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Prostrate cancer

Masashi Tomida, Takeshi Kamomae, Junji Suzuki, Yoichi Ohashi, Yoshiyuki Itoh, Hiroshi Oguchi, Takahito Okuda
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using recently introduced multileaf collimators (MLC) is preferred over circular collimators in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical usefulness of MLCs in prostate SBRT by comparing the effectiveness of treatment plans using fixed collimators, variable collimators, and MLCs and by ensuring delivery quality assurance (DQA) for each. For each patient who underwent conventional radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer, mock SBRT plans were created using a fixed collimator, a variable collimator, and an MLC...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Yongbo Hu, Zhen Ma, Yiming He, Wei Liu, Yu Su, Zongbin Tang
LncRNAs were altered in several cancers and played a crucial role in various biological activities and progressions of different diseases, including proliferation, chemical resistance, and metastasis. In the present study, we revealed that prostrate androgen-regulated transcript-1 (PART-1) was highly expressed in colorectal cancer cells and tissues, and knockdown of PART-1 suppressed cell proliferation and metastasis, both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, PART-1 functioned as a ceRNA of DNMT3A, by sponging miR-143...
August 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Shiv Kumar, Arun Kumar Yadav, Priyanka Chambel, Ramandeep Kaur
This study reports the isolation of myxobacteria from soil collected from plains in north India. Based on the morphology and 16S rDNA sequence, the isolated myxobacteria were identified as Corallococcus sp., Pyxidicoccus sp., Myxococcus sp., Cystobacter sp. and Archangium sp. The myxobacteria were functionally characterized to assess their ability to produce antibacterial and anticancer metabolites. The isolates were found to be functionally versatile as they produced extracellular bioactive molecules that exhibited high frequency of activities against Bacillus cereus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Enterobacter cloacae and Pseudomonas syringae...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
Vinodkumar B Pillai, Abhinav Kanwal, Yong Hu Fang, Willard W Sharp, Sadhana Samant, Jack Arbiser, Mahesh P Gupta
Doxorubicin is the chemotherapeutic drug of choice for a wide variety of cancers, and cardiotoxicity is one of the major side effects of doxorubicin treatment. One of the main cellular targets of doxorubicin in the heart is mitochondria. Mitochondrial sirtuin, SIRT3 has been shown to protect against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. We have recently identified honokiol (HKL) as an activator of SIRT3, which protects the heart from developing pressure overload hypertrophy. Here, we show that HKL-mediated activation of SIRT3 also protects the heart from doxorubicin-induced cardiac damage without compromising the tumor killing potential of doxorubicin...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
Asmahan A El Ezzi, Monika T Baker, Wissam R Zaidan, Kalim M Hraiki, Mohammad A El Saidi, Ruhul H Kuddus
Aims: The goal of this study was to investigate possible associations of some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VDR gene (the FokI, BsmI, ApaI and TaqαI loci), and the CYP17 gene (the MspA1I locus), and variable numbers of TA repeats in the SRD5A2 gene, with prostate cancer (PCa), among Lebanese men. Materials and Methods: Blood DNA samples of 50 subjects with confirmed PCa and 79 age-qualified controls were subjected to PCR or PCR-RFLP analyses, and the risk-bearing and protective alleles were identified...
January 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Kasper Drimer Berg, Frederik Birkebæk Thomsen, Marta K Mikkelsen, Inga J Ingimarsdóttir, Rikke B Hansen, Anne Mette T Kejs, Klaus Brasso
INTRODUCTION: During recent years, several new life-prolonging therapeutic options have been introduced for patients with metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes in the survival of patients diagnosed with mPCa prior to and in the early period of the implementation of these new agents. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 207 men diagnosed in 1997 and 316 men diagnosed in the period 2007-2013 with de novo mPCa and managed with initial endocrine therapy...
February 2017: European Journal of Cancer
Amir Shahram Yousefi Kashi, Samira Khaledi, Mohammad Houshyari
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is the gold standard for treatment of prostrate cancer as it can cover an adequate area of tissues at risk for metastasis. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the Pelvic lymph node coverage of conventional radiotherapy fields based on bone and vessels landmarks using computed tomography (CT) simulation in patients with prostate cancer referred to Shohada-e-Tajrish hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this cross sectional study, 40 patients with prostate cancer at the Stage T1c to T3b were studied...
June 2016: Iranian Journal of Cancer Prevention
Abdul Malik Tun Firzara, Chirk Jenn Ng
OBJECTIVE: Screening for prostate cancer remains controversial. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in assisting men to make an informed decision on prostate cancer screening. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and practice of prostate cancer screening among private GPs in Malaysia. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Private general practices in Selangor, Malaysia. PARTICIPANTS: 311 randomly selected full-time private GPs were recruited between September 2013 and January 2014...
2016: BMJ Open
Debabrata Chowdhury, Dinesh Kumar, Pranjal Sarma, Anjana Devi Tangutur, Manika Pal Bhadra
Prohibitin (PHB) is overtly conserved evolutionarily and ubiquitously expressed protein with pleiotropic functions in diverse cellular compartments. However, regulation and function of these proteins in different cells, tissues and in various diseases is different as evidenced by expression of these proteins which is found to be reduced in heart diseases, kidney diseases, lung disease, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis but this protein is highly expressed in diverse cancer diseases. The mechanism by which this protein acts at the molecular level in different subcellular localizations or in different cells or tissues in different conditions (diseases or normal) has remained poorly understood...
August 24, 2016: Current Drug Targets
Sonia Mahey, Rakesh Kumar, Rohit Arora, Jyoti Mahajan, Saroj Arora, Renu Bhardwaj, Ashwani Kumar Thukral
The present study investigates the anti-proliferative and apoptosis inducing mechanism of CoCl2·6H2O in PC-3 cancer cell line. Preliminary, three different forms of cobalt i.e., cobaltous (CoCl2·6H2O), macro-Co(II,III) oxide and nano-Co(II,III) oxide were screened for antiproliferative activity in PC-3 cell line. The CoCl2·6H2O being the most effective antiproliferative agent, hence it was further tested against lung (A549), prostrate (PC-3) and brain (IMR-32) cell lines. Human embryonic kidney cell line (293T) was used as a normal cell line to compare the toxicity of CoCl2·6H2O...
2016: SpringerPlus
Oliver J Hickman, Richard A Smith, Prokar Dasgupta, Sudha Narayana Rao, Soumya Nayak, Shubha Sreenivasan, Annapurna Vyakarnam, Christine Galustian
BACKGROUND: WFDC1/Prostate stromal 20 (ps20) is a small secreted protein highly expressed within the prostate stroma. WFDC1/ps20 expression is frequently downregulated or lost in prostate cancer (PCa) and ps20 has demonstrated growth-suppressive functions in numerous tumour model systems, although the mechanisms of this phenomenon are not understood. METHODS: Ps20 was cloned and overexpressed in DU145, PC3, LNCaP and WPMY-1 cells. Cellular growth, cell cycle and apoptosis were characterised...
May 24, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Nelson Kibinge, Naoaki Ono, Masafumi Horie, Tetsuo Sato, Tadao Sugiura, Md Altaf-Ul-Amin, Akira Saito, Shigehiko Kanaya
Conventionally, workflows examining transcription regulation networks from gene expression data involve distinct analytical steps. There is a need for pipelines that unify data mining and inference deduction into a singular framework to enhance interpretation and hypotheses generation. We propose a workflow that merges network construction with gene expression data mining focusing on regulation processes in the context of transcription factor driven gene regulation. The pipeline implements pathway-based modularization of expression profiles into functional units to improve biological interpretation...
June 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Christian P Meyer, Klaus Pantel, Pierre Tennstedt, Petra Stroelin, Thorsten Schlomm, Hans Heinzer, Sabine Riethdorf, Thomas Steuber
INTRODUCTION: The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is an established marker for prognosis in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer. A cutoff of ≥5 CTCs/7.5ml blood in the CellSearch Epithelial Cell Test has been shown to stratify prognostic groups and predict outcome of abiraterone treatment. In contrast, the value of CTC detection in men with localized prostrate cancer before radical prostatectomy (RP) is unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 152 patients treated with RP between 06/2009 and 09/2009 were included...
May 2016: Urologic Oncology
Yanfeng Yang, Xuepei Zhang, Dongkui Song, Jinxing Wei
Piwi-like RNA-mediated gene silencing 2 (Piwil2) is an oncogene that is highly expressed in breast, gastric, colorectal and papillary thyroid cancer. As a candidate oncogene, its role in prostrate cancer has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, 30 tumor specimens and four prostate cancer cell lines were analyzed. The total RNA and protein from the specimens and the cells were analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. The expression of Piwil2 in PC-3 cells was knocked down using specific small hairpin RNA...
September 2015: Oncology Letters
Leszek Miszczyk, Aleksandra Napieralska, Agnieszka Namysł-Kaletka, Grzegorz Głowacki, Kinga Grabińska, Grzegorz Woźniak, Małgorzata Stąpór-Fudzińska
INTRODUCTION: Prostrate cancer (PC) is one of the most common malignancies and is frequently treated with an 8-week course of radiotherapy. CyberKnife (CK) based radioablation enables completion of therapy within 5-9 days. The aim of this study is an evaluation of the effectiveness and tolerance of CyberKnife-based radioablation in prostate cancer patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 200 PC patients (94 low risk [LR], 106 intermediate risk [IR]) underwent CK irradiation every other day (fraction dose [fd] 7...
2015: Central European Journal of Urology
Waleed Arafat, Tong Zhou, George E Naoum, Donald J Buchsbaum
TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) induces a death signal following binding to death receptors (DR4, DR5). We have developed a novel anti-human DR-5 monoclonal antibody (TRA-8) and adenoviral encoding TRAIL (Ad/TRAIL). Herein, we are testing the combined effect of radiotherapy and TRA-8 or Ad TRAIL in prostate cancer cells. Human prostate cancer cell lines LnCap, PC-3 and DU145 were used in this study. Cells were treated either with TRA-8 alone or Ad/TRAIL, radiation alone, or a combination of each at different doses and intervals...
December 2015: Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
Nikitha K Pallegar, D Craig Ayre, Sherri L Christian
CD24 is a dynamically regulated cell surface protein. High expression of CD24 leads to progression of lung, prostrate, colon, and pancreatic cancers, among others. In contrast, low expression of CD24 leads to cell proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). Activating mutations in Ras are found in 30% of all human cancers. Oncogenic Ras constitutively stimulates the Raf, PI3K, and Ral GDS signaling pathways, leading to cellular transformation. Previous studies have shown that expression of oncogenic Ras in breast cancer cells generates CD24(-) cells from CD24(+) cells...
2015: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Jae-Seung Lee, Ji-Hye Ahn, Yoon-Jin Cho, Ha-Yeong Kim, Yeong-In Yang, Kyung-Tae Lee, Dae-Sik Jang, Jung-Hye Choi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Eclipta prostrate L. (syn. E. alba Hassk), commonly known as False Daisy, has been used in traditional medicine in Asia to treat a variety of diseases, including cancer. Although an anti-tumor effect has been suggested for E. prostrata, the exact anti-tumor effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of its bioactive compounds are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify compounds with anti-cancer activity from E. prostrata and to investigate their mechanism of action...
July 1, 2015: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Cunzao Wu, Weiping Huang, Yong Guo, Peng Xia, Xianbin Sun, Xiaodong Pan, Weilie Hu
Oxymatrine is an alkaloid, which is derived from the traditional Chinese herb, Sophora flavescens Aiton. Oxymatrine has been shown to exhibit anti‑inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer properties. The present study aimed to investigate the anticancer effects of oxymatrine in human prostate cancer cells, and the underlying molecular mechanisms of these effects. An MTT assay demonstrated that oxymatrine significantly inhibited the proliferation of prostate cancer cells in a time‑ and dose‑dependent manner...
June 2015: Molecular Medicine Reports
Fang Fang, Liuhang Wang, Shufang Zhang, Qing Fang, Feng Hao, Yanmei Sun, Liangzhong Zhao, Shuang Chen, Huijuan Liao, Liguo Wang
The multifunctional glycoprotein cluster of differentiation (CD)147 is highly expressed on the cell surface of the majority of cancer cells, and promotes tumor invasion, metastasis and growth. However, the role of CD147 in autophagy has not yet been explored in prostrate cancer cells. In the present study, prostate cancer PC-3 cells were cultured under starvation conditions, and the expression level of CD147 gradually increased. Therefore, RNA interference was used to inhibit CD147 expression, in order to investigate the biological role of this glycoprotein in autophagy progression...
March 2015: Oncology Letters
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