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Human parainfluenza virus type 2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666961/a-novel-sampling-method-to-detect-airborne-influenza-and-other-respiratory-viruses-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients-a-feasibility-study
#1
Alicia B Mitchell, Benjamin Tang, Maryam Shojaei, Lachlan S Barnes, Marek Nalos, Brian G Oliver, Anthony S McLean
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viruses circulate constantly in the ambient air. The risk of opportunistic infection from these viruses can be increased in mechanically ventilated patients. The present study evaluates the feasibility of detecting airborne respiratory viruses in mechanically ventilated patients using a novel sample collection method involving ventilator filters. METHODS: We collected inspiratory and expiratory filters from the ventilator circuits of mechanically ventilated patients in an intensive care unit over a 14-month period...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485395/human-parainfluenza-virus-type-2-v-protein-inhibits-caspase-1
#2
Keisuke Ohta, Yusuke Matsumoto, Machiko Nishio
The multifunctional V protein of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2) plays important roles in controlling viral genome replication, inhibiting the host interferon response and promoting virus growth. We screened a yeast two-hybrid library using V protein as bait to identify host factors that are important for other functions of V. One of several positive clones isolated from HeLa cell-derived cDNA library encodes caspase-1. We found that the C-terminal region of V interacts with the C-terminal region of caspase-1 in mammalian cells...
February 27, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444614/in-vitro-anti-influenza-virus-effect-of-total-flavonoid-from-trollius-ledebouri-reichb
#3
Yongping Liu, Jiming Tong, Ying Tong, Ping Li, Xiaolan Cui, Hongbao Cao
Objective To investigate the in vitro antivirus effect of total flavonoid from Trollius ledebouri Reichb (TFTLR). Methods Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Human epithelial type 2 (HEp-2) cell lines were used to test the antivirus effect of TFTLR on nine virus subtypes: four H1N1, one H3N2, and four other subtypes prevalent in North China. Tamiflu, Ribavirin and Lianhua Qingwen were used as active comparators. Comprehensive molecular pathway analyses of TFTLR-H1N1 and TFTLR-H3N2 relationships were also conducted...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374787/rab27a-facilitates-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-2-growth-by-promoting-cell-surface-transport-of-envelope-proteins
#4
Keisuke Ohta, Yusuke Matsumoto, Machiko Nishio
Human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2) proteins and genomes newly synthesized in the cytoplasm need to be transported to the plasma membrane where budding occurs. This mechanism, where Rab proteins regulate intracellular traffic by switching between GTP-bound active form and GDP-bound inactive form, is not fully understood. mRNA and protein expression levels of Rab8a, Rab11a, and Rab27a are not altered by hPIV-2 infection. hPIV-2 growth is affected by depletion of Rab27a but not Rab8a and Rab11a. Overexpression of a constitutively active mutant of Rab27a Q78L promotes the cell surface levels of fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) proteins in hPIV-2-infected cells without affecting viral mRNA levels...
January 27, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358233/the-control-of-paramyxovirus-genome-hexamer-length-and-mrna-editing
#5
Yusuke Matsumoto, Keisuke Ohta, Daniel Kolakofsky, Machiko Nishio
The unusual ability of a human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2) nucleoprotein point mutation (NPQ202A ) to strongly enhance minigenome replication was found to depend on the absence of a functional, internal element of the bipartite replication promoter (CRII). This point mutation allows relatively robust CRII-minus minigenome replication in a CRII-independent manner, under conditions in which NPwt is essentially inactive. The nature of the amino acid at position 202 apparently controls whether viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRdRp) can, or cannot, initiate RNA synthesis in a CRII-independent manner...
April 2018: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343567/parainfluenza-virus-infection-sensitizes-cancer-cells-to-dna-damaging-agents-implications-for-oncolytic-virus-therapy
#6
Candace R Fox, Griffith D Parks
We have previously shown that the Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) mutant P/V-CPI- is restricted for spread in normal cells but not in cancer cells in vitro and is effective at reducing tumor burden in mouse model systems. Here we show that P/V-CPI- infection of human laryngeal cancer HEp-2 cells results in the majority of the cells dying, but unexpectedly, over time there is an emergence of a population of cells which survive as P/V-CPI- persistently infected (PI) cells. P/V-CPI- PI cells had elevated levels of basal caspase activation, and viability was highly dependent on activity of cellular inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) such as Survivin and XIAP...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279454/human-parainfluenza-virus-type-3-infections-in-patients-with-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplants-the-mode-of-nosocomial-infections-and-prognosis
#7
Satsuki Kakiuchi, Masanori Tsuji, Hidekazu Nishimura, Lixing Wang, Mutsuyo Takayama-Ito, Hitomi Kinoshita, Chang-Kweng Lim, Shuichi Taniguchi, Akira Oka, Masashi Mizuguchi, Masayuki Saijo
There have been a few prospective and comprehensive surveillance studies on the respiratory viral infections (RVIs) among patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). A 2-year prospective cohort surveillance study of symptomatic and asymptomatic RVIs was performed in hospitalized HSCT patients. Oropharyngeal (OP) swab samples were serially collected each week from 1 week before and up to 100 days after HSCT and were tested for virus isolation with cell culture-based viral isolation (CC-based VI) and a multiplex PCR (MPCR)...
March 22, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071818/evaluation-of-allplex-respiratory-panel-1-2-3-multiplex-real-time-pcr-assays-for-the-detection-of-respiratory-viruses-with-influenza-a-virus-subtyping
#8
Jaehyeon Lee, Hye Soo Lee, Yong Gon Cho, Sam Im Choi, Dal Sik Kim
The Allplex Respiratory Panel 1/2/3 (All16) is a multiplex PCR assay for detecting 16 respiratory viruses with influenza A virus (FluA) subtyping, and the first clinical assay based on multiple detection temperatures. We compared the results between All16 and Anyplex II RV16 (Any16) in 426 clinical samples. Samples showing discrepancies between the two tests were further tested using monoplex PCR. FluA subtyping based on the hemagglutinin type results of All16, which yielded H1, H3, and non-H1/H3, was compared with the results of the BioFire FilmArray respiratory panel...
January 2018: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070744/glycyrrhizin-inhibits-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-2-replication-by-the-inhibition-of-genome-rna-mrna-and-protein-syntheses
#9
Kae Sakai-Sugino, Jun Uematsu, Miyuki Kamada, Hiroe Taniguchi, Saori Suzuki, Yumiko Yoshimi, Sahoko Kihira, Hidetaka Yamamoto, Mitsuo Kawano, Masato Tsurudome, Myles O'Brien, Makoto Itoh, Hiroshi Komada
The effect of glycyrrhizin on the replication of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2) was examined. Cell fusion induced by hPIV-2 was inhibited by glycyrrhizin, and glycyrrhizin reduced the number of viruses released from the cells. Glycyrrhizin did not change cell morphology at 1 day of culture, but caused some damage at 4 days, as determined by the effect on actin microfilaments. However, it affected the cell viability at 1 day: about 20% of the cells were not alive by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay at 1 day of culture...
October 24, 2017: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975629/etiology-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-1500-hospitalized-children
#10
Hao Oumei, Wang Xuefeng, Liu Jianping, Shen Kunling, Ma Rong, Cui Zhenze, Deng Li, Yan Huimin, Wang Lining, Liu Zhaolan, Li Xinmin, Xu Hua, Jiang Zhiyan, Li Yanning, Huang Yan, Zhang Baoqing, Feng Xiaochun, He Chunhui, Jiang Yonghong, Zhao Xue, Wei Wei, Wang Zi
Childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common illness; however, comprehensive studies of hospitalizations for CAP among children in China based on prospective and multicenter data collection are limited. The aim of this investigation was to determine the respiratory pathogens responsible for CAP in hospitalized children. From January to December 2015, oropharyngeal swabs and blood serum were collected from hospitalized children with CAP symptoms ranging in age from 6 months to 14 years at 10 hospitals across China...
March 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963878/human-parainfluenza-virus-surveillance-in-pediatric-patients-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-a-special-view-of-parainfluenza-type-4
#11
Luciano M Thomazelli, Danielle B L de Oliveira, Giuliana S Durigon, Brett Whitaker, Shifaq Kamili, Eitan N Berezin, Edison L Durigon
OBJECTIVE: Characterize the role of human parainfluenza virus and its clinical features in Brazilian children under 2 years of age presenting with acute lower respiratory tract infections. METHODS: Real-time assays were used to identify strains of human parainfluenza virus and other common respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates. One thousand and two children presenting with acute lower respiratory tract illnesses were enrolled from February 2008 to August 2010...
September 27, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884293/human-parainfluenza-virus-type-2-polymerase-complex-recognizes-leader-promoters-of-other-species-belonging-to-the-genus-rubulavirus
#12
Yusuke Matsumoto, Keisuke Ohta, Machiko Nishio
Leader sequence, located at the 3' terminus of paramyxovirus genomes, determines the degree of viral transcription and replication. The essential nucleotides in the leader sequence that influence viral propagation, however, have not been investigated in detail. In the present study, we show that polymerase complex of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2) uses a luciferase-encoding hPIV2 mini-genome possessing the leader sequence from other closely related viruses as a template. Furthermore, we demonstrate that although hPIV2 polymerase complex can recognize the leader sequence of hPIV4B, mumps virus (MuV) and PIV5 as well as Newcastle disease virus (NDV), it cannot recognize measles virus, hPIV1, Sendai virus (SeV) or hPIV3...
December 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763071/prevalence-of-respiratory-viruses-in-wheezing-children-not-older-than-24-months-of-age
#13
Martín Bedolla-Barajas, Hilda Montero, Jaime Morales-Romero, Adriana Landa-Cardeña, Jahaziel Díaz, Netzahualpilli Delgado-Figueroa, Luis Gustavo Orozco-Alatorre
INTRODUCTION: Wheezing in children not older than 24 months of age is a frequent event, and viruses are usually the causative agents. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of respiratory viruses in wheezing children who were not older than 24 months of age and who had no history of asthma. METHODS: Fifty-five Mexican children were included in an analytical cross-sectional study. Nasal secretions were obtained by using sterile rayon-tipped applicators to identify the virus by polymerase chain reaction or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction: adenovirus, bocavirus, human rhinovirus, influenza virus type A, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza, rhinovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus...
May 2017: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715293/surveillance-for-antibodies-against-six-canine-viruses-in-wild-raccoons-procyon-lotor-in-japan
#14
Emiko Aoki, Takehisa Soma, Mayumi Yokoyama, Makoto Matsubayashi, Kazumi Sasai
Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are found worldwide. They are frequently seen in crowded inner cities as well as in forests or wooded areas, often living in proximity to humans and their pets. We examined sera from 100 wild raccoons in Japan for antibodies to six canine viruses with veterinary significance to assess their potential as reservoirs. We also aimed to understand the distribution of potentially infected wildlife. We found that 7% of samples were seropositive for canine distemper virus (CDV), 10% for canine parvovirus type 2, 2% for canine adenovirus type 1, 6% for canine adenovirus type 2, and 7% for canine coronavirus...
October 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466381/tetherin-antagonism-by-v-proteins-is-a-common-trait-among-the-genus-rubulavirus
#15
Keisuke Ohta, Yusuke Matsumoto, Morihiro Ito, Machiko Nishio
Tetherin (BST-2/CD317/HM1.24) is an anti-viral factor that restricts the budding of several enveloped viruses. Most of these viruses have evolved to encode tetherin antagonists. Our previous study demonstrated that the growth of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2), a member of the genus Rubulavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae, was inhibited by tetherin, and its V protein decreases the amount of cell surface tetherin by the interaction. In the present study, we investigated whether tetherin inhibits the growth of other rubulaviruses including PIV-5, mumps virus (MuV), simian virus 41, and hPIV-4, and whether their V proteins act as tetherin antagonists...
August 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455649/human-parainfluenza-virus-type-2%C3%A2-v-protein-inhibits-induction-of-tetherin
#16
Keisuke Ohta, Yusuke Matsumoto, Natsuko Yumine, Machiko Nishio
Tetherin is an anti-viral factor that restricts viral budding through tethering virions to the cell surface. The human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2) V protein decreases cell surface tetherin in HeLa cells, which constitutively express endogenous tetherin. However, the role of the hPIV-2 V protein in tetherin induction remains unclear. Here, we examined whether hPIV-2 infection itself induces tetherin in HEK293 cells that have no basal expression of tetherin. Unlike influenza A virus (IAV) infection, hPIV-2 infection induced neither tetherin mRNA nor protein expression...
August 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179533/a-point-mutation-in-the-rna-binding-domain-of-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-2-nucleoprotein-elicits-abnormally-enhanced-polymerase-activity
#17
Yusuke Matsumoto, Keisuke Ohta, Daniel Kolakofsky, Machiko Nishio
The genome RNA of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2) that acts as the template for the polymerase complex is entirely encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (NP). Recently, the crystal structure of NP of PIV5, a virus closely related to hPIV2, was resolved in association with RNA. Ten amino acids that contact the bound RNA were identified and are strictly conserved between PIV5 and hPIV2 NP. Mutation of hPIV2 NP Q202 (which contacts a base rather than the RNA backbone) to various amino acids resulted in an over 30-fold increase of polymerase activity as evidenced by a minireplicon assay, even though the RNA-binding affinity was unaltered...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159006/the-potential-influence-of-human-parainfluenza-viruses-detected-during-hospitalization-among-critically-ill-patients-in-kuwait-2013-2015
#18
Sahar Essa, Haya Al-Tawalah, Sarah AlShamali, Widad Al-Nakib
BACKGROUND: The four types of human parainfluenza viruses (PIV) are important causes of community-acquired pneumonia, particularly in children; however, limited information exists about the incidence of PIV in critically ill patients. The aim of this study is to describe the spectrum, incidence and clinical features of PIV-associated infections diagnosed during the hospital stay of patients admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and intensive care unit (ICU) of 5 medical centers across Kuwait...
February 3, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129374/il-27-limits-type-2-immunopathology-following-parainfluenza-virus-infection
#19
Gaia Muallem, Sagie Wagage, Yan Sun, Jonathan H DeLong, Alex Valenzuela, David A Christian, Gretchen Harms Pritchard, Qun Fang, Elizabeth L Buza, Deepika Jain, M Merle Elloso, Carolina B López, Christopher A Hunter
Respiratory paramyxoviruses are important causes of morbidity and mortality, particularly of infants and the elderly. In humans, a T helper (Th)2-biased immune response to these infections is associated with increased disease severity; however, little is known about the endogenous regulators of these responses that may be manipulated to ameliorate pathology. IL-27, a cytokine that regulates Th2 responses, is produced in the lungs during parainfluenza infection, but its role in disease pathogenesis is unknown...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113063/5-hydroxytryptophan-a-major-product-of-tryptophan-degradation-is-essential-for-optimal-replication-of-human-parainfluenza-virus
#20
M A G Rabbani, Sailen Barik
Interferon (IFN) exerts its antiviral effect by inducing a large family of cellular genes, named interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs). An intriguing member of this family is indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of the main branch of tryptophan (Trp) degradation, the kynurenine pathway. We recently showed that IDO strongly inhibits human parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3), a significant respiratory pathogen. Here, we show that 5-hydoxytryptophan (5-HTP), the first product of an alternative branch of Trp degradation and a serotonin precursor, is essential to protect virus growth against IDO in cell culture...
March 2017: Virology
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