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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102957/rf-safety-assessment-of-a-bilateral-four-channel-transmit-receive-7-tesla-breast-coil-sar-versus-tissue-temperature-limits
#1
Thomas M Fiedler, Mark E Ladd, Andreas K Bitz
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to perform an RF safety evaluation for a bilateral four-channel transmit/receive breast coil and to determine the maximum permissible input power for which RF exposure of the subject stays within recommended limits. The safety evaluation was done based on SAR as well as on temperature simulations. In comparison to SAR, temperature is more directly correlated with tissue damage, which allows a more precise safety assessment. The temperature simulations were performed by applying three different blood perfusion models as well as two different ambient temperatures...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102955/compound-speckle-model-detects-anti-angiogenic-tumor-response-in-preclinical-nonlinear-contrast-enhanced-ultrasonography
#2
Matthew R Lowerison, Justin J Tse, M Nicole Hague, Ann F Chambers, David W Holdsworth, James C Lacefield
PURPOSE: This paper proposes a method for analyzing the first-order speckle statistics of nonlinear contrast-enhanced ultrasound images from tumors. METHODS: Contrast signal intensity is modeled as a compound distribution of exponential probability density functions with a gamma weighting function. The gamma probability weighting function serves as an approximation for log-normally distributed flow velocities in a vascular network. The model was applied to sub-harmonic bolus-injection images acquired from a mouse breast cancer xenograft model treated with murine version bevacizumab...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102936/unbiased-and-quantitative-proteomics-reveals-highly-increased-angiogenesis-induction-by-the-secretome-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-isolated-from-fetal-rather-than-adult-skin
#3
Massimiliano Gaetani, Cinzia Maria Chinnici, Anna Paola Carreca, Claudia Di Pasquale, Giandomenico Amico, Pier Giulio Conaldi
Scarless wound healing and functional regeneration are typical processes of the fetus, gradually lost during post-natal life, and maximally attributed to fetal skin tissue and induced by fetal skin fibroblasts. The latter have been successfully applied to post-natal wounds, with clear advantages compared with autologous dermis grafts or adult fibroblast applications. Our goal was to functionally identify and uncover key factors and mechanisms through the analysis of secretomes, the principal players in all cell therapies based on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102912/different-spatio-temporal-eeg-features-drive-the-successful-decoding-of-binaural-and-monaural-cues-for-sound-localization
#4
Adam Bednar, Francis M Boland, Edmund C Lalor
The human ability to localize sound is essential for monitoring the environment and helps us to analyze complex auditory scenes. Although the acoustic cues mediating sound localization have been established, it remains unknown how these cues are represented in human cortex. In particular, it is still a point of contention whether binaural and monaural cues are processed by the same or distinct cortical networks. In this study, participants listened to a sequence of auditory stimuli from different spatial locations while we recorded their neural activity using electroencephalography (EEG)...
January 19, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102867/a-systems-approach-for-the-elucidation-of-crucial-genes-and-network-constituents-of-cervical-intraepithelial-neoplasia-1-cin1
#5
Shikha Suman, Ashutosh Mishra, Anurag Kulshrestha
Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN1) is a pre-cancerous cervical cancer condition characterized by changes in the squamous cells of the cervix. Early detection may facilitate treatment as CIN1 may increase the risk of developing cervical cancer. An extensive system level analysis has been carried out to detect crucial network components of CIN1. Differential expression analysis was performed to identify genes that are differentially expressed in CIN1 in comparison to normal cells. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses of DEGs were followed by the construction of a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network...
January 19, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102757/dysbiosis-in-crohn-s-disease-joint-action-of-stochastic-injuries-and-focal-inflammation-in-the-gut
#6
Ludovica F Buttó, Dirk Haller
Gut homeostasis involves interrelated biological networks that include the immune system, specialized cells of the epithelium, such as Paneth and goblet cells, as well as triggers derived from the microbiota. Disruption of these homeostatic interactions may lead to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). To develop more targeted and individual treatments in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, it becomes more and more important to link key mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis to distinct IBD subsets...
January 19, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102689/high-dimensional-atomistic-neural-network-potentials-for-molecule-surface-interactions-hcl-scattering-from-au-111
#7
Brian Kolb, Xuan Luo, Xueyao Zhou, Bin Jiang, Hua Guo
Ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of molecule-surface scattering allow first-principles characterization of the dynamics. However, the large number of density functional theory calculations along the trajectories are very costly, limiting simulations of long-time events. To avoid this computational bottleneck, we report here the development of a high-dimensional molecule-surface interaction potential energy surface (PES) with movable surface atoms, using a machine learning approach. With 60 degrees of freedom, this PES allows energy transfer between the impinging molecule and surface atoms...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102615/comparative-effectiveness-of-venous-thromboembolism-prophylaxis-options-for-the-patient-undergoing-total-hip-and-knee-replacement-a-network-meta-analysis
#8
A Kapoor, A Ellis, N Shaffer, J Gurwitz, A Chandramohan, J Saulino, A Ishak, T Okubanjo, F Michota, E Hylek, T A Trikalinos
: Essentials Despite trial data, guidelines have not endorsed direct oral Xa inhibitors above other options. We provide profiles of venous thromboembolism and hemorrhage risk for 12 options. Direct oral Xa inhibitors had a favorable profile compared with low-molecular-weight heparin. Other options did not have favorable profiles compared with low-molecular-weight heparin. SUMMARY: Background There are numerous trials and several meta-analyses comparing venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis options after total hip and knee replacement (THR and TKR)...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102556/structurally-stable-attractive-nanoscale-emulsions-with-dipole-dipole-interaction-driven-interdrop-percolation
#9
Kyounghee Shin, Gyeonghyeon Gong, Jonas Cuadrado, Serim Jeon, Mintae Seo, Hong Sung Choi, Jae Sung Hwang, Youngbok Lee, Alberto Fernandez-Nieves, Jin Woong Kim
This study introduces an extremely stable attractive nanoscale emulsion fluid, in which the amphiphilic block copolymer, poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL), is tightly packed with lecithin, thereby forming a mechanically robust thin-film at the oil-water interface. The molecular association of PEO-b-PCL with lecithin is critical for formation of a tighter and denser molecular assembly at the interface, which is systematically confirmed by T2 relaxation and DSC analyses. Moreover, our suspension rheology studies also reflect the interdroplet attractions over a wide volume fraction range of the dispersed oil phase; this results in a percolated network of stable drops that exhibit no signs of coalescence or phase separation...
January 19, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102460/neural-mass-models-as-a-tool-to-investigate-neural-dynamics-during-seizures
#10
Tatiana Kameneva, Tianlin Ying, Ben Guo, Dean R Freestone
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders and is characterized by recurrent seizures. We use theoretical neuroscience tools to study brain dynamics during seizures. We derive and simulate a computational model of a network of hippocampal neuronal populations. Each population within the network is based on a model that has been shown to replicate the electrophysiological dynamics observed during seizures. The results provide insights into possible mechanisms for seizure spread. We observe that epileptiform activity remains localized to a pathological region when a global connectivity parameter is less than a critical value...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102431/totipotency-in-the-mouse
#11
REVIEW
Guangming Wu, Lei Lei, Hans R Schöler
In mammals, the unicellular zygote starts the process of embryogenesis and differentiates into all types of somatic cells, including both fetal and extraembryonic lineages-in a highly organized manner to eventually give rise to an entire multicellular organism comprising more than 200 different tissue types. This feature is referred to as totipotency. Upon fertilization, oocyte maternal factors epigenetically reprogram the genomes of the terminally differentiated oocyte and spermatozoon and turn the zygote into a totipotent cell...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102399/microsphere-cytometry-to-interrogate-microenvironment-dependent-cell-signaling
#12
Henriette Christie Ertsås, Garry P Nolan, Mark A LaBarge, James B Lorens
Microenvironmental cues comprising surface-mediated and soluble factors control cellular signaling mechanisms underlying normal cellular responses that define homeostatic and diseased cell states. In order to measure cell signaling in single adherent cells, we developed a novel microsphere-based flow cytometry approach. Single normal or neoplastic cells were adhered to uniform microspheres that display mimetic-microenvironments comprising surface combinations of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the presence of soluble agonists/antagonists...
January 19, 2017: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102361/effectiveness-and-tolerability-of-different-recommended-doses-of-ppis-and-h2ras-in-gerd-network-meta-analysis-and-grade-system
#13
Chao Zhang, Joey S W Kwong, Rui-Xia Yuan, Hao Chen, Chang Xu, Yi-Pin Wang, Gong-Li Yang, Jin-Zhu Yan, Le Peng, Xian-Tao Zeng, Hong Weng, Jie Luo, Yu-Ming Niu
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine-2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) are used for gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD); however, the clinical evidence for treatment is poor. We evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability of different doses of PPIs, H2RAs and placebo in adults with GERD. Six online databases were searched through September 1, 2016. All related articles were included and combined with a Bayesian network meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The GRADE systems were employed to assess the main outcome...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102354/a-signature-of-renal-stress-resistance-induced-by-short-term-dietary-restriction-fasting-and-protein-restriction
#14
F Jongbloed, T C Saat, M Verweij, C Payan-Gomez, J H J Hoeijmakers, S van den Engel, C T van Oostrom, G Ambagtsheer, S Imholz, J L A Pennings, H van Steeg, J N M IJzermans, M E T Dollé, R W F de Bruin
During kidney transplantation, ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) induces oxidative stress. Short-term preoperative 30% dietary restriction (DR) and 3-day fasting protect against renal IRI. We investigated the contribution of macronutrients to this protection on both phenotypical and transcriptional levels. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed control food ad libitum, underwent two weeks of 30%DR, 3-day fasting, or received a protein-, carbohydrate- or fat-free diet for various periods of time. After completion of each diet, renal gene expression was investigated using microarrays...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102344/predicting-drug-combination-index-and-simulating-the-network-regulation-dynamics-by-mathematical-modeling-of-drug-targeted-egfr-erk-signaling-pathway
#15
Lu Huang, Yuyang Jiang, Yuzong Chen
Synergistic drug combinations enable enhanced therapeutics. Their discovery typically involves the measurement and assessment of drug combination index (CI), which can be facilitated by the development and applications of in-silico CI predictive tools. In this work, we developed and tested the ability of a mathematical model of drug-targeted EGFR-ERK pathway in predicting CIs and in analyzing multiple synergistic drug combinations against observations. Our mathematical model was validated against the literature reported signaling, drug response dynamics, and EGFR-MEK drug combination effect...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102341/lasing-in-live-mitotic-and-non-phagocytic-cells-by-efficient-delivery-of-microresonators
#16
Marcel Schubert, Klara Volckaert, Markus Karl, Andrew Morton, Philipp Liehm, Gareth B Miles, Simon J Powis, Malte C Gather
Reliable methods to individually track large numbers of cells in real time are urgently needed to advance our understanding of important biological processes like cancer metastasis, neuronal network development and wound healing. It has recently been suggested to introduce microscopic whispering gallery mode lasers into the cytoplasm of cells and to use their characteristic, size-dependent emission spectrum as optical barcode but so far there is no evidence that this approach is generally applicable. Here, we describe a method that drastically improves intracellular delivery of resonators for several cell types, including mitotic and non-phagocytic cells...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102333/conserving-herbivorous-and-predatory-insects-in-urban-green-spaces
#17
Luis Mata, Caragh G Threlfall, Nicholas S G Williams, Amy K Hahs, Mallik Malipatil, Nigel E Stork, Stephen J Livesley
Insects are key components of urban ecological networks and are greatly impacted by anthropogenic activities. Yet, few studies have examined how insect functional groups respond to changes to urban vegetation associated with different management actions. We investigated the response of herbivorous and predatory heteropteran bugs to differences in vegetation structure and diversity in golf courses, gardens and parks. We assessed how the species richness of these groups varied amongst green space types, and the effect of vegetation volume and plant diversity on trophic- and species-specific occupancy...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102325/viral-micrornas-target-a-gene-network-inhibit-stat-activation-and-suppress-interferon-responses
#18
Dhivya Ramalingam, Joseph M Ziegelbauer
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes 12 pre-microRNAs during latency that are processed to yield ~25 mature microRNAs (miRNAs). We were interested in identifying cellular networks that were targeted by KSHV-miRNAs and employed network building strategies using validated KSHV miRNA targets. Here, we report the identification of a gene network centering on the transcription factor- signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) that is targeted by KSHV miRNAs. KSHV miRNAs suppressed STAT3 and STAT5 activation and inhibited STAT3-dependent reporter activation upon IL6-treatment...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102302/fractional-lattice-charge-transport
#19
Sergej Flach, Ramaz Khomeriki
We consider the dynamics of noninteracting quantum particles on a square lattice in the presence of a magnetic flux α and a dc electric field E oriented along the lattice diagonal. In general, the adiabatic dynamics will be characterized by Bloch oscillations in the electrical field direction and dispersive ballistic transport in the perpendicular direction. For rational values of α and a corresponding discrete set of values of E(α) vanishing gaps in the spectrum induce a fractionalization of the charge in the perpendicular direction - while left movers are still performing dispersive ballistic transport, the complementary fraction of right movers is propagating in a dispersionless relativistic manner in the opposite direction...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102300/neural-correlates-of-speech-segregation-based-on-formant-frequencies-of-adjacent-vowels
#20
Claude Alain, Jessica S Arsenault, Linda Garami, Gavin M Bidelman, Joel S Snyder
The neural substrates by which speech sounds are perceptually segregated into distinct streams are poorly understood. Here, we recorded high-density scalp event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants were presented with a cyclic pattern of three vowel sounds (/ee/-/ae/-/ee/). Each trial consisted of an adaptation sequence, which could have either a small, intermediate, or large difference in first formant (Δf1) as well as a test sequence, in which Δf1 was always intermediate. For the adaptation sequence, participants tended to hear two streams ("streaming") when Δf1 was intermediate or large compared to when it was small...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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