bersohn, Kim-Lien Nguyen, Dejan Markovic, Shervin Moloudi, Tzung K Hsiai
Pacemakers have existed for decades as a means to restore cardiac electrical rhythms. However, lead-related complications have remained a clinical challenge. While market-released leadless devices have addressed some of the issues, their pacer-integrated batteries cause new health risks and functional limitations. Inductive power transfer enables wireless powering of bioelectronic devices; however, Specific Absorption Rate and size limitations reduce power efficiency for biomedical applications. We designed a remote-controlled system in which power requirements were significantly reduced via intermittent power transfer to control stimulation intervals...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733035/mir-18a-5p-inhibits-endothelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-cardiac-fibrosis-through-the-notch2-pathway
#9
Huazhi Geng, Jun Guan
Hyperglycemia plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications; however, the mechanisms underlying diabetic cardiac fibrosis remain unclear. Endothelial cells are known to contribute to cardiac fibrosis through endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) under high glucose stimulation. Here we investigated the expression of miR-18a-5p and examined its functional role in human aortic valvular endothelial cells (HAVECs). Using HAVECs, we revealed that miR-18a-5p regulated high glucose-induced EndMT...
July 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732009/effects-of-local-cardiac-denervation-on-cardiac-innervation-and-ventricular-arrhythmia-after-chronic-myocardial-infarction
#10
Xudong Liu, Lin Sun, Jugang Chen, Yingying Jin, Qing Liu, Zhongnan Xia, Liang Wang, Jingjie Li
BACKGROUND: Modulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has already been demonstrated to display antiarrhythmic effects in patients and animals with MI. In this study, we investigated whether local cardiac denervation has any beneficial effects on ventricular electrical stability and cardiac function in the chronic phase of MI. METHODS: Twenty-one anesthetized dogs were randomly assigned into the sham-operated, MI and MI-ablation groups, respectively. Four weeks after local cardiac denervation, LSG stimulation was used to induce VPCs and VAs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731589/effects-of-nitric-oxide-on-large-conductance-ca-2-activated-k-currents-in-human-cardiac-fibroblasts-through-pka-and-pkg-related-pathways
#11
Hyemi Bae, Inja Lim
The human cardiac fibroblast (HCF) is the most abundant cell type in the myocardium, and HCFs play critical roles in maintaining normal cardiac function. However, unlike cardiomyocytes, the electrophysiology of HCFs is not well established. In the cardiovascular system, Ca(2+) -activated K(+) (KCa) channels have distinct physiological and pathological functions, and nitric oxide (NO) play key roles. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of NO on KCa channels in HCFs. We recorded strong oscillating, well-maintained outward K(+) currents without marked inactivation throughout the test pulse period and detected outward rectification in the I-V curve; these are all characteristics that are typical of KCa currents...
July 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731126/mir%C3%A2-132-in-atrial-fibrillation-directly-targets-connective-tissue-growth-factor
#12
Gang Qiao, Dongsheng Xia, Zhaoyun Cheng, Guobao Zhang
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequently occurring, persistent cardiac arrhythmia, and the hallmark of AF‑dependent structural remodeling is atrial fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is important in the process of fibrosis. The association between miRNA and CTGF in AF‑dependent fibrosis remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to determine if microRNA (miR)‑132 was able to regulate CTGF with an anti‑fibrotic effect in AF. A total of ten dogs or patients were assigned to control (n=4) and AF groups (n=6)...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729840/cardiac-subtype-specific-modeling-of-kv1-5-ion-channel-deficiency-using-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#13
Maike Marczenke, Ilaria Piccini, Isabella Mengarelli, Jakob Fell, Albrecht Röpke, Guiscard Seebohm, Arie O Verkerk, Boris Greber
The ultrarapid delayed rectifier K(+) current (IKur), mediated by Kv1.5 channels, constitutes a key component of the atrial action potential. Functional mutations in the underlying KCNA5 gene have been shown to cause hereditary forms of atrial fibrillation (AF). Here, we combine targeted genetic engineering with cardiac subtype-specific differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to explore the role of Kv1.5 in atrial hiPSC-cardiomyocytes. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis of integration-free hiPSCs was employed to generate a functional KCNA5 knockout...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729041/pharmacological-preclinical-characterization-of-las190792-a-novel-inhaled-bifunctional-muscarinic-receptor-antagonist-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-agonist-maba-molecule
#14
Mònica Aparici, Carla Carcasona, Israel Ramos, José Luís Montero, José Luís Ortiz, Julio Cortijo, Carlos Puig, Dolors Vilella, Chris Doe, Amadeu Gavaldà, Montserrat Miralpeix
LAS190792 is a novel muscarinic antagonist and β2-adrenoceptor agonist in development for chronic respiratory diseases. This study investigated the pharmacological profile of LAS190792 in comparison to batefenterol, tiotropium, indacaterol and olodaterol. LAS190792 is potent at the human M3 receptor (pIC50: 8.8 in binding assays). It is selective for the β2-adrenoceptor over the β1-and β3-adrenoceptor, and shows a functional potency in a similar range to batefenterol and LABA compounds (pEC50 in spontaneous tone isolated trachea: 9...
July 17, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728742/a-clinical-score-model-to-predict-lethal-events-in-young-patients-%C3%A2-19-years-with-the-brugada-syndrome
#15
M Cecilia Gonzalez Corcia, Juan Sieira, Gudrun Pappaert, Carlo de Asmundis, Gian Battista Chierchia, Andrea Sarkozy, Pedro Brugada
Risk stratification in Brugada syndrome in young patients remains challenging. We investigated the clinical characteristics, prognosis, and risk in young patients with the Brugada syndrome. We studied 95 patients with the Brugada syndrome aged ≤19 years. The median age at diagnosis was 12.9 years. The clinical presentation was sudden cardiac death in 7% and syncope in 21%. The remaining 72% were asymptomatic at diagnosis. Electrical abnormalities were present in 36%, including spontaneous type I electrocardiogram (12%), sinus node dysfunction (9%), atrioventricular block (17%), intraventricular conduction delay (16%), and atrial arrhythmias (8%)...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725324/cardiorenal-syndrome-role-of-arginine-vasopressin-and-vaptans-in-heart-failure
#16
REVIEW
Poornima Vinod, Vinod Krishnappa, Abigail M Chauvin, Anshika Khare, Rupesh Raina
Heart and kidney failure continued to be of increasing prevalence in today's society, and their comorbidity has synergistic effect on the morbidity and mortality of patients. Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is a complex disease with multifactorial pathophysiology. Better understanding of this pathophysiological network is crucial for the successful intervention to prevent advancement of the disease process. One of the major factors in this process is neurohormonal activation, predominantly involving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and arginine vasopressin (AVP)...
June 2017: Cardiology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718687/do-sodium-channel-proteolytic-fragments-regulate-sodium-channel-expression
#17
Donatus O Onwuli, Laia Yañez-Bisbe, Mellina Pinsach-Abuin, Anna Tarradas, Ramon Brugada, John Greenman, Sara Pagans, Pedro Beltran-Alvarez
The cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel (gene: SCN5A, protein: NaV1.5) is responsible for the sodium current that initiates the cardiomyocyte action potential. Research into the mechanisms of SCN5A gene expression has gained momentum over the last few years. We have recently described the transcriptional regulation of SCN5A by GATA4 transcription factor. In this addendum to our study, we report our observations that 1) the linker between domains I and II (LDI-DII) of NaV1.5 contains a nuclear localisation signal (residues 474-481) that is necessary to localise LDI-DII into the nucleus, and 2) nuclear LDI-DII activates the SCN5A promoter in gene reporter assays using cardiac-like H9c2 cells...
July 18, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718622/graphene-sheet-induced-global-maturation-of-cardiomyocytes-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#18
Jiaxian Wang, Chang Cui, Haiyan Nan, Yuanfang Yu, Yini Xiao, Ellen Poon, Gang Yang, Xijie Wang, Chenchen Wang, Lingsong Li, Kenneth Richard Boheler, Xu Ma, Xin Cheng, Zhenhua Ni, Minglong Chen
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can proliferate infinitely. Their ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes provides abundant sources for disease modeling, drug screening and regenerative medicine. However, hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) display a low degree of maturation and fetal-like properties. Current in vitro differentiation methods do not mimic the structural, mechanical, and physiological properties of the cardiogenesis niche. Recently, we present an efficient cardiac maturation platform that combines hiPSCs monolayer cardiac differentiation with graphene substrate which is a biocompatible and superconductive material...
July 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716707/non-oxidizable-hmgb1-induces-cardiac-fibroblasts-migration-via-cxcr4-in-a-cxcl12-independent-manner-and-worsens-tissue-remodeling-after-myocardial-infarction
#19
Stefania Di Maggio, Giuseppina Milano, Francesco De Marchis, Alessandro D'Ambrosio, Matteo Bertolotti, Blanca Soler Palacios, Ileana Badi, Elena Sommariva, Giulio Pompilio, Maurizio C Capogrossi, Angela Raucci
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a major health burden worldwide. Extracellular High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) regulates tissue healing after injuries. The reduced form of HMGB1 (fr-HMGB1) exerts chemotactic activity by binding CXCL12 through CXCR4, while the disulfide form, (ds-HMGB1), induces cytokines expression by TLR4. Here, we assessed the role of HMGB1 redox forms and the non-oxidizable mutant (3S) on human cardiac fibroblast (hcFbs) functions and cardiac remodeling after infarction. Among HMGB1 receptors, hcFbs express CXCR4...
July 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713900/nlrc5-silencing-ameliorates-cardiac-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-the-tgf%C3%A2-%C3%AE-1-smad3-signaling-pathway
#20
Hongtao Zhou, Xuefang Yu, Guiming Zhou
The proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix are the predominant pathological characteristics of cardiac fibrosis. As the largest member of the nucleotide‑binding domain and leucine‑rich repeat (NLR) family, NLRC5 has been shown to be pivotal in the development of hepatic fibrosis. However, whether NLRC5 is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the role of NLRC5 and its mechanisms in regulating cardiac fibrosis...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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