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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742938/sexes-in-gynodioecious-geranium-sylvaticum-do-not-differ-in-their-isotopic-signature-or-photosynthetic-capacity
#1
Sandra Varga, Minna-Maarit Kytöviita
In gynodioecious plants, females are expected to produce more or better seeds than hermaphrodites in order to be maintained within the same population. Even though rarely measured, higher seed production can be achieved through differences in physiology. In this work, we measured sexual dimorphism in several physiological traits in the gynodioecious plant Geranium sylvaticum. Photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductivity, transpiration rate, water use efficiency and isotopic signatures were measured in plants growing in two habitats differing in light availability...
July 25, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742931/dynamics-of-lipids-and-metabolites-during-the-cell-cycle-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#2
Jessica Jüppner, Umarah Mubeen, Andrea Leisse, Camila Caldana, Henrike Brust, Martin Steup, Marion Herrmann, Dirk Steinhauser, Patrick Giavalisco
Metabolites and lipids are the final products of enzymatic processes, distinguishing the different cellular functions and activities of single cells or whole tissues. Understanding these cellular functions within a well-established model system, requires a systemic collection of molecular and physiological information. In the current report, the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was selected to establish a comprehensive workflow for the detailed multi-omics analysis of a synchronously growing cell culture system...
July 25, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742689/lymphangiogenic-gene-expression-is-associated-with-lymph-node-recurrence-and-poor-prognosis-after-partial-hepatectomy-for-colorectal-liver-metastasis
#3
Thomas T Vellinga, Onno Kranenburg, Nicola Frenkel, Inge Ubink, Dieuwke Marvin, Klaas Govaert, Susanne van Schelven, Jeroen Hagendoorn, Inne H Borel Rinkes
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relevance of lymphangiogenic gene expression in primary and liver metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and identify determinants of lymphatic invasion. BACKGROUND: Lymphatic development promoting vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) is associated with poor outcome in primary CRC. For colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM), intrahepatic lymph invasion and lymph node metastasis are poor prognostic factors. Exact biological factors promoting lymphatic involvement remain elusive, just as the association with molecular subtypes of CRC...
July 24, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742273/protein-secondary-structure-analysis-of-dried-blood-serum-using-infrared-spectroscopy-to-identify-markers-for-colitis-screening
#4
Jitto Titus, Hemendra Ghimire, Emilie Viennois, Didier Merlin, A G Unil Perera
There remains a great need for diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), for which the current technique, colonoscopy, is costly and also has risks for complications. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a new screening technique to evaluate colitis. Using second derivative spectral deconvolution of the absorbance spectra, a full set of spectral markers were identified based on statistical analysis. Using this method, Amide I group frequencies, (specifically, alpha helix to beta sheet ratio of the protein secondary structure) were identified in addition to the previously reported glucose and mannose signatures in sera of chronic and acute mice models of colitis...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742097/mrtadfinder-a-network-modularity-based-approach-to-identify-topologically-associating-domains-in-multiple-resolutions
#5
Koon-Kiu Yan, Shaoke Lou, Mark Gerstein
Genome-wide proximity ligation based assays such as Hi-C have revealed that eukaryotic genomes are organized into structural units called topologically associating domains (TADs). From a visual examination of the chromosomal contact map, however, it is clear that the organization of the domains is not simple or obvious. Instead, TADs exhibit various length scales and, in many cases, a nested arrangement. Here, by exploiting the resemblance between TADs in a chromosomal contact map and densely connected modules in a network, we formulate TAD identification as a network optimization problem and propose an algorithm, MrTADFinder, to identify TADs from intra-chromosomal contact maps...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741982/multimodal-mr-imaging-signatures-of-cognitive-impairment-in-active-professional-fighters
#6
Virendra R Mishra, Xiaowei Zhuang, Karthik R Sreenivasan, Sarah J Banks, Zhengshi Yang, Charles Bernick, Dietmar Cordes
Purpose To investigate whether combining multiple magnetic resonance (MR) imaging modalities such as T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MR imaging could reveal imaging biomarkers associated with cognition in active professional fighters. Materials and Methods Active professional fighters (n = 297; 24 women and 273 men) were recruited at one center. Sixty-two fighters (six women and 56 men) returned for a follow-up examination. Only men were included in the main analysis of the study. On the basis of computerized testing, fighters were separated into the cognitively impaired and nonimpaired groups on the basis of computerized testing...
July 25, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741719/involvement-of-arabidopsis-glutaredoxin-s14-in-the-maintenance-of-chlorophyll-content
#7
Pascal Rey, Noëlle Becuwe, Sébastien Tourrette, Nicolas Rouhier
Plant class-II glutaredoxins (GRXs) are oxidoreductases carrying a CGFS active site signature and are able to bind iron-sulfur clusters in vitro. In order to explore the physiological functions of the two plastidial class-II isoforms, GRXS14 and GRXS16, we generated knockdown and overexpression Arabidopsis thaliana lines and characterized their phenotypes using physiological and biochemical approaches. Plants deficient in one GRX did not display any growth defect, whereas the growth of plants lacking both was slowed...
July 25, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741687/a-distinct-plasma-lipid-signature-associated-with-poor-prognosis-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-authors
#8
H-M Lin, K L Mahon, J M Weir, P A Mundra, C Spielman, K Briscoe, H Gurney, G Mallesara, G Marx, M R Stockler, PRIMe Consortium, R G Parton, A J Hoy, R J Daly, P J Meikle, L G Horvath
Lipids are known to influence tumour growth, inflammation, and chemoresistance. However, the association of circulating lipids with the clinical outcome of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is unknown. We investigated associations between the plasma lipidome and clinical outcome in CRPC. Lipidomic profiling by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed on plasma samples from a Phase 1 discovery cohort of 96 CRPC patients. Results were validated in an independent Phase 2 cohort of 63 CRPC patients...
July 25, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741495/adaptive-stress-responses-during-tumor-metastasis-and-dormancy
#9
REVIEW
Daniela Senft, Ze'ev A Ronai
To survive inhospitable environments, tumor cells are forced to remodel their signaling pathways by altering transcription, translation, and post-translational modifications. This adaptation is regulated in a spatial and temporal manner and gives rise to individual tumor cells with distinct gene expression and metabolic signatures. Such phenotypic heterogeneity is the result of tumor cell plasticity, which-together with the genetic background of the tumor-determines whether cells resist environmental stress, enter dormancy, or metastasize...
August 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740922/serum-lipidomic-study-reveals-potential-early-biomarkers-for-predicting-response-to-chemoradiation-therapy-in-advanced-rectal-cancer-a-pilot-study
#10
Piero Del Boccio, Francesca Perrotti, Claudia Rossi, Ilaria Cicalini, Sara Di Santo, Mirco Zucchelli, Paolo Sacchetta, Domenico Genovesi, Damiana Pieragostino
PURPOSE: Prospective detection of patients with advanced rectal cancer (LARC) who have a higher probability of responding to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) may provide individualized therapy. Lipidomics is an emerging science dedicated to the characterization of lipid fingerprint involved in different pato-physiological conditions. The purpose of this study is to highlight a typical lipid signature able to predict the tumor response to CRT. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A prospective global analysis of lipids in 54 sera from 18 LARC patients treated with preoperative CRT was performed...
April 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740866/distinct-properties-of-the-triplet-pair-state-from-singlet-fission
#11
M Tuan Trinh, Andrew Pinkard, Andrew B Pun, Samuel N Sanders, Elango Kumarasamy, Matthew Y Sfeir, Luis M Campos, Xavier Roy, X-Y Zhu
Singlet fission, the conversion of a singlet exciton (S1) to two triplets (2 × T1), may increase the solar energy conversion efficiency beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit. This process is believed to involve the correlated triplet pair state (1)(TT). Despite extensive research, the nature of the (1)(TT) state and its spectroscopic signature remain actively debated. We use an end-connected pentacene dimer (BP0) as a model system and show evidence for a tightly bound (1)(TT) state. It is characterized in the near-infrared (IR) region (~1...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740812/decoding-emotion-of-the-other-differs-among-schizophrenia-patients-and-schizoaffective-patients-a-pilot-study
#12
Hagar Tadmor, Maya Levin, Tzameret Dadon, Meital E Meiman, Alaa Ajameeh, Hosam Mazzawi, Amihai Rigbi, Ilana Kremer, Idit Golani, Alon Shamir
The deficit in ability to attribute mental states such as thoughts, beliefs, and intentions of another person is a key component in the functional impairment of social cognition in schizophrenia. In the current study, we compared the ability of persons with first episode schizophrenia (FE-SZ) and individuals with schizophrenia displaying symptomatic remission (SZ-CR) to decode the mental state of others with healthy individuals and schizoaffective patients. In addition, we analyzed the effect of dopamine-related genes polymorphism on the ability to decode the mental state of another, and searched for different genetic signatures...
September 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740575/identification-of-novel-diagnostic-and-prognostic-mirna-signatures-in-endometrial-cancer
#13
Muralidharan Jayaraman, Rangasudhagar Radhakrishnan, Cara A Mathews, Mingda Yan, Sanam Husain, Katherine M Moxley, Yong Sang Song, Danny N Dhanasekaran
With the goal of identifying diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in endometrial cancer, miRNA-profiling was carried out with formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from 49 endometrial cancer patients. Results using an 84-cancer specific miRNA panel identified the upregulation of miR-141-3p and miR-96-5p along with a downregulation of miR-26, miR-126-3p, miR-23b, miR-195-5p, miR-374a and let-7 family of miRNAs in endometrial cancer. We validated the dysregulated expression of the identified miRNAs in a panel of endometrial cancer cell-lines...
May 2017: Genes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740483/a-case-with-spondyloenchondrodysplasia-treated-with-growth-hormone
#14
Takanori Utsumi, Satoshi Okada, Kazushi Izawa, Yoshitaka Honda, Gen Nishimura, Ryuta Nishikomori, Rika Okano, Masao Kobayashi
Spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SPENCD) is an autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia caused by loss of function mutations in acid phosphatase 5, tartrate resistant (ACP5). Hypomorphic ACP5 mutations impair endochondral bone growth and create an interferon (INF) signature, which lead to distinctive spondylar and metaphyseal dysplasias, and extraskeletal morbidity, such as neurological involvement and immune dysregulation, respectively. We report an affected boy with novel ACP5 mutations, a splice-site mutation (736-2 A>C) and a nonsense mutation (R176X)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740474/pre-cueing-the-epistemic-role-of-early-vision-and-the-cognitive-impenetrability-of-early-vision
#15
Athanassios Raftopoulos
I have argued (Raftopoulos, 2009, 2014) that early vision is not directly affected by cognition since its processes do not draw on cognition as an informational resource; early vision processes do not operate over cognitive contents, which is the essence of the claim that perception is cognitively penetrated; early vision is cognitively impenetrable. Recently it has been argued that there are cognitive effects that affect early vision, such as the various pre-cueing effects guided by cognitively driven attention, which suggests that early vision is cognitively penetrated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740464/neuronal-subset-specific-migration-and-axonal-wiring-mechanisms-in-the-developing-midbrain-dopamine-system
#16
REVIEW
Sara Brignani, R J Pasterkamp
The midbrain dopamine (mDA) system is involved in the control of cognitive and motor behaviors, and is associated with several psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. mDA neurons receive diverse afferent inputs and establish efferent connections with many brain areas. Recent studies have unveiled a high level of molecular and cellular heterogeneity within the mDA system with specific subsets of mDA neurons displaying select molecular profiles and connectivity patterns. During mDA neuron development, molecular differences between mDA neuron subsets allow the establishment of subset-specific afferent and efferent connections and functional roles...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739526/chronic-mild-stress-exacerbates-severity-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-association-with-altered-non-coding-rna-and-metabolic-biomarkers
#17
Brietta Gerrard, Vaibhav Singh, Olena Babenko, Isabelle Gauthier, V Wee Yong, Igor Kovalchuk, Artur Luczak, Gerlinde A S Metz
The causal factors determining the onset and severity of multiple sclerosis (MS) are not well understood. Here, we investigated the influence of chronic stress on clinical symptoms, metabolic and epigenetic manifestations of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a common animal model of MS. Lewis rats were immunized for monophasic EAE with MBP69-88 and were exposed to chronic stress for 37 days starting 7 days prior to immunization. The exposure to stress accelerated and exacerbated the clinical symptoms of EAE...
July 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739442/no-effect-of-hippocampal-lesions-on-stimulus-response-bindings
#18
Richard N Henson, Aidan J Horner, Andrea Greve, Elisa Cooper, Mariella Gregori, Jon S Simons, Sharon Erzinçlioğlu, Georgina Browne, Narinder Kapur
The hippocampus is believed to be important for rapid learning of arbitrary stimulus-response contingencies, or S-R bindings. In support of this, Schnyer et al., 2006 (Experiment 2) measured priming of reaction times (RTs) to categorise visual objects, and found that patients with medial temporal lobe damage, unlike healthy controls, failed to show evidence of reduced priming when response contingencies were reversed between initial and repeated categorisation of objects (a signature of S-R bindings). We ran a similar though extended object classification task on 6 patients who appear to have selective hippocampal lesions, together with 24 age-matched controls...
July 21, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739398/transcriptome-analysis-of-ifm-specific-actin-and-myosin-nulls-in-drosophila-melanogaster-unravels-lesion-specific-expression-blueprints-across-muscle-mutations
#19
Aditi Madan, Divesh Thimmaiya, Ari Franco-Cea, Mohammed Aiyaz, Prabodh Kumar, John C Sparrow, Upendra Nongthomba
Muscle contraction is a highly fine-tuned process that requires the precise and timely construction of large protein sub-assemblies to form sarcomeres. Mutations in many genes encoding constituent proteins of this macromolecular machine result in defective functioning of the muscle tissue. However, the pathways underlying muscle degeneration, and manifestation of myopathy phenotypes are not well understood. In this study, we explored transcriptional alterations that ensue from the absence of the two major muscle proteins - myosin and actin - using the Drosophila indirect flight muscles...
July 21, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739201/neonatal-detection-of-aicardi-gouti%C3%A3-res-syndrome-by-increased-c26-0-lysophosphatidylcholine-and-interferon-signature-on-newborn-screening-blood-spots
#20
Thais Armangue, Joseph J Orsini, Asako Takanohashi, Francesco Gavazzi, Alex Conant, Nicole Ulrick, Mark A Morrissey, Norah Nahhas, Guy Helman, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Simona Orcesi, Davide Tonduti, Chloe Stutterd, Keith van Haren, Camilo Toro, Alejandro D Iglesias, Marjo S van der Knaap, Raphaela Goldbach Mansky, Anne B Moser, Richard O Jones, Adeline Vanderver
BACKGROUND: Aicardi Goutières Syndrome (AGS) is a heritable interferonopathy associated with systemic autoinflammation causing interferon (IFN) elevation, central nervous system calcifications, leukodystrophy and severe neurologic sequelae. An infant with TREX1 mutations was recently found to have abnormal C26:0 lysophosphatidylcholine (C26:0 Lyso-PC) in a newborn screening platform for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, prompting analysis of this analyte in retrospectively collected samples from individuals affected by AGS...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
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