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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914211/micrornas-in-cardiovascular-disease-clinical-application
#1
Christian Schulte, Mahir Karakas, Tanja Zeller
microRNAs (miRNAs) are well-known, powerful regulators of gene expression, and their potential to serve as circulating biomarkers is widely accepted. In cardiovascular disease (CVD), numerous studies have suggested miRNAs as strong circulating biomarkers with high diagnostic as well as prognostic power. In coronary artery disease (CAD) and heart failure (HF), miRNAs have been suggested as reliable biomarkers matching up to established protein-based such as cardiac troponins (cT) or natriuretic peptides. Also, in other CVD entities, miRNAs were identified as surprisingly specific biomarkers - with great potential for clinical applicability, especially in those entities that lack specific protein-based biomarkers such as atrial fibrillation (AF) and acute pulmonary embolism (APE)...
December 3, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913821/theobromine-upregulates-osteogenesis-by-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vitro-and-accelerates-bone-development-in-rats
#2
Bret H Clough, Joni Ylostalo, Elizabeth Browder, Eoin P McNeill, Thomas J Bartosh, H Ralph Rawls, Tetsuo Nakamoto, Carl A Gregory
Theobromine (THB) is one of the major xanthine-like alkaloids found in cacao plant and a variety of other foodstuffs such as tea leaves, guarana and cola nuts. Historically, THB and its derivatives have been utilized to treat cardiac and circulatory disorders, drug-induced nephrotoxicity, proteinuria and as an immune-modulator. Our previous work demonstrated that THB has the capacity to improve the formation of hydroxyl-apatite during tooth development, suggesting that it may also enhance skeletal development...
December 2, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913566/th2-responses-are-primed-by-skin-dendritic-cells-with-distinct-transcriptional-profiles
#3
Lisa M Connor, Shiau-Choot Tang, Emmanuelle Cognard, Sotaro Ochiai, Kerry L Hilligan, Samuel I Old, Christophe Pellefigues, Ruby F White, Deepa Patel, Adam Alexander T Smith, David A Eccles, Olivier Lamiable, Melanie J McConnell, Franca Ronchese
The dendritic cell signals required for the in vivo priming of IL-4-producing T cells are unknown. We used RNA sequencing to characterize DCs from skin LN of mice exposed to two different Th2 stimuli: the helminth parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb) and the contact sensitizer dibutyl phthalate (DBP)-FITC. Both Nb and DBP-FITC induced extensive transcriptional changes that involved multiple DC subsets. Surprisingly, these transcriptional changes were highly distinct in the two models, with only a small number of genes being similarly regulated in both conditions...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913514/understanding-red-blood-cell-alloimmunization-triggers
#4
Jeanne E Hendrickson, Christopher A Tormey
Blood group alloimmunization is "triggered" when a person lacking a particular antigen is exposed to this antigen during transfusion or pregnancy. Although exposure to an antigen is necessary for alloimmunization to occur, it is not alone sufficient. Blood group antigens are diverse in structure, function, and immunogenicity. In addition to red blood cells (RBCs), a recipient of an RBC transfusion is exposed to donor plasma, white blood cells, and platelets; the potential contribution of these elements to RBC alloimmunization remains unclear...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913432/von-economo-neurons-and-fork-cells-a-neurochemical-signature-linked-to-monoaminergic-function
#5
Anke A Dijkstra, Li-Chun Lin, Alissa L Nana, Stephanie E Gaus, William W Seeley
The human anterior cingulate and frontoinsular cortices are distinguished by 2 unique Layer 5 neuronal morphotypes, the von Economo neurons (VENs) and fork cells, whose biological identity remains mysterious. Insights could impact research on diverse neuropsychiatric diseases to which these cells have been linked. Here, we leveraged the Allen Brain Atlas to evaluate mRNA expression of 176 neurotransmitter-related genes and identified vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor subunit θ (GABRQ), and adrenoreceptor α-1A (ADRA1A) expression in human VENs, fork cells, and a minority of neighboring Layer 5 neurons...
December 1, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913392/understanding-how-smoking-increases-cancer-risk
#6
(no author information available yet)
An in-depth computational analysis is helping to unravel the molecular mechanisms by which smoking increases the likelihood of cancer. The researchers uncovered several distinct smoking-related mutational signatures, including one thought to be the direct consequence of replicating carcinogen-damaged DNA, and another that may result in a normal clocklike mutational process being sped up.
December 2, 2016: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913361/constrained-null-space-component-analysis-for-semiblind-source-separation-problem
#7
Wen-Liang Hwang, Keng-Shih Lu, Jinn Ho
The blind source separation (BSS) problem extracts unknown sources from observations of their unknown mixtures. A current trend in BSS is the semiblind approach, which incorporates prior information on sources or how the sources are mixed. The constrained independent component analysis (ICA) approach has been studied to impose constraints on the famous ICA framework. We introduced an alternative approach based on the null space component (NCA) framework and referred to the approach as the c-NCA approach. We also presented the c-NCA algorithm that uses signal-dependent semidefinite operators, which is a bilinear mapping, as signatures for operator design in the c-NCA approach...
November 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913357/introducing-a-stable-bootstrap-validation-framework-for-reliable-genomic-signature-extraction
#8
Nikolaos-Kosmas Chlis, Ekaterini S Bei, Michael Zervakis
The application of machine learning methods for the identification of candidate genes responsible for phenotypes of interest, such as cancer, is a major challenge in the field of bioinformatics. These lists of genes are often called genomic signatures and their linkage to phenotype associations may form a significant step in discovering the causation between genotypes and phenotypes. Traditional methods that produce genomic signatures from DNA Microarray data tend to extract significantly different lists under relatively small variations of the training data...
November 29, 2016: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913251/unmapped-reads-from-cattle-rnaseq-data-a-source-for-missing-and-misassembled-sequences-in-the-reference-assemblies-and-for-detection-of-pathogens-in-the-host
#9
Tahir Usman, Frieder Hadlich, Wiebke Demasius, Rosemarie Weikard, Christa Kühn
Usually, reads from transcriptome sequencing data unmapped to the target species reference genome are disregarded. A recent RNAseq project on the new fatal disease Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia had indicated an unexplained immune response signature to a double stranded RNA virus. To unravel its background, contigs were de novo assembled from unmapped RNAseq reads and aligned against the bovine genome assemblies and multispecies NCBI databases. Lack of genuine virus sequence contigs rejected the hypothesis of a live virus being causal for the unexplained immune response...
November 29, 2016: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913065/hpv-status-cancer-stem-cell-marker-expression-hypoxia-gene-signatures-and-tumour-volume-identify-good-prognosis-subgroups-in-patients-with-hnscc-after-primary-radiochemotherapy-a-multicentre-retrospective-study-of-the-german-cancer-consortium-radiation-oncology
#10
Annett Linge, Fabian Lohaus, Steffen Löck, Alexander Nowak, Volker Gudziol, Chiara Valentini, Cläre von Neubeck, Martin Jütz, Inge Tinhofer, Volker Budach, Ali Sak, Martin Stuschke, Panagiotis Balermpas, Claus Rödel, Anca-Ligia Grosu, Amir Abdollahi, Jürgen Debus, Ute Ganswindt, Claus Belka, Steffi Pigorsch, Stephanie E Combs, David Mönnich, Daniel Zips, Frank Buchholz, Daniela E Aust, Gustavo B Baretton, Howard D Thames, Anna Dubrovska, Jan Alsner, Jens Overgaard, Mechthild Krause, Michael Baumann
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of the tumour volume, HPV status, cancer stem cell (CSC) marker expression and hypoxia gene signatures, as potential markers of radiobiological mechanisms of radioresistance, in a contemporary cohort of patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), who received primary radiochemotherapy (RCTx). MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 158 patients with locally advanced HNSCC of the oral cavity, oropharynx or hypopharynx who were treated at six DKTK partner sites, the impact of tumour volume, HPV DNA, p16 overexpression, p53 expression, CSC marker expression and hypoxia-associated gene signatures on outcome of primary RCTx was retrospectively analyzed...
November 29, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912840/the-semaphorins-and-their-receptors-as-modulators-of-tumor-progression
#11
Gera Neufeld, Yelena Mumblat, Tanya Smolkin, Shira Toledano, Inbal Nir-Zvi, Keren Ziv, Ofra Kessler
The semaphorins were initially characterized as repulsive axon guidance factors. However, they are currently also recognized as important regulators of diverse biological processes which include regulation of immune responses, angiogenesis, organogenesis, and a variety of additional physiological and developmental functions. The semaphorin family consists of more than 20 genes divided into seven subfamilies, all of which contain the sema domain signature. They usually transduce signals by activation of receptors belonging to the plexin family, either directly, or indirectly following the binding of some semaphorins to receptors of the neuropilin family which subsequently associate with plexins...
November 2016: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912316/th2-cells-in-health-and-disease
#12
Toshinori Nakayama, Kiyoshi Hirahara, Atsushi Onodera, Yusuke Endo, Hiroyuki Hosokawa, Kenta Shinoda, Damon J Tumes, Yoshitaka Okamoto
Helper T (Th) cell subsets direct immune responses by producing signature cytokines. Th2 cells produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which are important in humoral immunity and protection from helminth infection and are central to the pathogenesis of many allergic inflammatory diseases. Molecular analysis of Th2 cell differentiation and maintenance of function has led to recent discoveries that have refined our understanding of Th2 cell biology. Epigenetic regulation of Gata3 expression by chromatin remodeling complexes such as Polycomb and Trithorax is crucial for maintaining Th2 cell identity...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912160/successful-group-psychotherapy-of-depression-in-adolescents-alters-fronto-limbic-resting-state-connectivity
#13
J Straub, C D Metzger, P L Plener, M G Koelch, G Groen, B Abler
BACKGROUND: Current resting state imaging findings support suggestions that the neural signature of depression and therefore also its therapy should be conceptualized as a network disorder rather than a dysfunction of specific brain regions. In this study, we compared neural connectivity of adolescent patients with depression (PAT) and matched healthy controls (HC) and analysed pre-to-post changes of seed-based network connectivities in PAT after participation in a cognitive behavioral group psychotherapy (CBT)...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912138/human-specific-genomic-signatures-of-neocortical-expansion
#14
REVIEW
Marta Florio, Víctor Borrell, Wieland B Huttner
Neocortex evolutionary expansion is primarily due to increased proliferative capacity of neural progenitor cells during cortical development. Exploiting insights into the cell biology of cortical progenitors gained during the past two decades, recent studies uncovered a variety of gene expression differences that underlie differential cortical progenitor behavior. These comprise both, differences between cortical areas that likely provide a molecular basis for cortical folding, and differences across species thought to be responsible for increases in neocortex size...
November 29, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911910/molecular-markers-of-radiation-induced-attenuation-in-intrahepatic-plasmodium-falciparum-parasites
#15
Miranda S Oakley, Nitin Verma, Hong Zheng, Vivek Anantharaman, Kazuyo Takeda, Yamei Gao, Timothy G Myers, Phuong Thao Pham, Babita Mahajan, Nirbhay Kumar, Davison Sangweme, Abhai K Tripathi, Godfree Mlambo, L Aravind, Sanjai Kumar
Experimental immunization with radiation attenuated sporozoites (RAS) and genetically attenuated sporozoites has proved to be a promising approach for malaria vaccine development. However, parasite biomarkers of growth attenuation and enhanced immune protection in response to radiation remain poorly understood. Here, we report on the effect of an attenuating dose of γ-irradiation (15 krad) on the Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) ultrastructure by electron microscopy, growth rate of liver stage P. falciparum in liver cell cultures, and genome-wide transcriptional profile of liver stage parasites by microarray...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911880/study-of-the-sign-change-of-exchange-bias-across-the-spin-reorientation-transition-in-co-cr1-x-fe-x-2o4-x%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-0-00-0-125
#16
R Padam, Swati Pandya, S Ravi, S Ramakrishnan, A K Nigam, A K Grover, D Pal
We present the evolution of novel phenomena of magnetic compensation effect, exchange bias (EB) effect and the field induced anomalies in '[Formula: see text]' substituted multiferroic compound [Formula: see text]. A few percent of '[Formula: see text]' substitution for '[Formula: see text]' in [Formula: see text] results in the reversal of field cooled magnetization under low applied fields below compensation temperature T comp. Further, increase in the field leads to the spin reorientation transition (T SR)...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911866/dna-methylation-signature-sam40-identifies-subgroups-of-the-luminal-a-breast-cancer-samples-with-distinct-survival
#17
Thomas Fleischer, Jovana Klajic, Miriam Ragle Aure, Riku Louhimo, Arne V Pladsen, Lars Ottestad, Nizar Touleimat, Marko Laakso, Ann Rita Halvorsen, Grethe I Grenaker Alnæs, Margit L H Riis, Åslaug Helland, Sampsa Hautaniemi, Per Eystein Lønning, Bjørn Naume, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Jörg Tost, Vessela N Kristensen
Breast cancer patients with Luminal A disease generally have a good prognosis, but among this patient group are patients with good prognosis that are currently overtreated with adjuvant chemotherapy, and also patients that have a bad prognosis and should be given more aggressive treatment. There is no available method for subclassification of this patient group. Here we present a DNA methylation signature (SAM40) that segregates Luminal A patients based on prognosis, and identify one good prognosis group and one bad prognosis group...
November 30, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911780/selective-sweep-suggests-transcriptional-regulation-may-underlie-plasmodium-vivax-resilience-to-malaria-control-measures-in-cambodia
#18
Christian M Parobek, Jessica T Lin, David L Saunders, Eric J Barnett, Chanthap Lon, Charlotte A Lanteri, Sujata Balasubramanian, Nicholas Brazeau, Derrick K DeConti, Deen L Garba, Steven R Meshnick, Michele D Spring, Char Meng Chuor, Jeffrey A Bailey, Jonathan J Juliano
Cambodia, in which both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum are endemic, has been the focus of numerous malaria-control interventions, resulting in a marked decline in overall malaria incidence. Despite this decline, the number of P vivax cases has actually increased. To understand better the factors underlying this resilience, we compared the genetic responses of the two species to recent selective pressures. We sequenced and studied the genomes of 70 P vivax and 80 P falciparum isolates collected between 2009 and 2013...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911555/electromagnetic-signatures-of-the-chiral-anomaly-in-weyl-semimetals
#19
Edwin Barnes, J J Heremans, Djordje Minic
Weyl semimetals are predicted to realize the three-dimensional axial anomaly first discussed in particle physics. The anomaly leads to unusual transport phenomena such as the chiral magnetic effect in which an applied magnetic field induces a current parallel to the field. Here we investigate diagnostics of the axial anomaly based on the fundamental equations of axion electrodynamics. We find that materials with Weyl nodes of opposite chirality and finite energy separation immersed in a uniform magnetic field exhibit an anomaly-induced oscillatory magnetic field with a period set by the chemical potential difference of the nodes...
November 18, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911527/unraveling-the-anomalous-grain-size-dependence-of-cavitation
#20
J W Wilkerson, K T Ramesh
Experimental studies have identified an anomalous grain size dependence associated with the critical tensile pressure that a metal may sustain before catastrophic failure by cavitation processes. Here we derive the first quantitative theory (and its associated closed-form solution) capable of explaining this phenomena. The theory agrees well with experimental measurements and atomistic calculations over a very wide range of conditions. Utilizing this theory, we are able to map out three distinct regimes in which the critical tensile pressure for cavitation failure (i) increases with decreasing grain size in accordance with conventional wisdom, (ii) nonintuitively decreases with decreasing grain size, and (iii) is independent of grain size...
November 18, 2016: Physical Review Letters
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