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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793081/geochemical-anomalies-of-trace-elements-in-unremediated-soils-of-mt-karcz%C3%A3-wka-a-historic-lead-mining-area-in-the-city-of-kielce-poland
#1
Agnieszka Gałuszka, Zdzisław M Migaszewski, Sabina Dołęgowska, Artur Michalik
Concentrations of selected trace elements (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and rare earth elements were determined in 61 samples of surface soils collected from Mt. Karczówka, a historic Pb ore mining area located in the city of Kielce, south-central Poland. Some of these samples were subjected to XRD analyses and Pb stable isotope measurements. The mineral and chemical composition of rock samples were also examined. Mining activity in the study area was conducted mostly during 15th-17th centuries using technologically primitive methods, and was finally ceased in the first half of the 19th century...
May 21, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792991/codon-adaptation-biases-among-sylvatic-and-urban-genotypes-of-dengue-virus-type-2
#2
Marielton Dos Passos Cunha, Ayda Susana Ortiz-Baez, Caio César de Melo Freire, Paolo Marinho de Andrade Zanotto
Dengue virus (DENV) emerged from the sylvatic environment and colonized urban settings, being sustained in a human-Aedes-human transmission chain, mainly by the bites of females of the anthropophilic species Aedes aegypti. Herein, we sought evidence for fine-tuning in viral codon usage, possibly due to viral adaptation to human transmission. We compared the codon adaptation of DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2) genotypes from urban and sylvatic habitats and tried to correlate the findings with key evolutionary determinants...
May 21, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792883/plasma-n-glycan-signatures-associate-with-features-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#3
Florent Clerc, Mislav Novokmet, Viktoria Dotz, Karli R Reiding, Noortje de Haan, Guinevere S M Kammeijer, Hans Dalebout, Marco R Bladergroen, Frano Vukovic, Erdmann Rapp, Stephan R Targan, Gildardo Barron, Natalia Manetti, Anna Latiano, Dermot P B McGovern, Vito Annese, Gordan Lauc, Manfred Wuhrer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Biomarkers are needed for early detection of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) or to predict patient outcomes. Glycosylation is a common and complex post-translational modification of proteins that affects their structure and activity. We compared plasma N-glycosylation profiles between patients with CD or UC and healthy individuals (controls). METHODS: We analyzed the total plasma N-glycomes of 2635 patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and 996 controls by mass spectrometry with a linkage-specific sialic acid derivatization technique...
May 21, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792684/label-free-optical-marker-for-rbc-phenotyping-of-inherited-anaemias
#4
Martina Mugnano, Pasquale Memmolo, Lisa Miccio, Francesco Merola, Vittorio Bianco, Alessia Bramanti, Antonella Gambale, Roberta Russo, Immacolata Andolfo, Achille Iolascon, Pietro Ferraro
The gold standard methods for anaemia diagnosis are the complete blood count and the peripheral smear observation. However, they do not allow for a complete differential diagnosis, which requires biochemical assays, thus being label-dependent techniques. On the other hand, recent studies focus on label-free quantitative phase imaging (QPI) of blood samples to investigate blood diseases by using video-based morphological methods. However, when sick cells are very similar to healthy ones in terms of morphometric features identification of a blood disease becomes challenging even by morphometric as well as QPI...
May 24, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792666/chemical-evolution-in-silicon-graphite-composite-anodes-investigated-by-vibrational-spectroscopy
#5
Rose E Ruther, Kevin A Hays, Seong Jin An, Jianlin Li, David L Wood, Jagjit Nanda
Silicon-graphite composites are under development for the next generation of high-capacity lithium-ion anodes, and vibrational spectroscopy is a powerful tool to identify the different mechanisms that contribute to performance loss. With alloy anodes, the underlying causes of cell failure are significantly different in half-cells with lithium metal counter electrodes compared to full cells with standard cathodes. However, most studies which take advantage of vibrational spectroscopy have only examined half-cells...
May 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792229/characterization-of-medle-1-a-protein-in-early-development-of-cryptosporidium-parvum
#6
Jilan Fei, Haizhen Wu, Jiayuan Su, Chanchan Jin, Na Li, Yaqiong Guo, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium spp. are important diarrhea-causing pathogens in humans and animals. Comparative genomic analysis indicated that Cryptosporidium-specific MEDLE family proteins may contribute to host adaptation of Cryptosporidium spp., and a recent study of one member of this family, CpMEDLE-2 encoded by cgd5_4590, has provided evidence supporting this hypothesis. In this study, another member of the protein family, CpMEDLE-1 of Cryptosporidium parvum encoded by cgd5_4580, which is distinct from CpMEDLE-2 and has no signature motif MEDLE, was cloned, expressed and characterized to understand its function...
May 23, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791872/gene-expression-in-cord-blood-links-genetic-risk-for-neurodevelopmental-disorders-with-maternal-psychological-distress-and-adverse-childhood-outcomes
#7
Michael S Breen, Aliza P Wingo, Nastassja Koen, Kirsten A Donald, Mark Nicol, Heather J Zar, Kerry J Ressler, Joseph D Buxbaum, Dan J Stein
Prenatal exposure to maternal stress and depression has been identified as a risk factor for adverse behavioral and neurodevelopmental outcomes in early childhood. However, the molecular mechanisms through which maternal psychopathology shapes offspring development remain poorly understood. We applied transcriptome-wide screens to 149 umbilical cord blood samples from neonates born to mothers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n=20), depression (n=31) and PTSD with comorbid depression (n=13), compared to carefully matched trauma exposed controls (n=23) and healthy mothers (n=62)...
May 20, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791442/bacillus-cereus-a-serious-cause-of-nosocomial-infections-epidemiologic-and-genetic-survey
#8
Benjamin Glasset, Sabine Herbin, Sophie A Granier, Laurent Cavalié, Emilie Lafeuille, Cyprien Guérin, Raymond Ruimy, Florence Casagrande-Magne, Marion Levast, Nathalie Chautemps, Jean-Winoc Decousser, Laure Belotti, Isabelle Pelloux, Jerôme Robert, Anne Brisabois, Nalini Ramarao
Bacillus cereus is the 2nd most frequent bacterial agent responsible for food-borne outbreaks in France and the 3rd in Europe. In addition, local and systemic infections have been reported, mainly describing individual cases or single hospital setting. The real incidence of such infection is unknown and information on genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the incriminated strains is generally scarce. We performed an extensive study of B. cereus strains isolated from patients and hospital environments from nine hospitals during a 5-year study, giving an overview of the consequences, sources and pathogenic patterns of B...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791436/the-genomic-landscape-at-a-late-stage-of-stickleback-speciation-high-genomic-divergence-interspersed-by-small-localized-regions-of-introgression
#9
Mark Ravinet, Kohta Yoshida, Shuji Shigenobu, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama, Jun Kitano
Speciation is a continuous process and analysis of species pairs at different stages of divergence provides insight into how it unfolds. Previous genomic studies on young species pairs have revealed peaks of divergence and heterogeneous genomic differentiation. Yet less known is how localised peaks of differentiation progress to genome-wide divergence during the later stages of speciation in the presence of persistent gene flow. Spanning the speciation continuum, stickleback species pairs are ideal for investigating how genomic divergence builds up during speciation...
May 23, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791327/signature-of-phase-singularities-in-diffusive-regimes-in-disordered-waveguide-lattices-interplay-and-qualitative-analysis
#10
Somnath Ghosh
Coexistence and interplay between mesoscopic light dynamics with singular optics in spatially disordered waveguide lattices are reported. Two CW light beams of a 1.55 μm operating wavelength are launched as inputs to 1D waveguide lattices with controllable weak disorder in a complex refractive index profile. Direct observation of phase singularities in the speckle pattern along the length is numerically demonstrated. Quantitative analysis of the onset of such singular behavior and diffusive wave propagation is analyzed for the first time, to the best of our knowledge...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791299/spatial-attention-enhances-the-neural-representation-of-invisible-signals-embedded-in-noise
#11
Cooper A Smout, Jason B Mattingley
Recent evidence suggests that voluntary spatial attention can affect neural processing of visual stimuli that do not enter conscious awareness (i.e., invisible stimuli), supporting the notion that attention and awareness are dissociable processes [Wyart, V., Dehaene, S., & Tallon-Baudry, C. Early dissociation between neural signatures of endogenous spatial attention and perceptual awareness during visual masking. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 1-14, 2012; Watanabe, M., Cheng, K., Murayama, Y., Ueno, K...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790964/evidence-of-evolutionary-history-and-selective-sweeps-in-the-genome-of-meishan-pig-reveals-its-genetic-and-phenotypic-characterization
#12
Pengju Zhao, Ying Yu, Wen Feng, Heng Du, Jian Yu, Huimin Kang, Xianrui Zheng, Zhiquan Wang, George E Liu, Catherine W Ernst, Xueqin Ran, Jiafu Wang, Jian-Feng Liu
Background: Meishan is a pig breed indigenous to China and famous for its high fecundity. The traits of Meishan are strongly associated with its distinct evolutionary history and domestication. However, the genomic evidence linking the domestication of Meishan pigs with the unique features are still poorly understood. The goal of this study is to investigate the genomic signatures and evolutionary evidence related to phenotypic traits of Meishan by large-scale sequencing. Results: We found the unique domestication of Meishan pigs happened at the Taihu Basin area between the Majiabang and the Liangzhu culture, during which 300 protein-coding genes have undergone positive selection...
May 22, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790959/peripheral-blood-gene-expression-reveals-an-inflammatory-transcriptomic-signature-in-friedreich-s-ataxia-patients
#13
Daniel Nachun, Fuying Gao, Charles Isaacs, Cassandra Strawser, Zhongan Yang, Deepika Dokuru, Victoria Van Berlo, Renee Sears, Jennifer Farmer, Susan Perlman, David R Lynch, Giovanni Coppola
Transcriptional changes in Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), a rare and debilitating recessive Mendelian neurodegenerative disorder, have been studied in affected but inaccessible tissues - such as dorsal root ganglia, sensory neurons, and cerebellum - in animal models or small patient series. However, transcriptional changes induced by FRDA in peripheral blood, a readily accessible tissue, have not been characterized in a large sample. We used differential expression, association with disability stage, network analysis, and enrichment analysis to characterize the peripheral blood transcriptome and identify genes that were differentially expressed in FRDA patients (n = 418) compared to both heterozygous expansion carriers (n = 228) and controls (n = 93, 739 individuals in total), or were associated with disease progression, resulting in a disease signature for FRDA...
May 22, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790943/mutalisk-a-web-based-somatic-mutation-analyis-toolkit-for-genomic-transcriptional-and-epigenomic-signatures
#14
Jongkeun Lee, Andy Jinseok Lee, June-Koo Lee, Jongkeun Park, Youngoh Kwon, Seongyeol Park, Hyonho Chun, Young Seok Ju, Dongwan Hong
Somatic genome mutations occur due to combinations of various intrinsic/extrinsic mutational processes and DNA repair mechanisms. Different molecular processes frequently generate different signatures of somatic mutations in their own favored contexts. As a result, the regional somatic mutation rate is dependent on the local DNA sequence, the DNA replication/RNA transcription dynamics and epigenomic chromatin organization landscape in the genome. Here, we propose an online computational framework, termed Mutalisk, which correlates somatic mutations with various genomic, transcriptional and epigenomic features in order to understand mutational processes that contribute to the generation of the mutations...
May 22, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790665/long-noncoding-rna-ufc1-is-activated-by-e2f1-and-exerts-oncogenic-properties-by-functioning-as-a-cerna-of-foxp3
#15
Jie Xi, Jing Feng, Saitian Zeng, Ping Huang
Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecologic cancers around the world. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are considered to be important regulators of some biological processes. Recently, it has been reported that linc-UFC1 is a putative oncogene in some cancers. However, the functional roles of linc-UFC1 have not been investigated in cervical cancer. Here, it was demonstrated that linc-UFC1 expression was significantly increased in cervical cancer tissues, and its overexpression was associated with the poor survival of patients with cervical cancer...
May 23, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789880/distinctive-cd8-t-cell-and-mhc-class-i-signatures-in-polycythemia-vera-patients
#16
Elsa M Cardoso, André J Esgalhado, Luís Patrão, Mónica Santos, Vasco Pinto Neves, Jorge Martinez, Maria Assunção Vaz Patto, Helena Silva, Fernando A Arosa
Polycythemia vera (PV) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by overproduction of red blood cells. We have performed a comprehensive characterization of blood immune cells for expression of naïve and memory receptors as well as β2 m-associated and β2 m-free MHC class I heavy chains, also known as closed and open conformers, respectively, in PV patients and age-matched controls (CTR). We show that the peripheral CD3+ CD8+ T cell pool in PV patients is clearly divided into two discrete populations, a more granular CD3+ CD8high T cell population enriched in effector-memory CD45RA+ T cells (CD8+ TEMRA) when compared to CTR (P < 0...
May 22, 2018: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789661/a-correlative-and-quantitative-imaging-approach-enabling-characterization-of-primary-cell-cell-communication-case-of-human-cd4-t-cell-macrophage-immunological-synapses
#17
Richard Kasprowicz, Emma Rand, Peter J O'Toole, Nathalie Signoret
Cell-to-cell communication engages signaling and spatiotemporal reorganization events driven by highly context-dependent and dynamic intercellular interactions, which are difficult to capture within heterogeneous primary cell cultures. Here, we present a straightforward correlative imaging approach utilizing commonly available instrumentation to sample large numbers of cell-cell interaction events, allowing qualitative and quantitative characterization of rare functioning cell-conjugates based on calcium signals...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789522/a20-critically-controls-microglia-activation-and-inhibits-inflammasome-dependent-neuroinflammation
#18
Sofie Voet, Conor Mc Guire, Nora Hagemeyer, Arne Martens, Anna Schroeder, Peter Wieghofer, Carmen Daems, Ori Staszewski, Lieselotte Vande Walle, Marta Joana Costa Jordao, Mozes Sze, Hanna-Kaisa Vikkula, Delphine Demeestere, Griet Van Imschoot, Charlotte L Scott, Esther Hoste, Amanda Gonçalves, Martin Guilliams, Saskia Lippens, Claude Libert, Roos E Vandenbroucke, Ki-Wook Kim, Steffen Jung, Zsuzsanna Callaerts-Vegh, Patrick Callaerts, Joris de Wit, Mohamed Lamkanfi, Marco Prinz, Geert van Loo
Microglia, the mononuclear phagocytes of the central nervous system (CNS), are important for the maintenance of CNS homeostasis, but also critically contribute to CNS pathology. Here we demonstrate that the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) regulatory protein A20 is crucial in regulating microglia activation during CNS homeostasis and pathology. In mice, deletion of A20 in microglia increases microglial cell number and affects microglial regulation of neuronal synaptic function. Administration of a sublethal dose of lipopolysaccharide induces massive microglia activation, neuroinflammation, and lethality in mice with microglia-confined A20 deficiency...
May 23, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789475/an-identity-based-anti-quantum-privacy-preserving-blind-authentication-in-wireless-sensor-networks
#19
Hongfei Zhu, Yu-An Tan, Liehuang Zhu, Xianmin Wang, Quanxin Zhang, Yuanzhang Li
With the development of wireless sensor networks, IoT devices are crucial for the Smart City; these devices change people's lives such as e-payment and e-voting systems. However, in these two systems, the state-of-art authentication protocols based on traditional number theory cannot defeat a quantum computer attack. In order to protect user privacy and guarantee trustworthy of big data, we propose a new identity-based blind signature scheme based on number theorem research unit lattice, this scheme mainly uses a rejection sampling theorem instead of constructing a trapdoor...
May 22, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789404/new-approaches-for-assessing-squid-fin-motions-coupling-proper-orthogonal-decomposition-with-volumetric-particle-tracking-velocimetry
#20
Ian K Bartol, Paul S Krueger, Carly A York, Joseph T Thompson
Squids, which swim using a coupled fin/jet system powered by muscular hydrostats, pose unique challenges for the study of locomotion. The high flexibility of the fins and complex flow fields generated by distinct propulsion systems require innovative techniques for locomotive assessment. For this study, we used proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to decouple components of the fin motions and defocusing digital particle tracking velocimetry (DDPTV) to quantify the resultant 3D flow fields. Kinematic footage and DDPTV data were collected from brief squid Lolliguncula brevis [3...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
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