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Human parainfluenza virus type 2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975629/etiology-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-1500-hospitalized-children
#1
Oumei Hao, Xuefeng Wang, Jianping Liu, Kunling Shen, Rong Ma, Zhenze Cui, Li Deng, Huimin Yan, Lining Wang, Zhaolan Liu, Xinmin Li, Hua Xu, Zhiyan Jiang, Yanning Li, Yan Huang, Baoqing Zhang, Xiaochun Feng, Chunhui He, Yonghong Jiang, Xue Zhao, Wei Wei, Zi Wang
Childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common illness; however, comprehensive studies of hospitalizations for CAP among children in China based on prospective and multicenter data collection are limited. The aim of this investigation was to determine the respiratory pathogens responsible for CAP in hospitalized children. From January to December 2015, oropharyngeal swabs and blood serum were collected from hospitalized children with CAP symptoms ranging in age from 6 months to 14 years at 10 hospitals across China...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963878/human-parainfluenza-virus-surveillance-in-pediatric-patients-with-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-a-special-view-of-parainfluenza-type-4
#2
Luciano M Thomazelli, Danielle B L de Oliveira, Giuliana S Durigon, Brett Whitaker, Shifaq Kamili, Eitan N Berezin, Edison L Durigon
OBJECTIVE: Characterize the role of human parainfluenza virus and its clinical features in Brazilian children under 2 years of age presenting with acute lower respiratory tract infections. METHODS: Real-time assays were used to identify strains of human parainfluenza virus and other common respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates. One thousand and two children presenting with acute lower respiratory tract illnesses were enrolled from February 2008 to August 2010...
September 27, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884293/human-parainfluenza-virus-type-2-polymerase-complex-recognizes-leader-promoters-of-other-species-belonging-to-the-genus-rubulavirus
#3
Yusuke Matsumoto, Keisuke Ohta, Machiko Nishio
Leader sequence, located at the 3' terminus of paramyxovirus genomes, determines the degree of viral transcription and replication. The essential nucleotides in the leader sequence that influence viral propagation, however, have not been investigated in detail. In the present study, we show that polymerase complex of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2) uses a luciferase-encoding hPIV2 mini-genome possessing the leader sequence from other closely related viruses as a template. Furthermore, we demonstrate that although hPIV2 polymerase complex can recognize the leader sequence of hPIV4B, mumps virus (MuV) and PIV5 as well as Newcastle disease virus (NDV), it cannot recognize measles virus, hPIV1, Sendai virus (SeV) or hPIV3...
September 7, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763071/prevalence-of-respiratory-viruses-in-wheezing-children-not-older-than-24-months-of-age
#4
Martín Bedolla-Barajas, Hilda Montero, Jaime Morales-Romero, Adriana Landa-Cardeña, Jahaziel Díaz, Netzahualpilli Delgado-Figueroa, Luis Gustavo Orozco-Alatorre
INTRODUCTION: Wheezing in children not older than 24 months of age is a frequent event, and viruses are usually the causative agents. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of respiratory viruses in wheezing children who were not older than 24 months of age and who had no history of asthma. METHODS: Fifty-five Mexican children were included in an analytical cross-sectional study. Nasal secretions were obtained by using sterile rayon-tipped applicators to identify the virus by polymerase chain reaction or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction: adenovirus, bocavirus, human rhinovirus, influenza virus type A, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza, rhinovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus...
May 2017: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715293/surveillance-for-antibodies-against-six-canine-viruses-in-wild-raccoons-procyon-lotor-in-japan
#5
Emiko Aoki, Takehisa Soma, Mayumi Yokoyama, Makoto Matsubayashi, Kazumi Sasai
Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are found worldwide. They are frequently seen in crowded inner cities as well as in forests or wooded areas, often living in proximity to humans and their pets. We examined sera from 100 wild raccoons in Japan for antibodies to six canine viruses with veterinary significance to assess their potential as reservoirs. We also aimed to understand the distribution of potentially infected wildlife. We found that 7% of samples were seropositive for canine distemper virus (CDV), 10% for canine parvovirus type 2, 2% for canine adenovirus type 1, 6% for canine adenovirus type 2, and 7% for canine coronavirus...
October 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466381/tetherin-antagonism-by-v-proteins-is-a-common-trait-among-the-genus-rubulavirus
#6
Keisuke Ohta, Yusuke Matsumoto, Morihiro Ito, Machiko Nishio
Tetherin (BST-2/CD317/HM1.24) is an anti-viral factor that restricts the budding of several enveloped viruses. Most of these viruses have evolved to encode tetherin antagonists. Our previous study demonstrated that the growth of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2), a member of the genus Rubulavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae, was inhibited by tetherin, and its V protein decreases the amount of cell surface tetherin by the interaction. In the present study, we investigated whether tetherin inhibits the growth of other rubulaviruses including PIV-5, mumps virus (MuV), simian virus 41, and hPIV-4, and whether their V proteins act as tetherin antagonists...
August 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455649/human-parainfluenza-virus-type-2%C3%A2-v-protein-inhibits-induction-of-tetherin
#7
Keisuke Ohta, Yusuke Matsumoto, Natsuko Yumine, Machiko Nishio
Tetherin is an anti-viral factor that restricts viral budding through tethering virions to the cell surface. The human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2) V protein decreases cell surface tetherin in HeLa cells, which constitutively express endogenous tetherin. However, the role of the hPIV-2 V protein in tetherin induction remains unclear. Here, we examined whether hPIV-2 infection itself induces tetherin in HEK293 cells that have no basal expression of tetherin. Unlike influenza A virus (IAV) infection, hPIV-2 infection induced neither tetherin mRNA nor protein expression...
August 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179533/a-point-mutation-in-the-rna-binding-domain-of-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-2-nucleoprotein-elicits-abnormally-enhanced-polymerase-activity
#8
Yusuke Matsumoto, Keisuke Ohta, Daniel Kolakofsky, Machiko Nishio
The genome RNA of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2) that acts as the template for the polymerase complex is entirely encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (NP). Recently, the crystal structure of NP of PIV5, a virus closely related to hPIV2, was resolved in association with RNA. Ten amino acids that contact the bound RNA were identified and are strictly conserved between PIV5 and hPIV2 NP. Mutation of hPIV2 NP Q202 (which contacts a base rather than the RNA backbone) to various amino acids resulted in an over 30-fold increase of polymerase activity as evidenced by a minireplicon assay, even though the RNA-binding affinity was unaltered...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159006/the-potential-influence-of-human-parainfluenza-viruses-detected-during-hospitalization-among-critically-ill-patients-in-kuwait-2013-2015
#9
Sahar Essa, Haya Al-Tawalah, Sarah AlShamali, Widad Al-Nakib
BACKGROUND: The four types of human parainfluenza viruses (PIV) are important causes of community-acquired pneumonia, particularly in children; however, limited information exists about the incidence of PIV in critically ill patients. The aim of this study is to describe the spectrum, incidence and clinical features of PIV-associated infections diagnosed during the hospital stay of patients admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and intensive care unit (ICU) of 5 medical centers across Kuwait...
February 3, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129374/il-27-limits-type-2-immunopathology-following-parainfluenza-virus-infection
#10
Gaia Muallem, Sagie Wagage, Yan Sun, Jonathan H DeLong, Alex Valenzuela, David A Christian, Gretchen Harms Pritchard, Qun Fang, Elizabeth L Buza, Deepika Jain, M Merle Elloso, Carolina B López, Christopher A Hunter
Respiratory paramyxoviruses are important causes of morbidity and mortality, particularly of infants and the elderly. In humans, a T helper (Th)2-biased immune response to these infections is associated with increased disease severity; however, little is known about the endogenous regulators of these responses that may be manipulated to ameliorate pathology. IL-27, a cytokine that regulates Th2 responses, is produced in the lungs during parainfluenza infection, but its role in disease pathogenesis is unknown...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113063/5-hydroxytryptophan-a-major-product-of-tryptophan-degradation-is-essential-for-optimal-replication-of-human-parainfluenza-virus
#11
M A G Rabbani, Sailen Barik
Interferon (IFN) exerts its antiviral effect by inducing a large family of cellular genes, named interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs). An intriguing member of this family is indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of the main branch of tryptophan (Trp) degradation, the kynurenine pathway. We recently showed that IDO strongly inhibits human parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3), a significant respiratory pathogen. Here, we show that 5-hydoxytryptophan (5-HTP), the first product of an alternative branch of Trp degradation and a serotonin precursor, is essential to protect virus growth against IDO in cell culture...
March 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102432/synthesis-of-human-parainfluenza-virus-4-nucleocapsid-like-particles-in-yeast-and-their-use-for-detection-of-virus-specific-antibodies-in-human-serum
#12
Aistė Bulavaitė, Rita Lasickienė, Paulius Lukas Tamošiūnas, Martynas Simanavičius, Kęstutis Sasnauskas, Aurelija Žvirblienė
The aim of this study was to produce human parainfluenza virus type 4 (HPIV4) nucleocapsid (N) protein in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expression system, to explore its structural and antigenic properties and to evaluate its applicability in serology. The use of an optimized gene encoding HPIV4 N protein amino acid (aa) sequence GenBank AGU90031.1 allowed high yield of recombinant N protein forming nucleocapsid-like particles (NLPs) in yeast. A substitution L332D disrupted self-assembly of NLPs, confirming the role of this position in the N proteins of Paramyxovirinae...
April 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095926/epidemiology-of-parainfluenza-infection-in-england-and-wales-1998-2013-any-evidence-of-change
#13
H Zhao, R J Harris, J Ellis, M Donati, R G Pebody
Human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infections are one of the commonest causes of upper and lower respiratory tract infections. In order to determine if there have been any recent changes in HPIV epidemiology in England and Wales, laboratory surveillance data between 1998 and 2013 were analysed. The UK national laboratory surveillance database, LabBase, and the newly established laboratory-based virological surveillance system, the Respiratory DataMart System (RDMS), were used. Descriptive analysis was performed to examine the distribution of cases by year, age, sex and serotype, and to examine the overall temporal trend using the χ 2 test...
April 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786297/identification-of-different-respiratory-viruses-after-a-cell-culture-step-by-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-maldi-tof-ms
#14
Adriana Calderaro, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Isabella Rodighiero, Mirko Buttrini, Sara Montecchini, Rosita Vasile Simone, Maria Cristina Medici, Carlo Chezzi, Flora De Conto
In this study matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), a reliable identification method for the diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infections, is presented as an innovative tool to investigate the protein profile of cell cultures infected by the most common viruses causing respiratory tract infections in humans. MALDI-TOF MS was applied to the identification of influenza A and B viruses, adenovirus C species, parainfluenza virus types 1, 2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, echovirus, cytomegalovirus and metapneumovirus...
October 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514690/use-of-laboratory-and-administrative-data-to-understand-the-potential-impact-of-human-parainfluenza-virus-4-on-cases-of-bronchiolitis-croup-and-pneumonia-in-alberta-canada
#15
Sumana Fathima, Kimberley Simmonds, Jesse Invik, Allison N Scott, Steven Drews
BACKGROUND: Human Parainfluenza Virus (hPIV) causes severe respiratory illness in infants and adults. Our study describes the association of hPIV1-4 with bronchiolitis, croup, and pneumonia using retrospective laboratory, administrative and public health data. Due to issues including the historic lack of hPIV4 in some commercial respiratory virus panels, the description of the impact of hPIV4 on croup, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia at population levels has often been limited. This study will use routine clinical laboratory data, and administrative data to provide a preliminary description of the impact of hPIV4 on these diseases in our population...
August 11, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512058/graf1-controls-the-growth-of-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-2-through-inactivation-of-rhoa-signaling
#16
Keisuke Ohta, Hideo Goto, Yusuke Matsumoto, Natsuko Yumine, Masato Tsurudome, Machiko Nishio
UNLABELLED: Rho GTPases are involved in a variety of cellular activities and are regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). We found that the activation of Rho GTPases by lysophosphatidic acid promotes the growth of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2). Furthermore, hPIV-2 infection causes activation of RhoA, a Rho GTPase. We hypothesized that Graf1 (also known as ARHGAP26), a GAP, regulates hPIV-2 growth by controlling RhoA signaling...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448824/rapid-detection-of-novel-caprine-parainfluenza-virus-type-3-cpiv3-using-a-taqman-based-rt-qpcr
#17
Jizong Li, Wenliang Li, Li Mao, Fei Hao, Leilei Yang, Wenwen Zhang, Jieyuan Jiang
Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) is one of the most important respiratory pathogens for humans and many animals. A novel caprine PIV3 (CPIV3) was recently identified and isolated from Chinese goat flocks with respiratory disease. In order to develop rapid and sensitive methods for CPIV3 detection in infected goats, a TaqMan RT-qPCR was established in this study based on the primers and probe designed to amplify a 150 nucleotide-long region located within the M gene of the virus. The method was able to detect about 1...
October 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27374058/pathogenicity-and-horizontal-transmission-studies-of-caprine-parainfluenza-virus-type-3-js2013-strain-in-goats
#18
Wenliang Li, Fei Hao, Li Mao, Zhongyu Wang, Tianci Zhou, Jiawu Deng, Jizong Li, Wenwen Zhang, Leilei Yang, Yingjun Lv, Jieyuan Jiang
Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) is one of the most important viral respiratory pathogens for humans and for many animals, but goat infection has been rarely reported. In 2014, one novel PIV3 strain was first isolated from goats suffered respiratory diseases in Jiangsu and Anhui provinces of eastern China and named as caprine PIV3 (CPIV3) JS2013. In order to systematically evaluate the pathogenicity and horizontal transmission ability of this new virus, experimental infection of goats with the CPIV3 strain was done...
September 2, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27279623/evidence-that-receptor-destruction-by-the-sendai-virus-hemagglutinin-neuraminidase-protein-is-responsible-for-homologous-interference
#19
Hideo Goto, Keisuke Ohta, Yusuke Matsumoto, Natsuko Yumine, Machiko Nishio
UNLABELLED: Receptor destruction has been considered one of the mechanisms of homologous Sendai virus (SeV) interference. However, direct evidence of receptor destruction upon virus infection and its relevance to interference is missing. To investigate a precise mechanism of homologous interference, we established SeV persistently infected cells. The persistently infected cells inhibited superinfection by homologous SeV but supported replication of human parainfluenza virus 2 (hPIV2) and influenza A virus (IAV)...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197630/human-parainfluenza-virus-types-1-4-in-hospitalized-children-with-acute-lower-respiratory-infections-in-china
#20
Ni-Guang Xiao, Zhao-Jun Duan, Zhi-Ping Xie, Li-Li Zhong, Sai-Zhen Zeng, Han Huang, Han-Chun Gao, Bing Zhang
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are an important cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs). HPIV-4, a newly identified virus, has been associated with severe ALRTIs recently. A total of 771 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples were collected from hospitalized children between March 2010 and February 2011. HPIVs were detected by Nest-PCR, and other known respiratory viruses were detected by RT-PCR and PCR. All amplification products were sequenced. HPIVs were detected in 151 (19.58%) patients, of whom 28 (3...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
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