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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210505/nanotechnology-based-approach-in-tuberculosis-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Mohammad Nasiruddin, Md Kausar Neyaz, Shilpi Das
Tuberculosis, commonly known as TB, is the second most fatal infectious disease after AIDS, caused by bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Prolonged treatment, high pill burden, low compliance, and stiff administration schedules are factors that are responsible for emergence of MDR and XDR cases of tuberculosis. Till date, only BCG vaccine is available which is ineffective against adult pulmonary TB, which is the most common form of disease. Various unique antibodies have been developed to overcome drug resistance, reduce the treatment regimen, and elevate the compliance to treatment...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193909/rv2299c-a-novel-dendritic-cell-activating-antigen-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-fused-esat-6-subunit-vaccine-confers-improved-and-durable-protection-against-the-hypervirulent-strain-hn878-in-mice
#2
Han-Gyu Choi, Seunga Choi, Yong Woo Back, Seungwha Paik, Hye-Soo Park, Woo Sik Kim, Hongmin Kim, Seung Bin Cha, Chul Hee Choi, Sung Jae Shin, Hwa-Jung Kim
Understanding functional interactions between DCs and antigens is necessary for achieving an optimal and desired immune response during vaccine development. Here, we identified and characterized protein Rv2299c (heat-shock protein 90 family), which effectively induced DC maturation. The Rv2299c-maturated DCs showed increased expression of surface molecules and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Rv2299c induced these effects by binding to TLR4 and stimulating the downstream MyD88-, MAPK- and NF-κB-dependent signaling pathways...
February 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192214/immune-recognition-surface-construction-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-epitope-specific-antibody-responses-in-tuberculosis-patients-identified-by-peptide-microarrays
#3
REVIEW
Davide Valentini, Martin Rao, Giovanni Ferrara, Marc Perkins, Ernest Dodoo, Alimuddin Zumla, Markus Maeurer
BACKGROUND: Understanding of humoral immune responses in tuberculosis (TB) is gaining interest, since B cells and antibodies may be important in diagnosis as well as protective immune responses. High-content peptide microarrays (HCPM) are highly precise and reliable for gauging specific antibody responses to pathogens, as well as autoantigens. METHODS: We used a HCPM comprising epitopes spanning 154 proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) to gauge specific IgG antibody responses in sera of TB patients from Africa and South America...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190740/protective-efficacy-of-a-lipid-antigen-vaccine-in-a-guinea-pig-model-of-tuberculosis
#4
Gérald Larrouy-Maumus, Emilie Layre, Simon Clark, Jacques Prandi, Emma Rayner, Marco Lepore, Gennaro de Libero, Ann Williams, Germain Puzo, Martine Gilleron
The bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccine, the only licensed vaccine against TB, displays partial and variable efficacy, thus making the exploitation of novel vaccination strategies a major priority. Most of the current vaccines in pre-clinical or clinical development are based on the induction of T cells recognizing protein antigens. However, a large number of T cells specific for mycobacterial lipids are induced during infection, suggesting that lipid-based vaccines might represent an important component of novel sub-unit vaccines...
February 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186336/social-and-environmental-factors-affect-tuberculosis-related-mortality-in-wild-meerkats
#5
Stuart Patterson, Julian A Drewe, Dirk U Pfeiffer, Tim H Clutton-Brock
1.Tuberculosis (TB) is an important and widespread disease of wildlife, livestock, and humans worldwide, but long-term empirical datasets describing this condition are rare. A population of meerkats (Suricata suricatta) in South Africa's Kalahari Desert have been diagnosed with Mycobacterium suricattae, a novel strain of TB, causing fatal disease in this group-living species. 2.This study aimed to find characteristics associated with clinical TB in meerkats. These characteristics could subsequently be used to identify "at risk" animals within a population, and target these individuals for control measures...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185618/tuberculosis-a-world-health-organization-perspective
#6
Giovanni Sotgiu, Giorgia Sulis, Alberto Matteelli
Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) has implemented and scaled-up three important global public health strategies (i.e., DOTS, Stop TB, and End TB) to improve the international scenario. Their epidemiological impact was relevant, as they decreased the number of potential new cases of disease and death. However, the emergence and spread of TB/HIV coinfection and multidrug-resistant TB have hindered the progress towards the elimination of TB by 2050...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178208/effector-mechanisms-of-neutrophils-within-the-innate-immune-system-in-response-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#7
REVIEW
Eric Warren, Garrett Teskey, Vishwanath Venketaraman
Neutrophils have a significant yet controversial role in the innate immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection, which is not yet fully understood. In addition to neutrophils' well-known effector mechanisms, they may also help control infection of M. tb through the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are thought to further promote the killing of M. tb by resident alveolar macrophages. Cytokines such as IFN-γ have now been shown to serve an immunomodulatory role in neutrophil functioning in conjunction to its pro-inflammatory function...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177046/stable-expression-of-mycobacterium-bovis-antigen-85b-in-auxotrophic-m-bovis-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin
#8
Caroline Rizzi, Ana Carolina Peiter, Thaís Larré Oliveira, Amilton Clair Pinto Seixas, Karen Silva Leal, Daiane Drawanz Hartwig, Fabiana Kommling Seixas, Sibele Borsuk, Odir Antônio Dellagostin
BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, responsible for causing major losses in livestock. A cost effective alternative to control the disease could be herd vaccination. The bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has a limited efficacy against bovine TB, but can improved by over-expression of protective antigens. The M. bovis antigen 85B demonstrates ability to induce protective immune response against bovine TB in animal models. However, current systems for the construction of recombinant BCG expressing multiple copies of the gene result in strains of low genetic stability that rapidly lose the plasmid in vivo...
February 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174695/the-effect-of-oral-vaccination-with-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-on-the-development-of-tuberculosis-in-captive-european-badgers-meles-meles
#9
Mark A Chambers, Frank Aldwell, Gareth A Williams, Si Palmer, Sonya Gowtage, Roland Ashford, Deanna J Dalley, Dipesh Davé, Ute Weyer, Francisco J Salguero, Alejandro Nunez, Allan K Nadian, Timothy Crawshaw, Leigh A L Corner, Sandrine Lesellier
The European badger (Meles meles) is a reservoir host of Mycobacterium bovis and responsible for a proportion of the tuberculosis (TB) cases seen in cattle in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland. An injectable preparation of the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is licensed for use in badgers in the UK and its use forms part of the bovine TB eradication plans of England and Wales. However, there are practical limitations to the widespread application of an injectable vaccine for badgers and a research priority is the development of an oral vaccine deliverable to badgers in bait...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166247/recovery-rate-and-associated-factors-of-children-age-6-to-59-months-admitted-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-at-inpatient-unit-of-bahir-dar-felege-hiwot-referral-hospital-therapeutic-feeding-unite-northwest-ethiopia
#10
Hanna Demelash Desyibelew, Abel Fekadu, Haile Woldie
BACKGROUND: Despite numerous advances made in improving child health and the clinical management protocols for treating severe acute malnutrition at treatment centers, evidences concerning the treatment outcomes are scarce. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the recovery rate and associated factors of severely acute malnourished children of age 6 to 59 months admitted to inpatient therapeutic feeding unit at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital. METHODS: We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study including 401 severely malnourished children who were admitted from September 2012 to January 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163168/experimental-animal-modelling-for-tb-vaccine-development
#11
REVIEW
Pere-Joan Cardona, Ann Williams
Research for a novel vaccine to prevent tuberculosis is an urgent medical need. The current vaccine, BCG has demonstrated a non-homogenous efficacy in humans, but still is the gold standard to be improved upon. In general, the main indicator for testing the potency of new candidates in animal models is the reduction of the bacillary load in the lungs at the acute phase of the infection. Usually, this reduction is similar to that induced by BCG, although in some cases a weak but significant improvement can be detected, But none of candidates are able to prevent establishment of infection...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161464/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-proteins-involved-in-cell-wall-lipid-biosynthesis-improve-bcg-vaccine-efficacy-in-a-murine-tb-model
#12
REVIEW
Martin Rao, Nathalie Cadieux, Megan Fitzpatrick, Steven Reed, Sergei Arsenian, Davide Valentini, Shreemanta Parida, Ernest Dodoo, Alimuddin Zumla, Markus Maeurer
OBJECTIVES: Advances in tuberculosis (TB) vaccine development are urgently required to enhance global disease management. We evaluated the potential of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb)-derived protein antigens Rv0447c, Rv2957 and Rv2958c to boost BCG vaccine efficacy in the presence or absence of glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant formulated in a stable emulsion (GLA-SE) adjuvant. METHODS: Mice received the BCG vaccine, followed by Rv0447c, Rv2957 and Rv2958c protein boosting with or without GLA-SE adjuvant 3 and 6 weeks later...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161459/peptide-microarray-based-characterisation-of-antibody-responses-to-host-proteins-after-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccination
#13
REVIEW
Davide Valentini, Martin Rao, Lalit Rane, Sayma Rahman, Rebecca Axelsson-Robertson, Rainer Heuchel, Matthias Löhr, Daniel Hoft, Susanna Brighenti, Alimuddin Zumla, Markus Maeurer
BACKGROUND: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the world's most widely distributed vaccine, used against tuberculosis (TB), in cancer immunotherapy and in autoimmune diseases due to its immunomodulatory properties. Up to now, the effect of BCG vaccination on antibody responses to host proteins has not been reported. High-content peptide microarrays (HCPM) offer a unique opportunity to gauge specific humoral immune responses. METHODS: We tested sera of BCG-vaccinated healthy adults on a human HCPM platform (4953 randomly selected epitopes of human proteins) to detect specific immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) responses...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159608/safety-and-efficacy-of-the-c-tb-skin-test-to-diagnose-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-compared-with-an-interferon-%C3%AE-release-assay-and-the-tuberculin-skin-test-a-phase-3-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Morten Ruhwald, Henrik Aggerbeck, Rafael Vázquez Gallardo, Søren T Hoff, José I Villate, Bettine Borregaard, José A Martinez, Ingrid Kromann, Antón Penas, Luis L Anibarro, Maria Luiza de Souza-Galvão, Francisca Sánchez, Jose Ángel Rodrigo-Pendás, Antoni Noguera-Julian, Xavier Martínez-Lacasa, Maria Victoria Tuñez, Virginia Leiro Fernández, Joan P Millet, Antonio Moreno, Nazaret Cobos, José M Miró, Llanos Roldan, Angels Orcau, Peter Andersen, Joan A Caylá
BACKGROUND: Targeted screening and treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection substantially reduces the risk of developing active tuberculosis. C-Tb (Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark) is a novel specific skin test based on ESAT-6 and CFP10 antigens. We investigated the safety and diagnostic potential of C-Tb compared with established tests in the contact-tracing setting. METHODS: Negative controls, close contacts, occasional contacts, and patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis were enrolled at 13 centres in Spain...
January 31, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150302/immunological-consequences-of-strain-variation-within-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#15
Leopold D Tientcheu, Anastasia Koch, Mthawelenga Ndengane, Genevieve Andoseh, Beate Kampmann, Robert J Wilkinson
In 2015 there were an estimated 10.4 million new cases of Tuberculosis (TB) globally, making it one of the leading causes of death due to an infectious disease. TB is caused by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), with human disease resulting from infection by M. tuberculosis sensu strico and M. africanum. Recent progress in genotyping techniques, in particular the increasing availability of whole genome sequence data, has revealed previously under appreciated levels of genetic diversity within the MTBC...
February 2, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139255/who-pays-for-cooperation-in-global-health-a-comparative-analysis-of-who-the-world-bank-the-global-fund-to-fight-hiv-aids-tuberculosis-and-malaria-and-gavi-the-vaccine-alliance
#16
Chelsea Clinton, Devi Sridhar
In this report we assess who pays for cooperation in global health through an analysis of the financial flows of WHO, the World Bank, the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. The past few decades have seen the consolidation of influence in the disproportionate roles the USA, UK, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation have had in financing three of these four institutions. Current financing flows in all four case study institutions allow donors to finance and deliver assistance in ways that they can more closely control and monitor at every stage...
January 27, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126971/comparison-of-a-commercial-interferon-gamma-release-assay-and-tuberculin-skin-test-for-the-detection-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-hong-kong-arthritis-patients-who-are-candidates-for-biologic-agents
#17
H So, C Sw Yuen, R Ml Yip
INTRODUCTION: It is universally agreed that screening for latent tuberculosis infection prior to biologic therapy is necessary, especially in endemic areas such as Hong Kong. There are still, however, controversies regarding how best to accomplish this task. The tuberculin skin test has been the routine screening tool for latent tuberculosis infection in Hong Kong for the past decade although accuracy is far from perfect, especially in patients who have been vaccinated with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, who are immunocompromised, or who have atypical mycobacterium infection...
January 27, 2017: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115505/identification-of-mycobacterial-rplj-l10-and-rpsa-s1-proteins-as-novel-targets-for-cd4-t-cells
#18
Alison J Johnson, Steven C Kennedy, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Michael F Goldberg, Neeraj K Saini, Jiayong Xu, Sinu Paul, Subray S Hegde, John S Blanchard, John Chan, William R Jacobs, Alessandro Sette, Steven A Porcelli
Tuberculosis (TB) due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains a major global infectious disease problem, and a more efficacious vaccine is urgently needed for control and prevention of disease caused by this organism. We previously reported a genetically modified strain of Mycobacterium smegmatis called IKEPLUS as a promising TB vaccine candidate. Since protective immunity induced by IKEPLUS is dependent on antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell memory, we hypothesized that the specificity of the CD4(+) T cell response was a critical feature of this protection...
January 23, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111432/comparing-tuberculin-skin-test-and-interferon-%C3%AE-release-assay-t-spot-tb-to-diagnose-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-household-contacts
#19
Hyun Woo Lee, Yeon Joo Lee, Se Joong Kim, Jong Sun Park, Young-Jae Cho, Ho Il Yoon, Choon-Taek Lee, Jae-Ho Lee
Background/Aims: The tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon γ release assay are currently used as diagnostic tools to detect latent tuberculosis (TB) infection; however, there are inconsistencies about the degree of agreement between the tests. We aimed to evaluate the concordance rate between the two tests in household contacts of a country with intermediate TB burden, where most people were vaccinated. Methods: We recruited household contacts who spent > 8 hours daily with patients with microbiologically confirmed active pulmonary TB, and received both TST and T-SPOT...
January 24, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092959/mixed-vaccination-strategy-for-the-control-of-tuberculosis-a-case-study-in-china
#20
Siyu Liu, Yong Li, Yingjie Bi, Qingdao Huang
This study first presents a mathematical model of TB transmission considering BCG vaccination compartment to investigate the transmission dynamics nowadays. Based on data reported by the National Bureau of Statistics of China, the basic reproduction number is estimated approximately as R0=1.1892. To reach the new End TB goal raised by WHO in 2015, considering the health system in China, we design a mixed vaccination strategy. Theoretical analysis indicates that the infectious population asymptotically tends to zero with the new vaccination strategy which is the combination of constant vaccination and pulse vaccination...
June 1, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
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