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Coefficient of variation

Samuel Mesihää, Ilpo Rasanen, Ilkka Ojanperä
Gas chromatography (GC) hyphenated with nitrogen chemiluminescence detection (NCD) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS) was applied for the first time to the quantitative analysis of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in urine, based on the N-equimolar response of NCD. A method was developed and validated to estimate the concentrations of three metabolites of the common stimulant NPS α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP) in spiked urine samples, simulating an analysis having no authentic reference standards for the metabolites and using the parent drug instead for quantitative calibration...
February 27, 2018: Forensic Science International
Yuval B Simons, Kevin Bullaughey, Richard R Hudson, Guy Sella
Human genome-wide association studies (GWASs) are revealing the genetic architecture of anthropomorphic and biomedical traits, i.e., the frequencies and effect sizes of variants that contribute to heritable variation in a trait. To interpret these findings, we need to understand how genetic architecture is shaped by basic population genetics processes-notably, by mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift. Because many quantitative traits are subject to stabilizing selection and because genetic variation that affects one trait often affects many others, we model the genetic architecture of a focal trait that arises under stabilizing selection in a multidimensional trait space...
March 16, 2018: PLoS Biology
Sylvia Moeskops, Jon L Oliver, Paul J Read, John B Cronin, Gregory D Myer, G Gregory Haff, Rhodri S Lloyd
To investigate the within- and between-session reliability of the isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) in pre- and post-peak height velocity (PHV) female athletes. Nineteen pre- and nineteen post-PHV athletes performed bilateral IMTPs using a custom-designed isometric testing system. Participants attended three separate testing-sessions, and performed three trials within each session. Peak force, relative peak force, force at 30, 50, 90, 100, 150, 200, and 250 milliseconds, rate of force development (RFD) within time-specific bands, time to peak force (TPF), and time to peak rate of force development (TPRFD) were obtained for analysis...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Harm-Jan de Grooth, Jonne Postema, Stephan A Loer, Jean-Jacques Parienti, Heleen M Oudemans-van Straaten, Armand R Girbes
PURPOSE: Although the definition of septic shock has been standardized, some variation in mortality rates among clinical trials is expected. Insights into the sources of heterogeneity may influence the design and interpretation of septic shock studies. We set out to identify inclusion criteria and baseline characteristics associated with between-trial differences in control group mortality rates. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of RCTs published between 2006 and 2018 that included patients with septic shock...
March 15, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
A R Hopkinson, M I J Probert
We present the results of a theoretical study of H/D diffusion on a Ni(111) surface at a range of temperatures, from 250 K to 75 K. The diffusion is studied using both classical molecular dynamics and the partially adiabatic centroid molecular dynamics method. The calculations are performed with the hydrogen (or deuterium) moving in 3D across a static nickel surface using a novel Fourier interpolated potential energy surface which has been parameterized to density functional theory calculations. The results of the classical simulations are that the calculated diffusion coefficients are far too small and with too large a variation with temperature compared with experiment...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Mai Ishimiya, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Yutaka Kobayashi, Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara, Chiemi Abe, Chiaki Dohmoto, Yoshihisa Ikeda, Kahori Tokuno, Kazuhiro Ooi, Masami Yokokawa, Kazuo Iwasa, Kiyonobu Komai, Shuichi Kawashiri, Masahito Yamada
Although several studies have demonstrated a potential correlation of dietary patterns with cognitive function, the relationship between tooth loss and dietary patterns and cognitive function have not been identified. In this cross-sectional study, we used a reduced rank regression (RRR) analysis, a technique used previously to observe dietary patterns based on the intakes of nutrients or levels of biomarkers associated with the condition of interest, to identify tooth loss-related dietary patterns and investigate the associations of such patterns with cognitive impairment in 334 community-dwelling Japanese subjects aged ≥ 60 years...
2018: PloS One
Katsuyuki Taguchi, Toshihide Itoh, Matthew K Fuld, Eric Fournie, Okkyun Lee, Kyo Noguchi
OBJECTIVES: A novel imaging technique ("X-map") has been developed to identify acute ischemic lesions for stroke patients using non-contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (NE-DE-CT). Using the 3-material decomposition technique, the original X-map ("X-map 1.0") eliminates fat and bone from the images, suppresses the gray matter (GM)-white matter (WM) tissue contrast, and makes signals of edema induced by severe ischemia easier to detect. The aim of this study was to address the following 2 problems with the X-map 1...
March 14, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Zaiyang Long, Donald J Tradup, Pengfei Song, Scott F Stekel, Shigao Chen, Katrina N Glazebrook, Nicholas J Hangiandreou
Because of the rapidly growing use of ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) in clinical practices, there is a significant need for development of clinical physics performance assessment methods for this technology. This study aims to report two clinical medical physicists' tasks: (a) acceptance testing (AT) of SWE function on ten commercial ultrasound systems for clinical liver application and (b) comparison of SWE measurements of targets across vendors for clinical musculoskeletal application. For AT, ten GE LOGIQ E9 XDclear 2...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Ruobing Huang, Ana Namburete, Alison Noble
We present a general framework for automatic segmentation of fetal brain structures in ultrasound images inspired by recent advances in machine learning. The approach is based on a region descriptor that characterizes the shape and local intensity context of different neurological structures without explicit models. To validate our framework, we present experiments to segment two fetal brain structures of clinical importance that have quite different ultrasonic appearances-the corpus callosum (CC) and the choroid plexus (CP)...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Helen V Wilmot, Jason Hockley, Peter Rigsby, Elaine Gray
Until recently, the role of factor XII (FXII) in hemostasis was not considered to be important since patients with FXII deficiency do not present with bleeding. The activation of FXII by agents including mast cells and platelet polyphosphates suggests that it may have a role in thrombogenesis. The inhibition of FXII therefore presents an option for antithrombotic therapy, and antibodies and inhibitors are already in development. Assays for FXII will be required to support these technologies, and an international standard (IS) for FXII would be useful for the development of these methods and for the clinical monitoring of patients...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Maria Sole Morelli, Alberto Greco, Gaetano Valenza, Alberto Giannoni, Michele Emdin, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo, Nicola Vanello
Brain activations related to the control of breathing are not completely known. The respiratory system is a non-linear system. However, the relationship between neural and respiratory dynamics is usually estimated through linear correlation measures, completely neglecting possible underlying nonlinear interactions. This study evaluate the linear and nonlinear coupling between electroencephalographic (EEG) signal and variations in carbon dioxide (CO2 ) signal related to different breathing task. During a free breathing and a voluntary breath hold tasks, the coupling between EEG power in nine different brain regions in delta (1-3 Hz) and alpha (8-13 Hz) bands and end-tidal CO2 (PET CO2 ) was evaluated...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anna Schneider, Edda Hofstätter, Johannes Brandner, Angelika Moder, Silke Häusler, Martin Wald
BACKGROUND: Using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) mixed tissue saturation can be calculated by measuring the oxygen saturation of oxygenated and deoxygenated erythrocytes in the tissue. Quality of the calculated value is not only dependent on the exposure of the measured values in the calculation, but also on external factors such as artifacts. Main object of this study was to determine whether and how the measurement quality of different devices varies in their long-term use in premature infants...
March 14, 2018: Klinische Pädiatrie
Nicole A Pilch, Vinayak Rohan, Vinaya Rao, Patrick D Mauldin, Zemin Su, Derek A Dubay, Thomas A Morinelli, David J Taber
BACKGROUND: Several studies have been performed to evaluate surrogate markers of long-term allograft function in renal transplant recipients. These include serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), slope of eGFR, and more recently eGFR variability. The aim of this study was to measure eGFR slope while assessing the variability of this slope and if high variability occurring at any time post-transplant was predictive of poorer long-term outcomes in a large cohort of kidney transplant recipients...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
C A Santana, K K Tondato, Y R Súarez
Population and reproductive aspects allow the knowledge and understanding of population dynamics and the influence of environmental factors, in addition to ensure the success of a species continuity. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze population and reproductive traits of the species Hyphessobrycon eques in southern Pantanal, Brazil. Monthly samplings were conducted from February/2009 to January/2011, with 617 individuals analyzed, being 365 females and 262 males. A similar form of distribution in length and weight between the sexes was observed...
March 12, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Clarisa R Gracia, Sanghyuk S Shin, Maureen Prewitt, Janna S Chamberlin, Lori R Lofaro, Kristin L Jones, Marta Clendenin, Katherine E Manzanera, Dennis L Broyles
BACKGROUND: AMH is widely used for assessing ovarian reserve, and it is particularly convenient, because it is thought to have minimal variability throughout the menstrual cycle. However, studies assessing the stability of AMH over the menstrual cycle have been conflicting. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine whether AMH levels vary across the normal menstrual cycle. DESIGN: A multi-center, prospective cohort study conducted at three US centers...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Francesco Manzoni, Ulf Ryde
We have calculated relative binding affinities for eight tetrafluorophenyl-triazole-thiogalactoside inhibitors of galectin-3 with the alchemical free-energy perturbation approach. We obtain a mean absolute deviation from experimental estimates of only 2-3 kJ/mol and a correlation coefficient (R2 ) of 0.5-0.8 for seven relative affinities spanning a range of up to 11 kJ/mol. We also studied the effect of using different methods to calculate the charges of the inhibitor and different sizes of the perturbed group (the atoms that are described by soft-core potentials and are allowed to have differing coordinates)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
Pedapati Radhakrishna, Kolar Vishwanath Vinod, Akkilagunta Sujiv, Rathinam Palamalai Swaminathan
Background: Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) has not been evaluated extensively for diabetes and prediabetes diagnosis and short-term variability of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h PG post-75 g glucose load (2 hPG) and HbA1c has not been studied among Indians. Objectives: The study aimed to compare the sensitivity of HbA1c, FPG and 2 hPG for diabetes and prediabetes diagnosis as per the American Diabetes Association criteria, assess short-term variability of three tests and determine optimal HbA1c cutoffs for diabetes and prediabetes diagnosis among high-risk south Indians...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Steffi L Colyer, Polly M McGuigan
Textile electromyography (EMG) electrodes embedded in clothing allow muscle excitation to be recorded in previously inaccessible settings; however, their ability to accurately and reliably measure EMG during dynamic tasks remains largely unexplored. To quantify the validity and reliability of textile electrodes, 16 recreationally active males completed two identical testing sessions, within which three functional movements (run, cycle and squat) were performed twice: once wearing EMG shorts (measuring quadriceps, hamstrings and gluteals myoelectric activity) and once with surface EMG electrodes attached to the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and gluteus maximus...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Tom Ottoboni, Mary Rose Keller, Matt Cravets, Neil Clendeninn, Barry Quart
Introduction: Fosaprepitant, an intravenous (IV) aprepitant prodrug for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting prophylaxis, is associated with systemic and infusion-site reactions attributed in part to its surfactant, polysorbate 80. HTX-019 is an IV aprepitant formulation free of polysorbate 80 and other synthetic surfactants. Materials and methods: This open-label, single-dose, randomized, two-way crossover bioequivalence study compared pharmacokinetics and safety of HTX-019 and fosaprepitant...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Marion Waite, Clare Martin, Rachel Franklin, David Duce, Rachel Harrison
BACKGROUND: People with type 1 diabetes (T1D) undertake self-management to prevent short and long-term complications. Advanced technology potentially supports such activities but requires consideration of psychological and behavioral constructs and usability issues. Economic factors and health care provider capacity influence access and uptake of advanced technology. Previous reviews have focused upon clinical outcomes or were descriptive or have synthesized studies on adults with those on children and young people where human factors are different...
March 15, 2018: JMIR Human Factors
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