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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461976/mycobacterial-growth-inhibition-is-associated-with-trained-innate-immunity
#1
Simone A Joosten, Krista E van Meijgaarden, Sandra M Arend, Corine Prins, Fredrik Oftung, Gro Ellen Korsvold, Sandra V Kik, Rob Jw Arts, Reinout van Crevel, Mihai G Netea, Tom Hm Ottenhoff
The lack of defined correlates of protection hampers development of vaccines against tuberculosis (TB). In vitro mycobacterial outgrowth assays are thought to better capture the complexity of the human host/Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) interaction. We used a PBMC-based "mycobacterial-growth-inhibition-assay" (MGIA) to investigate the capacity to control outgrowth of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Interestingly, strong control of BCG outgrowth was observed almost exclusively in individuals with recent exposure to Mtb, but not in (long-term) latent TB infection, and only modestly in BCG vaccinees...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460733/influenza-vaccination-and-incident-tuberculosis-among-elderly-persons-taiwan-1
#2
Yung-Feng Yen, Sheng-Wei Pan, Vincent Yi-Fong Su, Pei-Hung Chuang, Jia-Yih Feng, Wei-Juin Su
Experimental studies have demonstrated that influenza vaccination may protect against tuberculosis (TB) through a Th17 response. This nationwide cohort study aimed to evaluate the association of influenza vaccination with incident TB among elderly persons in Taiwan. This 2005-2012 study included 99,982 elderly persons (64,290 vaccinated and 35,692 unvaccinated) from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. During the 738,367 person-years of follow-up, 1,141 (1.14%) persons had incident TB. The cumulative incidences of TB were 145...
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459859/next-generation-vaccines-based-on-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin
#3
REVIEW
Natalie E Nieuwenhuizen, Stefan H E Kaufmann
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a major health threat. A live, attenuated mycobacterium known as Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), derived from the causative agent of cattle TB, Mycobacterium bovis , has been in clinical use as a vaccine for 90 years. The current incidence of TB demonstrates that BCG fails to protect sufficiently against pulmonary TB, the major disease manifestation and source of dissemination. The protective efficacy of BCG is on average 50% but varies substantially with geographical location and is poorer in those with previous exposure to mycobacteria...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457312/update-on-tuberculosis-biomarkers-from-correlates-of-risk-to-correlates-of-active-disease-and-of-cure-from-disease
#4
REVIEW
Delia Goletti, Meng-Rui Lee, Jann-Yuan Wang, Nicholas Walter, Tom H M Ottenhoff
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a devastating disease, yet despite its enormous toll on global health, tools to control TB are insufficient and often outdated. TB Biomarkers (TB-BM) would constitute extremely useful tools to measure infection status and predict outcome of infection, vaccination or therapy. There are several types of TB-BM: Correlate of Infection; Correlate of TB Disease; Correlate of Increased Risk of Developing Active TB Disease; Correlate of the Curative Response to Therapy; and Correlate of Protection (CoP)...
February 18, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456807/potential-of-polymeric-particles-as-future-vaccine-delivery-systems-adjuvants-for-parenteral-and-non-parenteral-immunization-against-tuberculosis-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Farzad Khademi, Mohammad Derakhshan, Arshid Yousefi-Avarvand, Mohsen Tafaghodi
Objectives: Production of effective tuberculosis (TB) vaccine is necessity. However, the development of new subunit vaccines is faced with concerns about their weak immunogenicity. To overcome such problems, polymers-based vaccine delivery systems have been proposed to be used via various routes. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of polymeric particles as future vaccine delivery systems/adjuvants for parenteral and non-parenteral immunization against TB. Materials and Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Science-Direct, and the ISI web of knowledge databases were searched for related keywords...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443102/expression-of-exogenous-antigens-in-the-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-vaccine-via-non-genetic-surface-decoration-with-the-avidin-biotin-system
#6
Ting-Yu Angela Liao, Alice Lau, Joseph Sunil, Vesa Hytönen, Zakaria Hmama
Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infectious disease and the only available vaccine M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is safe and effective for protection against children's severe TB meningitis and some forms of disseminated TB, but fails to protect against pulmonary TB, which is the most prevalent form of the disease. Promising strategies to improve BCG currently rely either on its transformation with genes encoding immunodominant M. tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific antigens and/or complementation with genes encoding co-factors that would stimulate antigen presenting cells...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439702/bcg-vaccination-in-southern-rural-mozambique-an-overview-of-coverage-and-its-determinants-based-on-data-from-the-demographic-and-health-surveillance-system-in-the-district-of-manhi%C3%A3-a
#7
Elena Marbán-Castro, Charfudin Sacoor, Ariel Nhacolo, Orvalho Augusto, Edgar Jamisse, Elisa López-Varela, Aina Casellas, John J Aponte, Quique Bassat, Betuel Sigauque, Eusebio Macete, Alberto L Garcia-Basteiro
BACKGROUND: Over the past four decades, the World Health Organization established the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) to foster universal access to all relevant vaccines for all children at risk. The success of this program has been undeniable, but requires periodic monitoring to ensure that coverage rates remain high. The aim of this study was to measure the BCG vaccination coverage in Manhiça district, a high TB burden rural area of Southern Mozambique and to investigate factors that may be associated with BCG vaccination...
February 13, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432385/economic-evaluation-of-selective-neonatal-bcg-vaccination-of-high-risk-infants-in-ireland
#8
Conor Teljeur, Patrick S Moran, Patricia Harrington, Karina Butler, Brenda Corcoran, Joan O'Donnell, Cara Usher, Darina O'Flanagan, Kevin Connolly, Máirín Ryan
BACKGROUND: In Western Europe, currently only Ireland and Portugal continue to provide universal neonatal BCG vaccination programmes, despite not being considered as high TB incidence countries. Other European countries only vaccinate infants considered at high risk of contracting TB. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of selective BCG vaccination compared to strategies of universal and no vaccination. METHODS: An economic model was used to simulate a cohort from birth to life expectancy, taking the perspective of the publicly-funded healthcare system...
February 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429859/new-tuberculosis-vaccine-strategies-taking-aim-at-un-natural-immunity
#9
REVIEW
Mangalakumari Jeyanathan, Yushi Yao, Sam Afkhami, Fiona Smaill, Zhou Xing
Despite some major progress made in developing tuberculosis (TB) vaccine strategies, with a dozen novel vaccines currently in the clinical pipeline, the world is still missing an effective TB vaccine. This questions whether any major breakthroughs can be achieved without making a drastic departure from the current strategy, which creates a state of 'near-natural immunity', imitating the natural immunity developed after Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Here, we argue instead that mounting evidence suggests an effective strategy ought to induce a state of all-around 'un-natural' immunity comprising trained innate immunity (TII), tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM), and anti-Mtb surface antibodies in the lung...
February 8, 2018: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415434/pathogenesis-and-animal-models-of-post-primary-bronchogenic-tuberculosis-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Robert L Hunter, Jefrey K Actor, Shen-An Hwang, Arshad Khan, Michael E Urbanowski, Deepak Kaushal, Chinnaswamy Jagannath
Primary and post-primary tuberculosis (TB) are different diseases caused by the same organism. Primary TB produces systemic immunity. Post-primary TB produces cavities to support massive proliferation of organisms for transmission of infection to new hosts from a person with sufficient immunity to prevent systemic infection. Post-primary, also known as bronchogenic, TB begins in humans as asymptomatic bronchial spread of obstructive lobular pneumonia, not as expanding granulomas. Most lesions regress spontaneously...
February 6, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406237/a-68-year-old-man-with-chronic-myelogenous-leukemia-and-a-large-unilateral-pleural-effusion
#11
Adam Alter, Neal Chaisson, Sudipto Mukherjee, Thomas Gildea
A 68-year-old man with chronic myelogenous leukemia presents for evaluation of 2 months of dyspnea with exertion. He denies cough, fever, chest pain, weight gain, orthopnea, and edema. Since diagnosis of chronic myelogenous leukemia 5 years ago, he has been treated with dasatinib, with recent BCR-ABL1 assay showing no detectable disease in the peripheral blood. Medical history also includes hyperlipidemia, prostate enlargement, and hypothyroidism, but no prior heart or lung disease. Born in the Middle East, he immigrated to the United States 30 years ago and is working as a physician...
February 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384896/a-25-year-surveillance-of-disseminated-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-disease-treatment-in-children-in-southern-iran
#12
Ali Amanati, Gholamreza Pouladfar, Mohammad Rahim Kadivar, Anahita Sanaei Dashti, Zahra Jafarpour, Sezaneh Haghpanah, Abdolvahab Alborzi
Disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) disease is one of the most serious complications of BCG vaccination, mainly among immunocompromised children with high morbidity and mortality.Currently, there is no any consensus with regard to the standard regimen of antituberculosis (anti-TB) agents and duration of treatment in healthy or immunocompromised host in children. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of various combination treatment strategies for disseminated BCG disease in children.In this cross-sectional study, the outcome of 3 different combination protocols was investigated in 59 patients...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382761/plasticity-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-nadh-dehydrogenases-and-their-role-in-virulence
#13
Catherine Vilchèze, Brian Weinrick, Lawrence W Leung, William R Jacobs
Worldwide control of the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic has not been achieved, and the latest statistics show that the TB problem might be more endemic than previously thought. Although drugs and a TB vaccine are available, TB eradication faces the challenges of increasing occurrences of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains. To forestall this trend, the development of drugs targeting novel pathways is actively pursued. Recently, enzymes of the electron transport chain (ETC) have been determined to be the targets of potent antimycobacterial drugs such as bedaquiline...
January 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374077/cd11b-dendritic-cell-mediated-anti-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-th1-activation-is-counterregulated-by-cd103-dendritic-cells-via-il-10
#14
Rocky Lai, Mangalakumari Jeyanathan, Sam Afkhami, Anna Zganiacz, Joanne A Hammill, Yushi Yao, Charu Kaushic, Zhou Xing
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the pathogen causing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in humans, has evolved to delay Th1 immunity in the lung. Although conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) are known to be critical to the initiation of T cell immunity, the differential roles and molecular mechanisms of migratory CD11b+ and CD103+ cDC subsets in anti-M. tuberculosis Th1 activation remain unclear. Using a murine model of pulmonary M. tuberculosis infection, we found that slow arrival of M. tuberculosis-bearing migratory CD11b+ and CD103+ cDCs at the draining lymph nodes preceded the much-delayed Th1 immunity and protection in the lung...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364534/italian-multicentre-study-found-infectious-and-vaccine-preventable-diseases-in-children-adopted-from-africa-and-recommends-prompt-medical-screening
#15
Elena Chiappini, Mauro Zaffaroni, Martina Bianconi, Giuseppina Veneruso, Nicolino Grasso, Silvia Garazzino, Rosangela Arancio, Piero Valentini, Anna Ficcadenti, Maria Rosalia Da Riol, Simona La Placa, Luisa Galli, Maurizio de Martino, Gianni Bona
AIM: This study evaluated the prevalence of infectious diseases and immunisation status of children adopted from Africa METHODS: We studied 762 African children referred to 11 Italian paediatric centres in 2009-2015. Clinical and laboratory data were retrospectively collected and analysed. RESULTS: The median age of the children (60.3% males) was 3.6 years, 52.6% came from Ethiopia and 50.1% had at least one infectious disease. Parasitic infections accounted for the majority of the infectious diseases (409/715) and the most common were Giardia lamblia (n=239), Toxocara canis (n=65) and skin infections (n=205), notably Tinea capitis/corporis (n=134) and Molluscum contagiosum (n=56) Active tuberculosis (TB) was diagnosed in nine children (1...
January 24, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363172/bcg-vaccination-drives-accumulation-and-effector-function-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-murine-lungs
#16
Pia Steigler, Naomi J Daniels, Tim R McCulloch, Brin M Ryder, Sarah K Sandford, Joanna R Kirman
The tuberculosis (TB) vaccine bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) prevents disseminated childhood TB, however fails to protect against the more prevalent pulmonary TB. Limited understanding of the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of TB, has hindered development of improved vaccines. Although memory CD4 T cells are considered the main mediators of protection against TB, recent studies suggest there are other key subsets that contribute to anti-mycobacterial immunity. To that end, innate cells may be involved in the protective response...
January 9, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343690/experimental-infection-of-cattle-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-shows-the-attenuation-of-the-human-tubercle-bacillus-for-cattle
#17
Bernardo Villarreal-Ramos, Stefan Berg, Adam Whelan, Sebastien Holbert, Florence Carreras, Francisco J Salguero, Bhagwati L Khatri, Kerri Malone, Kevin Rue-Albrecht, Ronan Shaughnessy, Alicia Smyth, Gobena Ameni, Abraham Aseffa, Pierre Sarradin, Nathalie Winter, Martin Vordermeier, Stephen V Gordon
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) is the collective term given to the group of bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB) in mammals. It has been reported that M. tuberculosis H37Rv, a standard reference MTBC strain, is attenuated in cattle compared to Mycobacterium bovis. However, as M. tuberculosis H37Rv was isolated in the early 1930s, and genetic variants are known to exist, we sought to revisit this question of attenuation of M. tuberculosis for cattle by performing a bovine experimental infection with a recent M...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341430/tuberculosis-vaccines-opportunities-and-challenges
#18
REVIEW
Bingdong Zhu, Hazel M Dockrell, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Thomas G Evans, Ying Zhang
Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious disease around the world. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only TB vaccine licensed for use in human beings, and is effective in protecting infants and children against severe miliary and meningeal TB. However, BCG's protective efficacy is variable in adults. Novel TB vaccine candidates being developed include whole-cell vaccines (recombinant BCG (rBCG), attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis, killed M. tuberculosis or Mycobacterium vaccae), adjuvanted protein subunit vaccines, viral vector-delivered subunit vaccines, plasmid DNA vaccines, RNA-based vaccines etc...
January 17, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334373/prevention-of-tuberculosis-in-rhesus-macaques-by-a-cytomegalovirus-based-vaccine
#19
Scott G Hansen, Daniel E Zak, Guangwu Xu, Julia C Ford, Emily E Marshall, Daniel Malouli, Roxanne M Gilbride, Colette M Hughes, Abigail B Ventura, Emily Ainslie, Kurt T Randall, Andrea N Selseth, Parker Rundstrom, Lauren Herlache, Matthew S Lewis, Haesun Park, Shannon L Planer, John M Turner, Miranda Fischer, Christina Armstrong, Robert C Zweig, Joseph Valvo, Jackie M Braun, Smitha Shankar, Lenette Lu, Andrew W Sylwester, Alfred W Legasse, Martin Messerle, Michael A Jarvis, Lynn M Amon, Alan Aderem, Galit Alter, Dominick J Laddy, Michele Stone, Aurelio Bonavia, Thomas G Evans, Michael K Axthelm, Klaus Früh, Paul T Edlefsen, Louis J Picker
Despite widespread use of the bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of global mortality from a single infectious agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mtb). Here, over two independent Mtb challenge studies, we demonstrate that subcutaneous vaccination of rhesus macaques (RMs) with rhesus cytomegalovirus vectors encoding Mtb antigen inserts (hereafter referred to as RhCMV/TB)-which elicit and maintain highly effector-differentiated, circulating and tissue-resident Mtb-specific CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cell responses-can reduce the overall (pulmonary and extrapulmonary) extent of Mtb infection and disease by 68%, as compared to that in unvaccinated controls, after intrabronchial challenge with the Erdman strain of Mtb at ∼1 year after the first vaccination...
January 15, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324800/hepcidin-deficiency-and-iron-deficiency-do-not-alter-tuberculosis-susceptibility-in-a-murine-m-tb-infection-model
#20
Rachel Harrington-Kandt, Elena Stylianou, Lucy A Eddowes, Pei Jin Lim, Lisa Stockdale, Nawamin Pinpathomrat, Naomi Bull, Janet Pasricha, Marta Ulaszewska, Yulia Beglov, Sophie Vaulont, Hal Drakesmith, Helen McShane
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the macrophage-tropic pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is a highly prevalent infectious disease. Since an immune correlate of protection or effective vaccine have yet to be found, continued research into host-pathogen interactions is important. Previous literature reports links between host iron status and disease outcome for many infections, including TB. For some extracellular bacteria, the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin is essential for protection against infection...
2018: PloS One
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