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Human parainfluenza virus type 2

Yusuke Matsumoto, Keisuke Ohta, Daniel Kolakofsky, Machiko Nishio
The genome RNA of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2) that acts as template for the polymerase complex is entirely encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (NP). Recently, the crystal structure of NP of PIV5, a virus closely related to hPIV2, was resolved in association with RNA. Ten amino acids that contact the bound RNA-binding were identified, and are strictly conserved between PIV5 and hPIV2 NP. Mutation of hPIV2 NP Q202 (that contacts a base rather than the RNA backbone) to some amino acids resulted in an over thirty-fold increase of polymerase activity as evidenced by a minireplicon assay, even though RNA-binding affinity was unaltered...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
Sahar Essa, Haya Al-Tawalah, Sarah AlShamali, Widad Al-Nakib
BACKGROUND: The four types of human parainfluenza viruses (PIV) are important causes of community-acquired pneumonia, particularly in children; however, limited information exists about the incidence of PIV in critically ill patients. The aim of this study is to describe the spectrum, incidence and clinical features of PIV-associated infections diagnosed during the hospital stay of patients admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and intensive care unit (ICU) of 5 medical centers across Kuwait...
February 3, 2017: Virology Journal
Gaia Muallem, Sagie Wagage, Yan Sun, Jonathan H DeLong, Alex Valenzuela, David A Christian, Gretchen Harms Pritchard, Qun Fang, Elizabeth L Buza, Deepika Jain, M Merle Elloso, Carolina B López, Christopher A Hunter
Respiratory paramyxoviruses are important causes of morbidity and mortality, particularly of infants and the elderly. In humans, a T helper (Th)2-biased immune response to these infections is associated with increased disease severity; however, little is known about the endogenous regulators of these responses that may be manipulated to ameliorate pathology. IL-27, a cytokine that regulates Th2 responses, is produced in the lungs during parainfluenza infection, but its role in disease pathogenesis is unknown...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
M A G Rabbani, Sailen Barik
Interferon (IFN) exerts its antiviral effect by inducing a large family of cellular genes, named interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs). An intriguing member of this family is indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of the main branch of tryptophan (Trp) degradation, the kynurenine pathway. We recently showed that IDO strongly inhibits human parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3), a significant respiratory pathogen. Here, we show that 5-hydoxytryptophan (5-HTP), the first product of an alternative branch of Trp degradation and a serotonin precursor, is essential to protect virus growth against IDO in cell culture...
March 2017: Virology
Aistė Bulavaitė, Rita Lasickienė, Paulius Lukas Tamošiūnas, Martynas Simanavičius, Kęstutis Sasnauskas, Aurelija Žvirblienė
The aim of this study was to produce human parainfluenza virus type 4 (HPIV4) nucleocapsid (N) protein in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression system, to explore its structural and antigenic properties and to evaluate its applicability in serology. The use of an optimized gene encoding HPIV4 N protein amino acid (aa) sequence GenBank AGU90031.1 allowed high yield of recombinant N protein forming nucleocapsid-like particles (NLPs) in yeast. A substitution L332D disrupted self-assembly of NLPs, confirming the role of this position in the N proteins of Paramyxovirinae...
April 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
H Zhao, R J Harris, J Ellis, M Donati, R G Pebody
Human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infections are one of the commonest causes of upper and lower respiratory tract infections. In order to determine if there have been any recent changes in HPIV epidemiology in England and Wales, laboratory surveillance data between 1998 and 2013 were analysed. The UK national laboratory surveillance database, LabBase, and the newly established laboratory-based virological surveillance system, the Respiratory DataMart System (RDMS), were used. Descriptive analysis was performed to examine the distribution of cases by year, age, sex and serotype, and to examine the overall temporal trend using the χ 2 test...
January 18, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
Adriana Calderaro, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Isabella Rodighiero, Mirko Buttrini, Sara Montecchini, Rosita Vasile Simone, Maria Cristina Medici, Carlo Chezzi, Flora De Conto
In this study matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), a reliable identification method for the diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infections, is presented as an innovative tool to investigate the protein profile of cell cultures infected by the most common viruses causing respiratory tract infections in humans. MALDI-TOF MS was applied to the identification of influenza A and B viruses, adenovirus C species, parainfluenza virus types 1, 2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, echovirus, cytomegalovirus and metapneumovirus...
October 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sumana Fathima, Kimberley Simmonds, Jesse Invik, Allison N Scott, Steven Drews
BACKGROUND: Human Parainfluenza Virus (hPIV) causes severe respiratory illness in infants and adults. Our study describes the association of hPIV1-4 with bronchiolitis, croup, and pneumonia using retrospective laboratory, administrative and public health data. Due to issues including the historic lack of hPIV4 in some commercial respiratory virus panels, the description of the impact of hPIV4 on croup, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia at population levels has often been limited. This study will use routine clinical laboratory data, and administrative data to provide a preliminary description of the impact of hPIV4 on these diseases in our population...
August 11, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Keisuke Ohta, Hideo Goto, Yusuke Matsumoto, Natsuko Yumine, Masato Tsurudome, Machiko Nishio
UNLABELLED: Rho GTPases are involved in a variety of cellular activities and are regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). We found that the activation of Rho GTPases by lysophosphatidic acid promotes the growth of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2). Furthermore, hPIV-2 infection causes activation of RhoA, a Rho GTPase. We hypothesized that Graf1 (also known as ARHGAP26), a GAP, regulates hPIV-2 growth by controlling RhoA signaling...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Jizong Li, Wenliang Li, Li Mao, Fei Hao, Leilei Yang, Wenwen Zhang, Jieyuan Jiang
Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) is one of the most important respiratory pathogens for humans and many animals. A novel caprine PIV3 (CPIV3) was recently identified and isolated from Chinese goat flocks with respiratory disease. In order to develop rapid and sensitive methods for CPIV3 detection in infected goats, a TaqMan RT-qPCR was established in this study based on the primers and probe designed to amplify a 150 nucleotide-long region located within the M gene of the virus. The method was able to detect about 1...
October 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Wenliang Li, Fei Hao, Li Mao, Zhongyu Wang, Tianci Zhou, Jiawu Deng, Jizong Li, Wenwen Zhang, Leilei Yang, Yingjun Lv, Jieyuan Jiang
Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) is one of the most important viral respiratory pathogens for humans and for many animals, but goat infection has been rarely reported. In 2014, one novel PIV3 strain was first isolated from goats suffered respiratory diseases in Jiangsu and Anhui provinces of eastern China and named as caprine PIV3 (CPIV3) JS2013. In order to systematically evaluate the pathogenicity and horizontal transmission ability of this new virus, experimental infection of goats with the CPIV3 strain was done...
September 2, 2016: Virus Research
Hideo Goto, Keisuke Ohta, Yusuke Matsumoto, Natsuko Yumine, Machiko Nishio
UNLABELLED: Receptor destruction has been considered one of the mechanisms of homologous Sendai virus (SeV) interference. However, direct evidence of receptor destruction upon virus infection and its relevance to interference is missing. To investigate a precise mechanism of homologous interference, we established SeV persistently infected cells. The persistently infected cells inhibited superinfection by homologous SeV but supported replication of human parainfluenza virus 2 (hPIV2) and influenza A virus (IAV)...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Ni-Guang Xiao, Zhao-Jun Duan, Zhi-Ping Xie, Li-Li Zhong, Sai-Zhen Zeng, Han-Huang, Han-Chun Gao, Bing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are an important cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs). HPIV-4, a newly identified virus, has been associated with severe ALRTIs recently. METHODS: A total of 771 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples were collected from hospitalized children between March 2010 and February 2011. HPIVs were detected by Nest -PCR, and other known respiratory viruses were detected by RT-PCR and PCR. All amplification products were sequenced...
May 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
M Anjaneya Swamy, Bharti Malhotra, P V Janardhan Reddy, Neeraj Kumar, Jitendra Kumar Tiwari, M L Gupta
OBJECTIVE: To study the distribution of Human Parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) 1-4 and their trends in children ≤5 y of age, hospitalised at a tertiary care centre, Jaipur and co-infection with other respiratory viruses. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal aspirate and throat swabs were collected and processed for extraction of nucleic acid using automated extraction system and real time RT-PCR was performed using primers and probes specific to HPIV 1-4 and other respiratory viruses on 743 samples...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Yusuke Matsumoto, Keisuke Ohta, Hideo Goto, Machiko Nishio
Gene expression of paramyxoviruses is regulated by genome-encoded cis-acting elements; however, whether all the required elements for viral growth have been identified is not clear. Using a mini-replicon system, it has been shown that human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2) polymerase can recognize the promoter elements of parainfluenza virus type 5 (PIV5), but reporter activity is lower in this case. We constructed a series of luciferase-encoding chimeric PIV2/5 mini-genomes that are basically hPIV2, but whose leader (le), mRNA start signal and trailer sequence are partially replaced with those of PIV5...
July 2016: Journal of General Virology
Maja Šantak, Anamarija Slović, Sunčanica Ljubin-Sternak, Gordana Mlinarić Galinović, Dubravko Forčić
The dynamics and evolution of the human parainfluenza virus type 2 (HPIV2) in Croatia, and also globally, are largely unknown. Most HPIV2 infections are treated symptomatically outside the hospital setting. Thus, the diagnosis is missing making it difficult to follow the genetic variation and evolution of the HPIV2. This study explores hospitalized HPIV2 cases in Croatia during 4-year period (2011-2014). Most cases in this period were reported in October or November (68.75%) and most of patients were under 2 years of age (81...
October 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Xin Qian, Xinfeng Yu, Min Zhao, Yu Kou, Jun Li, Yinyan Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To determine the level of genetic variation of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV-3), and to describe infection and co-infection characteristics of HPIV-3 in children. METHODS: Single respiratory samples from 856 pediatric patients with acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) in Hangzhou were collected from December 2009 to March 2013. All samples were screened for HPIV-3 by real-time RT-PCR and followed by HN sequencing and phylogenetic analysis...
March 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Glen R Abedi, Mila M Prill, Gayle E Langley, Mary E Wikswo, Geoffrey A Weinberg, Aaron T Curns, Eileen Schneider
BACKGROUND: Parainfluenza virus (PIV) is the second leading cause of hospitalization for respiratory illness in young children in the United States. Infection can result in a full range of respiratory illness, including bronchiolitis, croup, and pneumonia. The recognized human subtypes of PIV are numbered 1-4. This study calculates estimates of PIV-associated hospitalizations among U.S. children younger than 5 years using the latest available data. METHODS: Data from the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System were used to characterize seasonal PIV trends from July 2004 through June 2010...
March 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Aistė Bulavaitė, Rita Lasickienė, Aušra Vaitiekaitė, Kęstutis Sasnauskas, Aurelija Žvirblienė
The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression system for the production of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (HPIV2) nucleocapsid (N) protein in the form of nucleocapsid-like particles (NLPs) and to characterize its antigenic structure. The gene encoding HPIV2 N amino acid (aa) sequence RefSeq NP_598401.1 was cloned into the galactose-inducible S. cerevisiae expression vector and its high-level expression was achieved. However, this recombinant HPIV2 N protein did not form NLPs...
May 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Dan Wang, Liling Chen, Yunfang Ding, Jun Zhang, Jun Hua, Qian Geng, Xuerong Ya, Shanshan Zeng, Jing Wu, Yanwei Jiang, Tao Zhang, Genming Zhao
Limited information is available on the non-influenza etiology and epidemiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) in China. From April 2011 to March 2014, we collected oropharyngeal swabs from children less than 5 years of age with symptoms of ILI who presented to the outpatient departments of Suzhou University Affiliated Children's Hospital (SCH). We used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) or PCR to detect 11 respiratory viruses. Among 3,662 enrolled ILI patients, 1,292 (35.3%) tested positive for at least one virus...
August 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
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