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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332083/deep-brain-stimulation-interventional-and-intraoperative-mri-approaches
#1
Paul S Larson, Philip A Starr, Alastair J Martin
Interventional and intraoperative MRI approaches to deep brain stimulator implantation are relatively new, and in their purest form represent a distinct departure from traditional stereotactic techniques. They employ a novel means of stereotaxis based on regions of interest in the MR space and simple geometric principles, which eliminate the need for a stereotactic frame. This approach is appropriate for targets that are MR visible, and for whom the local anatomy and function are well characterized. It may also be appropriate for targets that do not have a well-described physiologic signature and for which clinical response to macrostimulation does not play a critical role...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331824/effects-of-subject-case-marking-on-agreement-processing-erp-evidence-from-basque
#2
Wing-Yee Chow, Andrew Nevins, Manuel Carreiras
Previous cross-linguistic research has found that comprehenders are immediately sensitive to various kinds of agreement violations across languages. We focused on Basque, a verb-final ergative language with both subject-verb (SV) and object-verb (OV) agreement. We compared the effects of SV agreement violations on comprehenders' event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in transitive sentences (where OV agreement is present, and the subject is ergative) and intransitive sentences (where OV agreement is absent, and the subject is absolutive)...
December 20, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331769/source-identification-of-uranium-containing-materials-at-mine-legacy-sites-in-portugal
#3
A C Keatley, P G Martin, K R Hallam, O D Payton, R Awbery, F Carvalho, J M Oliveira, L Silva, M Malta, T B Scott
Whilst prior nuclear forensic studies have focused on identifying signatures to distinguish between different uranium deposit types, this paper focuses on providing a scientific basis for source identification of materials from different uranium mine sites within a single region, which can then be potentially used within nuclear forensics. A number of different tools, including gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry, mineralogy and major and minor elemental analysis, have been utilised to determine the provenance of uranium mineral samples collected at eight mine sites, located within three different uranium provinces, in Portugal...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331447/sharp-wave-ripples-as-a-signature-of-hippocampal-prefrontal-reactivation-for-memory-during-sleep-and-waking-states
#4
Wenbo Tang, Shantanu P Jadhav
It is widely believed that memories that are encoded and retrieved during waking behavior are consolidated during sleep. Recent studies on the interactions between the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex have greatly advanced our understanding of the physiological bases of these memory processes. Although hippocampal-prefrontal network activity differs in many aspects during waking and sleep states, here we review evidence that hippocampal sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) emerge as a common neurophysiological pattern in both states, facilitating communication between these two regions via coordinated reactivation of stored memory information...
January 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331373/establishment-and-characterization-of-five-immortalized-human-scalp-dermal-papilla-cell-lines
#5
Mi Hee Kwack, Jung Min Yang, Gong Hee Won, Moon Kyu Kim, Jung Chul Kim, Young Kwan Sung
Dermal papilla (DP) regulates the growth and cycling of hair follicles. Cultured DP cells are useful for the study of their role in relation to hair growth and regeneration. However, cultivation of human DP cells is tedious and difficult. In addition, cultured DP cells possess a relatively short replicative life span, requiring immortalized human DP cell lines. We previously established an immortalized human DP cell line, SV40T-hTERT-DPC, by introducing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene into the transformed cell line, SV40T-DPC...
January 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331136/zwitterionization-of-glycine-in-water-environment-stabilization-mechanism-and-nmr-spectral-signatures
#6
Danillo Valverde, Zélia Maria da Costa Ludwig, Célia Regina da Costa, Valdemir Ludwig, Herbert C Georg
At physiological conditions, myriads of biomolecules (e.g., amino acids, peptides, and proteins) exist predominantly in the zwitterionic structural form and their biological functions will result in these conditions. However these geometrical structures are inaccessible energetically in the gas phase, and at this point, stabilization of amino-acids in physiological conditions is still under debate. In this paper, the electronic properties of a glycine molecule in the liquid environment were studied by performing a relaxation of the glycine geometry in liquid water using the free energy gradient method combined with a sequential quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330893/mitogenomic-differences-between-the-normal-and-tumour-cells-of-colorectal-cancer-patients
#7
Katarzyna Skonieczna, Boris Malyarchuk, Arkadiusz Jawień, Andrzej Marszałek, Zbigniew Banaszkiewicz, Paweł Jarmocik, Tomasz Grzybowski
So far, a reliable spectrum of mitochondrial DNA mutations in colorectal cancer cells is still unknown, and neither is their significance in carcinogenesis. Indeed, it remains debatable whether mtDNA mutations are "drivers" or "passengers" of colorectal carcinogenesis. Thus, we analyzed 200 mitogenomes from normal and cancer tissues of 100 colorectal cancer patients. Minority variant mutations were detected at the 1% level. We showed that somatic mutations frequently occur in colorectal cancer cells (75%) and are randomly distributed across the mitochondrial genome...
January 12, 2018: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330617/characterizing-genomic-differences-of-human-cancer-stratified-by-the-tp53-mutation-status
#8
Mengyao Wang, Chao Yang, Xiuqing Zhang, Xiangchun Li
The key roles of the TP53 mutation in cancer have been well established. TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene, and its inactivation is widespread among human cancer types. However, the landscape of genomic alterations in human cancers stratified by the TP53 mutation has not yet been described. We obtained somatic mutation and copy number change data of 6551 regular-mutated samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and compared significantly mutated genes (SMGs), copy number alterations, mutational signatures and mutational strand asymmetries between cancer samples with and without the TP53 mutation...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330487/a-biomarker-characterizing-neurodevelopment-with-applications-in-autism
#9
Di Wu, Jorge V José, John I Nurnberger, Elizabeth B Torres
Despite great advances in neuroscience and genetic studies, our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders is still quite limited. An important reason is not having objective psychiatric clinical tests. Here we propose a quantitative neurodevelopment assessment by studying natural movement outputs. Movement is central to behaviors: It involves complex coordination, temporal alterations, and precise dynamic controls. We carefully analyzed the continuous movement output data, collected with high definition electromagnetic sensors at millisecond time scales...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330451/tracheophyte-genomes-keep-track-of-the-deep-evolution-of-the-caulimoviridae
#10
Seydina Issa Diop, Andrew D W Geering, Françoise Alfama-Depauw, Mikaël Loaec, Pierre-Yves Teycheney, Florian Maumus
Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are viral sequences that are integrated in the nuclear genomes of their hosts and are signatures of viral infections that may have occurred millions of years ago. The study of EVEs, coined paleovirology, provides important insights into virus evolution. The Caulimoviridae is the most common group of EVEs in plants, although their presence has often been overlooked in plant genome studies. We have refined methods for the identification of caulimovirid EVEs and interrogated the genomes of a broad diversity of plant taxa, from algae to advanced flowering plants...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330374/predicting-fibrosis-progression-in-renal-transplant-recipients-using-laser-based-infrared-spectroscopic-imaging
#11
Vishal K Varma, Andre Kajdacsy-Balla, Sanjeev Akkina, Suman Setty, Michael J Walsh
Renal transplants have not seen a significant improvement in their 10-year graft life. Chronic damage accumulation often leads to interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) and thus graft function loss over time. For this reason, IF/TA has been the chief suspect for a potential prognostic marker for long term outcomes. In this study, we have used infrared spectroscopic (IR) imaging to interrogate the biochemistry of regions of fibrosis from renal transplant biopsies to identify a biochemical signature that can predict rapid progression of fibrosis...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330327/signal-complexity-of-human-intracranial-eeg-tracks-successful-associative-memory-formation-across-individuals
#12
Timothy C Sheehan, Vishnu Sreekumar, Sara K Inati, Kareem A Zaghloul
Memory performance is highly variable between individuals. Most studies examining human memory, however, have largely focused on the neural correlates of successful memory formation within individuals, rather than the differences between them. As such, what gives rise to this variability is poorly understood. Here, we examined intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings captured from 43 participants (23 male) implanted with subdural electrodes for seizure monitoring as they performed a paired-associates verbal memory task...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330205/clinical-utility-of-a-stat3-regulated-microrna-200-family-signature-with-prognostic-potential-in-early-gastric-cancer
#13
Liang Yu, Di Wu, Hugh Gao, Jesse Balic, Anna Tsykin, Tae-Su Han, You Dong Liu, Catherine Lydia Kennedy, Ji-Kun Li, Jie-Qi Mao, Patrick Tan, Masanobu Oshima, Gregory J Goodall, Brendan J Jenkins
PURPOSE: The majority of gastric cancer (GC) patients are diagnosed with late stage disease, for which distinct molecular subtypes have been identified that are potentially amenable to targeted therapies. However, there exists no molecular classification system with prognostic power for early stage GC (EGC) because the molecular events promoting GC initiation remain ill-defined. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: miRNA microarrays were performed on gastric tissue from the gp130F/F preclinical EGC mouse model, prior to tumor initiation...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330203/personalized-rna-medicine-for-pancreatic-cancer
#14
Maud-Emmanuelle Gilles, Liangliang Hao, Ling Huang, Rajesha Rupaimoole, Pedro P Lopez-Casas, Emilia Pulver, Jong Cheol Jeong, Senthil K Muthuswamy, Manuel Hidalgo, Sangeeta N Bhatia, Frank J Slack
PURPOSE: Since drug responses vary between patients, it is crucial to develop pre-clinical or co-clinical strategies that forecast patient response. In this study, we tested whether RNA-based therapeutics were suitable for personalized medicine by using patient-derived-organoid (PDO) and patient-derived-xenograft (PDX) models.  Experimental Design: We performed microRNA (miRNA) profiling of PDX samples to determine the status of miRNA deregulation in individual pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330202/high-risk-tp53-mutations-are-associated-with-extra-nodal-extension-ene-in-oral-cavity-squamous-cell-carcinoma-oscc
#15
Vlad C Sandulache, Chieko Michikawa, Pranav Kataria, Frederico O Gleber-Netto, Diana Bell, Sanchit Trivedi, Xiayu Rao, Jing Wang, Mei Zhao, Samar A Jasser, Jeffrey N Myers, Curtis R Pickering
PURPOSE:   Development of extra-nodal extension (ENE) has been associated with poor survival in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Here we sought to confirm the role of ENE as a poor prognostic factor, and identify genomic and epigenetic markers of ENE in order to develop a predictive model and improve treatment selection. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: An institutional cohort (University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center) was utilized to confirm the impact of ENE on clinical outcomes and evaluate the genomic signature of primary and ENE containing tissue...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330190/influence-of-pig-farming-on-the-human-s-nasal-microbiota-the-key-role-of-the-airborne-microbial-communities
#16
Julia G Kraemer, Alban Ramette, Suzanne Aebi, Anne Oppliger, Markus Hilty
It has been hypothesized that the environment can influence the composition of the nasal microbiota. However, the direct influence of pig farming on the anterior and posterior nasal microbiota is unknown. Using a cross-sectional design, pig farms (n=28) were visited in 2014-2015 and nasal swabs from 43 pig farmers and 56 pigs as well as 27 air samples taken in the vicinity of pig enclosure were collected. As controls, nasal swabs from 17 cow farmers and 26 non-animal exposed individuals were also included. Analyses of the microbiota were performed based on 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and the DADA2 pipeline to define sequence variants (SVs)...
January 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330145/mbd2-ablation-impairs-lymphopoiesis-and-impedes-progression-and-maintenance-of-t-all
#17
Mi Zhou, Kuangguo Zhou, Ling Cheng, Xing Chen, Jue Wang, Xiao-Min Wang, Yingchi Zhang, Qilin Yu, Shu Zhang, Di Wang, Liang Huang, Mei Huang, Ding Ma, Tao Cheng, Cong-Yi Wang, Weiping Yuan, Jianfeng Zhou
Aberrant DNA methylation patterns in leukemia might be exploited for therapeutic targeting. In this study, we employed a genetically deficient mouse model to explore the role of the methylated DNA binding protein MBD2 in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. MBD2 ablation led to diminished lymphocytes. Functional defects of the lymphoid compartment were also observed after in vivo reconstitution of MBD2-deficient hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). In an established model of Notch1-driven T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), MBD2 ablation impeded malignant progression and maintenance by attenuating the Wnt signaling pathway...
January 12, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330137/the-intersection-of-stress-and-reward-bnst-modulation-of-aversive-and-appetitive-states
#18
REVIEW
Sarah Ch'ng, Jingjing Fu, Robyn M Brown, Stuart J McDougall, Andrew J Lawrence
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is widely acknowledged as a brain structure that regulates stress and anxiety states, as well as aversive and appetitive behaviours. The diverse roles of the BNST are afforded by its highly modular organisation, neurochemical heterogeneity, and complex intrinsic and extrinsic circuitry. There has been growing interest in the BNST in relation to psychopathologies such as anxiety and addiction. Although research on the human BNST is still in its infancy, there have been extensive preclinical studies examining the molecular signature and hodology of the BNST and their involvement in stress and reward seeking behaviour...
January 9, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329987/quantitative-proteomics-in-friedreich-s-ataxia-b-lymphocytes-a-valuable-approach-to-decipher-the-biochemical-events-responsible-for-pathogenesis
#19
Lorène Télot, Elodie Rousseau, Emmanuel Lesuisse, Camille Garcia, Bastien Morlet, Thibaut Léger, Jean-Michel Camadro, Valérie Serre
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) represents the most frequent type of autosomal-recessively inherited ataxia and is caused by the deficiency of frataxin, a mitochondrial protein. It is known that frataxin-deficiency leads to alterations in cellular and mitochondrial iron metabolism and impacts in the cell physiology at several levels. Frataxin is thought to play a role in iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis and heme synthesis. Currently, cellular antioxidant defense is dysregulated when frataxin is deficient, which exacerbates oxidative damage in FRDA...
January 9, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329973/altered-gene-expression-in-tree-shrew-retina-and-retinal-pigment-epithelium-produced-by-short-periods-of-minus-lens-wear
#20
Li He, Michael R Frost, John T Siegwart, Thomas T Norton
Hyperopic refractive error is detected by retinal neurons, which generate GO signals through a direct emmetropization signaling cascade: retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) into choroid and then into sclera, thereby increasing axial elongation. To examine signaling early in this cascade, we measured gene expression in the retina and RPE after short exposure to hyperopia produced by minus-lens wear. Gene expression in each tissue was compared with gene expression in combined retina + RPE. Starting 24 days after normal eye opening, three groups of juvenile tree shrews (n = 7 each) wore a monocular -5 D lens...
January 9, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
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