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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806855/functional-stem-cell-integration-into-neural-networks-assessed-by-organotypic-slice-cultures
#1
David Forsberg, Charoensri Thonabulsombat, Johan Jäderstad, Linda Maria Jäderstad, Petri Olivius, Eric Herlenius
Re-formation or preservation of functional, electrically active neural networks has been proffered as one of the goals of stem cell-mediated neural therapeutics. A primary issue for a cell therapy approach is the formation of functional contacts between the implanted cells and the host tissue. Therefore, it is of fundamental interest to establish protocols that allow us to delineate a detailed time course of grafted stem cell survival, migration, differentiation, integration, and functional interaction with the host...
August 14, 2017: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806768/design-and-fabrication-of-a-realistic-anthropomorphic-heterogeneous-head-phantom-for-mr-purposes
#2
Sossena Wood, Narayanan Krishnamurthy, Tales Santini, Shailesh Raval, Nadim Farhat, John Andy Holmes, Tamer S Ibrahim
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to design an anthropomorphic heterogeneous head phantom that can be used for MRI and other electromagnetic applications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An eight compartment, physical anthropomorphic head phantom was developed from a 3T MRI dataset of a healthy male. The designed phantom was successfully built and preliminarily evaluated through an application that involves electromagnetic-tissue interactions: MRI (due to it being an available resource)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806763/genome-wide-regulation-of-electro-acupuncture-on-the-neural-stat5-loss-induced-obese-mice
#3
Shu-Ping Fu, Hao Hong, Sheng-Feng Lu, Chen-Jun Hu, Hou-Xi Xu, Qian Li, Mei-Ling Yu, Chen Ou, Jian-Zhong Meng, Tian-Lin Wang, Lothar Hennighausen, Bing-Mei Zhu
Acupuncture is reported to be effective in treating obesity related illnesses, but its mechanism is still unclear. To investigate this mechanism we applied electro-acupuncture (EA) in a mouse model of obesity and used RNA-seq to identify molecular consequences. Deletion of the transcription factor STAT5 from neurons (Stat5NKO) led to obesity. Acupuncture, in turn, reduced body weight and the ratio of epididymal white adipose tissue (Epi-WAT) to body weight, and it also decreased plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806757/impact-of-interaction-style-and-degree-on-the-evolution-of-cooperation-on-barab%C3%A3-si-albert-scale-free-network
#4
Fengjie Xie, Jing Shi, Jun Lin
In this work, we study an evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) on Barabási-Albert scale-free networks with limited player interactions, and explore the effect of interaction style and degree on cooperation. The results show that high-degree preference interaction, namely the most applicable interaction in the real world, is less beneficial for emergence of cooperation on scale-free networks than random interaction. Besides, cooperation on scale-free networks is enhanced with the increase of interaction degree regardless whether the interaction is high-degree preference or random...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806742/dissociating-maternal-responses-to-sad-and-happy-facial-expressions-of-their-own-child-an-fmri-study
#5
Dorothea Kluczniok, Catherine Hindi Attar, Jenny Stein, Sina Poppinga, Thomas Fydrich, Charlotte Jaite, Viola Kappel, Romuald Brunner, Sabine C Herpertz, Katja Boedeker, Felix Bermpohl
BACKGROUND: Maternal sensitive behavior depends on recognizing one's own child's affective states. The present study investigated distinct and overlapping neural responses of mothers to sad and happy facial expressions of their own child (in comparison to facial expressions of an unfamiliar child). METHODS: We used functional MRI to measure dissociable and overlapping activation patterns in 27 healthy mothers in response to happy, neutral and sad facial expressions of their own school-aged child and a gender- and age-matched unfamiliar child...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806730/a-systems-approach-reveals-distinct-metabolic-strategies-among-the-nci-60-cancer-cell-lines
#6
Maike K Aurich, Ronan M T Fleming, Ines Thiele
The metabolic phenotype of cancer cells is reflected by the metabolites they consume and by the byproducts they release. Here, we use quantitative, extracellular metabolomic data of the NCI-60 panel and a novel computational method to generate 120 condition-specific cancer cell line metabolic models. These condition-specific cancer models used distinct metabolic strategies to generate energy and cofactors. The analysis of the models' capability to deal with environmental perturbations revealed three oxotypes, differing in the range of allowable oxygen uptake rates...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806717/efficient-construction-of-sparse-radial-basis-function-neural-networks-using-l1-regularization
#7
Xusheng Qian, He Huang, Xiaoping Chen, Tingwen Huang
This paper investigates the construction of sparse radial basis function neural networks (RBFNNs) for classification problems. An efficient two-phase construction algorithm (which is abbreviated as TPCLR1 for simplicity) is proposed by using L1 regularization. In the first phase, an improved maximum data coverage (IMDC) algorithm is presented for the initialization of RBF centers and widths. Then a specialized Orthant-Wise Limited-memory Quasi-Newton (sOWL-QN) method is employed to perform simultaneous network pruning and parameter optimization in the second phase...
July 27, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806715/recurrent-networks-with-soft-thresholding-nonlinearities-for-lightweight-coding
#8
MohammadMehdi Kafashan, ShiNung Ching
A long-standing and influential hypothesis in neural information processing is that early sensory networks adapt themselves to produce efficient codes of afferent inputs. Here, we show how a nonlinear recurrent network provides an optimal solution for the efficient coding of an afferent input and its history. We specifically consider the problem of producing lightweight codes, ones that minimize both ℓ1 and ℓ2 constraints on sparsity and energy, respectively. When embedded in a linear coding paradigm, this problem results in a non-smooth convex optimization problem...
July 22, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806707/deviant-functional-activation-and-connectivity-of-the-right-insula-are-associated-with-lack-of-awareness-of-episodic-memory-impairment-in-nonamnesic-alcoholism
#9
Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Eva M Müller-Oehring, Tilman Schulte, Matthew R Serventi, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan
A disorder of metamemory, expressed as unawareness of mnemonic ability, is typically associated with the profound amnesia of Korsakoff's Syndrome (KS). A similar but less severe type of limited awareness can also occur in non-KS alcoholism and is observed as an impairment in generating Feeling-of-Knowing (FOK) predictions about future recognition performance. We previously found that FOK accuracy was selectively related to volumes of the insula in alcoholics involved in the present study. Unknown, however, are the neural substrates of unawareness of memory impairment in alcoholism...
July 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806688/concentration-dependent-transcriptome-responses-of-zebrafish-embryos-after-exposure-to-cadmium-cobalt-and-copper
#10
Laura Sonnack, Thorsten Klawonn, Ralf Kriehuber, Henner Hollert, Christoph Schäfers, Martina Fenske
Environmental metals are known to cause harmful effects to fish of which many molecular mechanisms still require elucidation. Particularly concentration dependence of gene expression effects is unclear. Focusing on this matter, zebrafish embryo toxicity tests were used in combination with transcriptomics. Embryos were exposed to three concentrations of copper (CuSO4), cadmium (CdCl2) and cobalt (CoSO4) from just after fertilization until the end of the 48hpf pre- and 96hpf post-hatch stage. The RNA was then analyzed on Agilent's Zebrafish (V3, 4×44K) arrays...
August 2, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806621/traumatic-common-hepatic-artery-injury-causing-isolated-right-hepatic-ischemia-due-to-a-left-accessory-artery-a-case-report
#11
Eduardo Fernandes, Corrado Pedrazzani, Marielia Gerena, Ellen Omi
INTRODUCTION: Hepatic arterial liver flow is renowned for its redundancy. Previous studies have demonstrated that the common hepatic artery is not essential for liver survival. We present a case of a 31year-old involved in a high-speed motor vehicle accident whose liver survived thanks to the presence of an accessory hepatic artery. PRESENTATON OF THE CASE: We present the case of a 31year-old male who sustained a traumatic injury of the proper hepatic artery following a motor vehicle accident...
August 8, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806613/automatic-blood-vessels-segmentation-based-on-different-retinal-maps-from-octa-scans
#12
Nabila Eladawi, Mohammed Elmogy, Omar Helmy, Ahmed Aboelfetouh, Alaa Riad, Harpal Sandhu, Shlomit Schaal, Ayman El-Baz
The retinal vascular network reflects the health of the retina, which is a useful diagnostic indicator of systemic vascular. Therefore, the segmentation of retinal blood vessels is a powerful method for diagnosing vascular diseases. This paper presents an automatic segmentation system for retinal blood vessels from Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) images. The system segments blood vessels from the superficial and deep retinal maps for normal and diabetic cases. Initially, we reduced the noise and improved the contrast of the OCTA images by using the Generalized Gauss-Markov random field (GGMRF) model...
August 7, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806599/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-anterior-striatum-and-prefrontal-cortex-predicts-reading-performance-in-school-age-children
#13
Sarael Alcauter, Liliana García-Mondragón, Zeus Gracia-Tabuenca, Martha B Moreno, Juan J Ortiz, Fernando A Barrios
The current study investigated the neural basis of reading performance in 60 school-age Spanish-speaking children, aged 6 to 9years. By using a data-driven approach and an automated matching procedure, we identified a left-lateralized resting state network that included typical language regions (Wernicke's and Broca's regions), prefrontal cortex, pre- and post-central gyri, superior and middle temporal gyri, cerebellum, and subcortical regions, and explored its relevance for reading performance (accuracy, comprehension and speed)...
August 11, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806597/a-nested-multivariate-chemometrics-based-calibration-strategy-for-direct-trace-biometal-analysis-in-soft-tissue-utilizing-energy-dispersive-x-ray-fluorescence-edxrf-and-scattering-spectrometry
#14
REVIEW
J J Okonda, K H Angeyo, J M Mangala, S M Kisia
Compton scatter-modulated fluorescence and multivariate chemometric (artificial neural network (ANN) and principal component regression (PCR)) calibration strategy was explored for direct rapid trace biometals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se) analysis in "complex" matrices (model soft tissues). This involved spectral feature selection (multiple fluorescence signatures) normalized to or in conjunction with Compton scatter. ANN model resulted in more accurate trace biometal determination (R(2)>0.9) compared to PCR. Hybrid nested (ANN and PCR) approach led to optimized accurate biometals' concentrations in Oyster tissue (≤ ± 10%)...
August 8, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806594/signaling-networks-in-the-control-of-pluripotency
#15
REVIEW
Hanzhi Zhao, Ying Jin
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are characterized by their ability of unlimited self-renewal in vitro and pluripotent developmental potential, which endows them with great values in basic research and future clinical application. However, realization of full potential of ESCs is dependent on the elucidation of molecular mechanisms governing ESCs, among which signaling pathways play critical roles. A great deal of efforts has been made in the past decades to understand what and how signaling pathways contribute to the establishment and maintenance of pluripotency...
August 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806579/access-to-emergency-care-services-a-transversal-ecological-study-about-brazilian-emergency-health-care-network
#16
T A H Rocha, N C da Silva, P V Amaral, A C Q Barbosa, J V M Rocha, V Alvares, D G de Almeida, E Thumé, E B A F Thomaz, R C de Sousa Queiroz, M R de Souza, A Lein, N Toomey, C A Staton, J R N Vissoci, L A Facchini
OBJECTIVES: Studies of health geography are important in the planning and allocation of emergency health services. The geographical distribution of health facilities is an important factor in timely and quality access to emergency services; therefore, the present study analyzed the emergency health care network in Brazil, focusing the analysis at the roles of small hospitals (SHs). STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional ecological study. METHODS: Data were collected from 9429 hospitals of which 3524 were SHs and 5905 were high-complexity centers (HCCs)...
August 11, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806551/effects-of-agricultural-land-use-on-fluvial-carbon-dioxide-methane-and-nitrous-oxide-concentrations-in-a-large-european-river-the-meuse-belgium
#17
A V Borges, F Darchambeau, T Lambert, S Bouillon, C Morana, S Brouyère, V Hakoun, A Jurado, H-C Tseng, J-P Descy, F A E Roland
We report a data-set of CO2, CH4, and N2O concentrations in the surface waters of the Meuse river network in Belgium, obtained during four surveys covering 50 stations (summer 2013 and late winter 2013, 2014 and 2015), from yearly cycles in four rivers of variable size and catchment land cover, and from 111 groundwater samples. Surface waters of the Meuse river network were over-saturated in CO2, CH4, N2O with respect to atmospheric equilibrium, acting as sources of these greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, although the dissolved gases also showed marked seasonal and spatial variations...
August 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806513/intraperitoneal-delivery-of-cisplatin-via-a-hyaluronan-based-nanogel-in-situ-crosslinkable-hydrogel-hybrid-system-for-peritoneal-dissemination-of-gastric-cancer
#18
Seiichi Ohta, Shota Hiramoto, Yuki Amano, Shigenobu Emoto, Hironori Yamaguchi, Hironori Ishigami, Joji Kitayama, Taichi Ito
Intraperitoneal administration of chemotherapeutics is expected for the treatment of peritoneally disseminated gastric cancer, because of poor migration of the drugs from the systemic circulation to the peritoneal cavity. In this study, for intraperitoneal delivery of cisplatin (CDDP), we developed a hyaluronan (HA)-based hybrid system in which CDDP-loaded HA nanogels were either physically encapsulated in or chemically conjugated to injectable HA hydrogels. Physical encapsulation enabled sustained release of HA nanogels from the HA hydrogel matrix for over a week...
August 14, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806507/triboelectric-nanogenerator-enabled-body-sensor-network-for-self-powered-human-heart-rate-monitoring
#19
Zhiming Lin, Jun Chen, Xiaoshi Li, Zhihao Zhou, Keyu Meng, Wei Wei, Jin Yang, Zhong Lin Wang
Heart rate monitoring plays a critical role in personal healthcare management. A low-cost, non-invasive and user-friendly heart rate monitoring system is highly desirable. Here, a self-powered wireless Body Sensor Network (BSN) system is developed for heart rate monitoring via integration of a downy-structure based triboelectric nanogenerator (D-TENG), a power management circuit, a heart rate sensor, a signal processing unit and Bluetooth module for wireless data transmission. By converting the inertia energy of human walking into electric power, a maximum power of 2...
August 14, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806496/anterior-superior-alveolar-nerve-injury-after-extended-endoscopic-medial-maxillectomy-a-preclinical-study-to-predict-neurological-morbidity
#20
Alberto Schreiber, Davide Mattavelli, Marco Ferrari, Vittorio Rampinelli, Davide Lancini, Marco Ravanelli, Giacomo Bertazzoni, Luigi Fabrizio Rodella, Barbara Buffoli, Francesco Doglietto, Piero Nicolai
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic medial maxillectomies (EMMs) are used to optimize exposure of the maxillary sinus and retromaxillary areas. Although in type D EMM (Sturmann-Canfield procedure) the anterior superior alveolar nerve (ASAN) is always at risk of injury, only 29% of patients complained of alveolar process and dental anesthesia. The purpose of this anatomical study is to assess the neural anastomotic network of the ASAN (ASAN-NAN) and describe different extensions of type D EMMs in a preclinical setting...
August 14, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
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