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Sivani Jonnalagadda, Oswaldo Rodríguez, Bertha Estrella, Lora L Sabin, Fernando Sempértegui, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: In Latin America, community-acquired pneumonia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children. Few studies have examined the etiology of pneumonia in Ecuador. METHODS: This observational study was part of a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted among children aged 2-59 months with severe pneumonia in Quito, Ecuador. Nasopharyngeal and blood samples were tested for bacterial and viral etiology by polymerase chain reaction...
2017: PloS One
Aistė Bulavaitė, Rita Lasickienė, Paulius Lukas Tamošiūnas, Martynas Simanavičius, Kęstutis Sasnauskas, Aurelija Žvirblienė
The aim of this study was to produce human parainfluenza virus type 4 (HPIV4) nucleocapsid (N) protein in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression system, to explore its structural and antigenic properties and to evaluate its applicability in serology. The use of an optimized gene encoding HPIV4 N protein amino acid (aa) sequence GenBank AGU90031.1 allowed high yield of recombinant N protein forming nucleocapsid-like particles (NLPs) in yeast. A substitution L332D disrupted self-assembly of NLPs, confirming the role of this position in the N proteins of Paramyxovirinae...
January 19, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
H Zhao, R J Harris, J Ellis, M Donati, R G Pebody
Human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infections are one of the commonest causes of upper and lower respiratory tract infections. In order to determine if there have been any recent changes in HPIV epidemiology in England and Wales, laboratory surveillance data between 1998 and 2013 were analysed. The UK national laboratory surveillance database, LabBase, and the newly established laboratory-based virological surveillance system, the Respiratory DataMart System (RDMS), were used. Descriptive analysis was performed to examine the distribution of cases by year, age, sex and serotype, and to examine the overall temporal trend using the χ 2 test...
January 18, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
Lauren P McLaughlin, Haili Lang, Elizabeth Williams, Kaylor E Wright, Allison Powell, Conrad R Cruz, Anamaris M Colberg-Poley, Cecilia Barese, Patrick J Hanley, Catherine M Bollard, Michael D Keller
BACKGROUND AIMS: Human parainfluenza virus-3 (HPIV) is a common cause of respiratory infection in immunocompromised patients and currently has no effective therapies. Virus-specific T-cell therapy has been successful for the treatment or prevention of viral infections in immunocompromised patients but requires determination of T-cell antigens on targeted viruses. METHODS: HPIV3-specific T cells were expanded from peripheral blood of healthy donors using a rapid generation protocol targeting four HPIV3 proteins...
December 2016: Cytotherapy
Sumana Fathima, Kimberley Simmonds, Jesse Invik, Allison N Scott, Steven Drews
BACKGROUND: Human Parainfluenza Virus (hPIV) causes severe respiratory illness in infants and adults. Our study describes the association of hPIV1-4 with bronchiolitis, croup, and pneumonia using retrospective laboratory, administrative and public health data. Due to issues including the historic lack of hPIV4 in some commercial respiratory virus panels, the description of the impact of hPIV4 on croup, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia at population levels has often been limited. This study will use routine clinical laboratory data, and administrative data to provide a preliminary description of the impact of hPIV4 on these diseases in our population...
August 11, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Keisuke Ohta, Hideo Goto, Yusuke Matsumoto, Natsuko Yumine, Masato Tsurudome, Machiko Nishio
UNLABELLED: Rho GTPases are involved in a variety of cellular activities and are regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). We found that the activation of Rho GTPases by lysophosphatidic acid promotes the growth of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2). Furthermore, hPIV-2 infection causes activation of RhoA, a Rho GTPase. We hypothesized that Graf1 (also known as ARHGAP26), a GAP, regulates hPIV-2 growth by controlling RhoA signaling...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Bharti Malhotra, M Anjaneya Swamy, P V Janardhan Reddy, Neeraj Kumar, Jitendra Kumar Tiwari
BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory infections in children can be fatal, rapid identification of the causative agent and timely treatment can be life saving. Multiplex real time RT-PCR helps in simultaneous detection of multiple viruses saving cost, time and labour. Commercially available multiplex real time RT-PCR kits are very expensive. Therefore the aim of the present study was to develop a cost effective multiplex real time RT-PCR for the detection of 18 respiratory viruses and compare it with an in-vitro diagnostics approved Fast Track Diagnostic Respiratory Pathogens 21 Kit (FTD)...
June 6, 2016: Virology Journal
Ni-Guang Xiao, Zhao-Jun Duan, Zhi-Ping Xie, Li-Li Zhong, Sai-Zhen Zeng, Han-Huang, Han-Chun Gao, Bing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are an important cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs). HPIV-4, a newly identified virus, has been associated with severe ALRTIs recently. METHODS: A total of 771 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples were collected from hospitalized children between March 2010 and February 2011. HPIVs were detected by Nest -PCR, and other known respiratory viruses were detected by RT-PCR and PCR. All amplification products were sequenced...
May 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
M Anjaneya Swamy, Bharti Malhotra, P V Janardhan Reddy, Neeraj Kumar, Jitendra Kumar Tiwari, M L Gupta
OBJECTIVE: To study the distribution of Human Parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) 1-4 and their trends in children ≤5 y of age, hospitalised at a tertiary care centre, Jaipur and co-infection with other respiratory viruses. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal aspirate and throat swabs were collected and processed for extraction of nucleic acid using automated extraction system and real time RT-PCR was performed using primers and probes specific to HPIV 1-4 and other respiratory viruses on 743 samples...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Sebastien Kenmoe, Patrice Tchendjou, Marie-Astrid Vernet, Suzie Moyo-Tetang, Tatiana Mossus, Mohamadou Njankouo-Ripa, Angeladine Kenne, Véronique Penlap Beng, Astrid Vabret, Richard Njouom
BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) is recognized as an important cause of morbidity, mortality, and hospitalization among children in developing countries. Little is known, however, in tropical countries like Cameroon about the cause and seasonality of respiratory infections, especially in hospitalized settings. OBJECTIVES: Our study investigates the viral etiology and seasonality of SARI in hospitalized children in Yaounde, Cameroon. METHODS: Prospective clinic surveillance was conducted to identify hospitalized children aged ≤15 years presenting with respiratory symptoms ≤5-day duration...
September 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Xin Qian, Xinfeng Yu, Min Zhao, Yu Kou, Jun Li, Yinyan Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To determine the level of genetic variation of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV-3), and to describe infection and co-infection characteristics of HPIV-3 in children. METHODS: Single respiratory samples from 856 pediatric patients with acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) in Hangzhou were collected from December 2009 to March 2013. All samples were screened for HPIV-3 by real-time RT-PCR and followed by HN sequencing and phylogenetic analysis...
March 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
K Ohta, H Goto, N Yumine, M Nishio
Tetherin (BST-2/CD317/HM1.24) is an antiviral membrane protein that prevents the release of enveloped viruses from the cell surface. We found that the growth of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2), but not that of V protein-deficient recombinant hPIV-2, was inhibited by tetherin. V protein immunoprecipitates with tetherin, and this interaction requires its C-terminal Trp residues. The glycosyl phosphatidylinositol attachment signal of tetherin, but not its cytoplasmic tail, was necessary for its binding with V...
March 2016: Journal of General Virology
C P Indumathi, P Gunanasekaran, K Kaveri, Kavita Arunagiri, S Mohana, A Khaleefathullah Sheriff, B V SureshBabu, P Padmapriya, R Senthilraja, Gracy Fathima
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) accounts for a significant proportion of lower respiratory tract infections in children as well as adults. This study was done to detect the presence of different subtypes of HPIV from patients having influenza like illness (ILI). METHODS: Throat and nasal swabs from 232 patients with ILI who were negative for influenza viruses were tested by multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(mRT-PCR) for the detection of human parainfluenza virus...
November 2015: Indian Journal of Medical Research
B A Cunha, J J Connolly, N Irshad
During influenza epidemics, influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) viruses cocirculate with influenza strains. If positive, rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) identify influenza A/B, but false-negative RIDTs require retesting by viral polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Patient volume limits testing during influenza epidemics, and non-specific laboratory findings have been used for presumptive diagnosis pending definitive viral testing. In adults, the most useful laboratory abnormalities in influenza include relative lymphopenia, monocytosis, and thrombocytopenia...
January 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Katarzyna Wanda Pancer
The objective of this research was an analysis of the serological response to respiratory bacterial and viral pathogens, in 156 children admitted to hospital in Warsaw with a suspicion of legionellosis. Levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) M to Bordetella pertussis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenoviruses, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) t. 1-4 and influenza t. A + B viruses were determined retrospectively by ELISAs. In the prospective examinations (only Legionella pneumophila sg1), a positive level of IgM was found in 35 patients, but in 59 children together with retrospective tests...
2015: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Tadanobu Takahashi, Maiko Takano, Yuuki Kurebayashi, Takashi Agarikuchi, Chihiro Suzuki, Keijo Fukushima, Shunsaku Takahashi, Tadamune Otsubo, Kiyoshi Ikeda, Akira Minami, Takashi Suzuki
Human parainfluenza virus type 1 (hPIV1) does not form clear plaque by the conventional plaque formation assay because of slightly a cytopathic effects in many cell lines infected with hPIV1, thus making in virus titration, isolation and inhibitor evaluation difficult. We have succeeded in fluorescent histochemical visualization of sialidase activities of influenza A and B viruses, Newcastle disease virus and Sendai virus by using a novel fluorescent sialidase substrate, 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)-4-bromophenyl 5-acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-α-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulopyranosidonic acid (BTP3-Neu5Ac)...
2015: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Neli Korsun, Ani Teodosieva, Svetla Angelova
BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses (family Orthomyxoviridae); respiratory-syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and parainfluenza viruses (hPIV) type 1, 2 and 3 (family Paramyxoviridae) are among the most common causes of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI) in infants and young children. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of these viruses in cases of ARTI requiring medical attention among children aged < 4 years during the 2012/13 and 2013/14 winter seasons in Bulgaria...
2015: Clinical Laboratory
Hui-Qiang Wang, Lin-Lin Ma, Jian-Dong Jiang, Rui Pang, Yu-Jun Chen, Yu-Huan Li
This study is to investigate the effect of recombinant human interferon alpha 2b against broad-spectrum respiratory viruses in vitro. At the cellular level, the effect of the recombinant human interferon alpha 2b on influenza A virus was detected using real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR. The effects of the recombinant human interferon alpha 2b on influenza B virus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and coronavirus were detected using cytopathic effect (CPE) method. In this study, the therapeutic index of recombinant human interferon alpha 2b anti-HPIV was 1476...
November 2014: Yao Xue Xue Bao, Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica
Larissa Dirr, Ibrahim M El-Deeb, Patrice Guillon, Cindy J Carroux, Leonard M G Chavas, Mark von Itzstein
Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV-3) is one of the leading causes for lower respiratory tract disease in children, with neither an approved antiviral drug nor vaccine available to date. Understanding the catalytic mechanism of human parainfluenza virus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein is key to the design of specific inhibitors against this virus. Herein, we used (1) H NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and virological assays to study the catalytic mechanism of the HN enzyme activity and have identified the conserved Tyr530 as a key amino acid involved in catalysis...
March 2, 2015: Angewandte Chemie
Crystal W Burke, Mei Li, Julia L Hurwitz, Peter Vogel, Charles J Russell
UNLABELLED: Respiratory paramyxoviruses such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human parainfluenza virus type 1 (HPIV1) to HPIV4 infect virtually all children by the age of 2 to 5 years, leading to partial but incomplete protection from reinfection. Here, we used luciferase-expressing reporter Sendai viruses (the murine counterpart of HPIV1) to noninvasively measure primary infection, immune responses, and protection from reinfection by either a lethal challenge or natural transmission in living mice...
April 2015: Journal of Virology
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