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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356412/dna-nanotubes-with-hydrophobic-environments-toward-new-platforms-for-guest-encapsulation-and-cellular-delivery
#1
Janane F Rahbani, Empar Vengut-Climent, Pongphak Chidchob, Yasser Gidi, Tuan Trinh, Gonzalo Cosa, Hanadi F Sleiman
Natural systems combine different supramolecular interactions in a hierarchical manner to build structures. In contrast, DNA nanotechnology relies almost exclusively on DNA base pairing for structure generation. Introducing other supramolecular interactions can expand the structural and functional range of DNA assemblies, but this requires an understanding of the interplay between these interactions. Here, an economic strategy to build DNA nanotubes functionalized with lipid-like polymers is reported. When these polymers are linked to the nanotube using a spacer, they fold inside to create a hydrophobic environment within the nanotube; the nanotube can encapsulate small molecules and conditionally release them when specific DNA strands are added, as monitored by single-molecule fluorescence microscopy...
January 22, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356399/sall4-khdrbs3-network-enhances-stemness-by-modulating-cd44-splicing-in-basal-like-breast-cancer
#2
Yoshiaki Matsumoto, Junji Itou, Fumiaki Sato, Masakazu Toi
Understanding the mechanism by which cancer cells enhance stemness facilitates cancer therapies. Here, we revealed that a stem cell transcription factor, SALL4, functions to enhance stemness in basal-like breast cancer cells. We used shRNA-mediated knockdown and gene overexpression systems to analyze gene functions. To evaluate stemness, we performed a sphere formation assay. In SALL4 knockdown cells, the sphere formation ability was reduced, indicating that SALL4 enhances stemness. CD44 is a membrane protein and is known as a stemness factor in cancer...
January 22, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356365/risk-network-approaches-to-locating-undiagnosed-hiv-cases-in-odessa-ukraine
#3
Pavlo Smyrnov, Leslie D Williams, Ania Korobchuk, Yana Sazonova, Georgios K Nikolopoulos, Britt Skaathun, Ethan Morgan, John Schneider, Tetyana I Vasylyeva, Samuel R Friedman
INTRODUCTION: Providing HIV healthcare and Treatment as Prevention both depend on diagnosing HIV cases, preferably soon after initial infection. We hypothesized that tracing risk networks recruits higher proportions of undiagnosed positives than outreach-based testing or respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in Odessa, Ukraine. METHODS: The Transmission Reduction Intervention Project (TRIP) used risk network tracing to recruit sexual and injection networks of recently-infected and longer-term infected (LTs) seeds (2013 to 2016)...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356348/skeletal-muscle-ex%C3%A2-vivo-mitochondrial-respiration-parallels-decline-in%C3%A2-vivo-oxidative-capacity-cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-muscle-strength-the-baltimore-longitudinal-study-of-aging
#4
Marta Gonzalez-Freire, Paul Scalzo, Jarod D'Agostino, Zenobia A Moore, Alberto Diaz-Ruiz, Elisa Fabbri, Ariel Zane, Brian Chen, Kevin G Becker, Elin Lehrmann, Linda Zukley, Chee W Chia, Toshiko Tanaka, Paul M Coen, Michel Bernier, Rafael de Cabo, Luigi Ferrucci
Mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle declines with age. Most evidence for this decline comes from studies that assessed mitochondrial function indirectly, and the impact of such deterioration with respect to physical function has not been clearly delineated. We hypothesized that mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized human muscle fibers declines with age and correlates with phosphocreatine postexercise recovery rate (kPCr), muscle performance, and aerobic fitness. Mitochondrial respiration was assessed by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized fibers from vastus lateralis muscle biopsies of 38 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA; 21 men, age 24-91 years) who also had available measures of peak oxygen consumption (VO2max ) from treadmill tests, gait speed in different tasks, 31 P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, isokinetic knee extension, and grip strength...
January 21, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356346/predicting-the-hearing-outcome-in-sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss-via-machine-learning-models
#5
Dan Bing, Jun Ying, Jun Miao, Lan Lan, Dayong Wang, Lidong Zhao, Zifang Yin, Lan Yu, Jing Guan, Qiuju Wang
OBJECTIVE: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) is a multifactorial disorder with high heterogeneity, thus the outcomes vary widely. The present study aimed to develop predictive models based on four machine learning methods for SSHL, identifying the best performer for clinical application. DESIGN: Single-center retrospective study. SETTING: Chinese People's liberation army (PLA) hospital, Beijing, China. PARTICIPANTS: 1220 in-patient SSHL patients were enrolled between June 2008 and December 2015...
January 21, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356229/brain-tumor-segmentation-in-multi-spectral-mri-using-convolutional-neural-networks-cnn
#6
Sajid Iqbal, M Usman Ghani, Tanzila Saba, Amjad Rehman
A tumor could be found in any area of the brain and could be of any size, shape, and contrast. There may exist multiple tumors of different types in a human brain at the same time. Accurate tumor area segmentation is considered primary step for treatment of brain tumors. Deep Learning is a set of promising techniques that could provide better results as compared to nondeep learning techniques for segmenting timorous part inside a brain. This article presents a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) to segment brain tumors in MRIs...
January 22, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356209/multicenter-assessment-of-exclusive-endoscopic-endonasal-approach-for-the-treatment-of-53-olfactory-neuroblastomas
#7
Ludovic de Gabory, Benjamin Verillaud, Cécile Rumeau, Philippe Herman, Roger Jankowski, Justin Michel, Héloïse de Kermadec, André Coste, Geoffrey Mortuaire, Christian Righini, Emile Reyt, Olivier Choussy, Vincent Trévillot, Louis Crampette, Elie Serrano, Anjarasoa Tsaranazy, Pierre-Louis Bastier, Sebastien Vergez
BACKGROUND: Given the particularities of olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) and the lack of studies on the subject, a multicenter collaborative study was conducted to assess treatment strategy. METHODS: Fifty-three patients with ONB were included from the French Rare Head and Neck Cancer Expert Network (REFCOR) database: 16T1, 8T2, 19T3, and 10T4. All cases were treated endoscopically with skull base removal and repair in 26 cases (49%) and without external craniotomy...
January 22, 2018: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356202/nurses-satisfaction-with-use-of-a-personal-digital-assistants-with-a-mobile-nursing-information-system-in-china
#8
Li-Qiong Shen, Xiao-Ying Zang, Ji-Yan Cong
BACKGROUND: Personal digital assistants, technology with various functions, have been applied in international clinical practice. Great benefits in reducing medical errors and enhancing the efficiency of clinical work have been achieved, but little research has investigated nurses' satisfaction with the use of personal digital assistants. AIM: To investigate nurses' satisfaction with use of personal digital assistants, and to explore the predictors of this. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study...
January 21, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356171/the-impact-of-closed-loop-electronic-medication-management-on-time-to-first-dose-a-comparative-study-between-paper-and-digital-hospital-environments
#9
Jodie A Austin, Ian R Smith, Amina Tariq
Closed-loop electronic medication management systems (EMMS) are recognised as an effective intervention to improve medication safety, yet evidence of their effectiveness in hospitals is limited. Few studies have compared medication turnaround time for a closed-loop electronic versus paper-based medication management environment. OBJECTIVE: To compare medication turnaround times in a paper-based hospital environment with a digital hospital equipped with a closed-loop EMMS, consisting of computerised physician order entry, profiled automated dispensing cabinets packaged with unit dose medications and barcode medication administration...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356139/rates-of-chemical-reactions-embedded-in-a-metabolic-network-by-dissolution-dynamic-nuclear-polarization-nmr
#10
Aude Sadet, Emmanuelle Weber, Aditya Jhajharia, Dennis Kurzbach, Geoffrey Bodenhausen, Emeric Miclet, Daniel Abergel
The isomerisation of 6-phosphogluconolactones and their hydrolyses into 6-phosphogluconic acid form a non enzymatic side cycle of the pentose-phosphate pathway (PPP) in cells. We show that dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization can be used for determining its kinetic rates in real time. It is found that the hydrolysis of both lactones is significantly slower than the isomeration process, thereby shedding new light onto this subtle and puzzling chemical process.
January 22, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356133/motor-cortex-synchronization-influences-the-rhythm-of-motor-performance-in-premanifest-huntington-s-disease
#11
Elias P Casula, Isabella M S Mayer, Mahalekshmi Desikan, Sarah J Tabrizi, John C Rothwell, Michael Orth
BACKGROUND: In Huntington's disease there is evidence of structural damage in the motor system, but it is still unclear how to link this to the behavioral disorder of movement. One feature of choreic movement is variable timing and coordination between sequences of actions. We postulate this results from desynchronization of neural activity in cortical motor areas. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore the ability to synchronize activity in a motor network using transcranial magnetic stimulation and to relate this to timing of motor performance...
January 22, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356051/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-of-normal-skin-and-inflammatory-dermatologic-conditions
#12
Anthony J Deegan, Faezeh Talebi-Liasi, Shaozhen Song, Yuandong Li, Jingjiang Xu, Shaojie Men, Michi M Shinohara, Mary E Flowers, Stephanie J Lee, Ruikang K Wang
BACKGROUND: In clinical dermatology, the identification of subsurface vascular and structural features known to be associated with numerous cutaneous pathologies remains challenging without the use of invasive diagnostic tools. OBJECTIVE: To present an advanced optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) method to directly visualize capillary-level vascular and structural features within skin in vivo. METHODS: An advanced OCTA system with a 1310 nm wavelength was used to image the microvascular and structural features of various skin conditions...
January 22, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356028/deep-learning-for-segmentation-of-brain-tumors-impact-of-cross-institutional-training-and-testing
#13
Ehab A AlBadawy, Ashirbani Saha, Maciej A Mazurowski
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are increasingly common for segmentation of brain tumors. In this work, we assess the effect of cross-institutional training on the performance of CNNs. METHODS: We selected 44 glioblastoma (GBM) patients from two institutions in The Cancer Imaging Archive dataset. The images were manually annotated by outlining each tumor component to form ground truth. To segment the tumors in each patient, we trained three CNNs: (a) one using data for patients from the same institution as the test data, (b) one using data for the patients from the other institution and (c) one using data for the patients from both of the institutions...
January 22, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356025/identification-and-therapeutic-intervention-of-co-activated-alk-fgfr2-and-epha5-kinases-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Xin Wang, Minmin Zhang, Fangfang Ping, Hongchun Liu, Jingya Sun, Yueqin Wang, Aijun Shen, Jian Ding, Meiyu Geng
Though kinase inhibitors are heavily investigated in clinic to combat advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), clinical outcomes are overall disappointing, which may result from the absence of kinase-addicted subsets in HCC. Recently, a combination strategy that simultaneously inhibits multiple kinases are increasingly appreciated in HCC treatment, yet it is challenged by the dynamic nature of kinase network. This study aims to identify kinase clusters that may cooperate to drive the malignant growth of HCC...
January 21, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356011/the-right-side-perceptual-bias-in-aging-determined-in-a-laboratory-setting-and-during-a-virtual-driving-task
#15
Heikki Hämäläinen, Faramosh Rashid Izullah, Mika Koivisto, Fiia Takio, Mika Luimula
Spatial perceptual rightward bias which was originally described in Dichotic Listening studies seems to be a general phenomenon. This bias is age dependent, being evident in children with developing executive functions, and emerging again at older age as a function of aging and the declining executive functions. In the two studies presented here we compared the performance of young and elderly adults in spatial divided attention tasks with auditory and visual stimuli when the stimulus detection performance was measured in separate sessions in a laboratory setting (Study I), to performance when the same types of stimuli were mixed with a task in which the subject's primary objective was to drive a car in a virtual environment (virtual reality; Study II)...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356003/principles-of-cross-network-communication-in-human-resting-state-fmri
#16
Anish Mitra, Marcus E Raichle
Directed signaling among and within the large-scale networks of the human brain is functionally critical. Recent advances in our understanding of spontaneous fluctuations of the fMRI BOLD signal have provided strategies to study the spatial-temporal properties of directed signaling at infra-slow frequencies. Herein we explore the relationship between two canonical systems of the human brain, the default mode network (DMN) and the dorsal attention network (DAN) whose anti-correlated relationship is well known but poorly understood...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355990/a-sticky-end-for-gastrointestinal-helminths-the-role-of-the-mucus-barrier
#17
REVIEW
Catherine Sharpe, David J Thornton, Richard K Grencis
Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are a group of successful multi-cellular parasites that have evolved to co-exist within the intestinal niche of multiple species. It is estimated that over 10% of the world's population are chronically infected by GI nematodes, making this group of parasitic nematodes a major burden to global health. Despite the large number of affected individuals there are few effective treatments to eradicate these infections. Research into GI nematode infections has primarily focused on defining the immunological and pathological consequences on host protection...
January 22, 2018: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355988/variation-in-practice-patterns-and-outcomes-across-united-network-for-organ-sharing-allocation-regions
#18
Dushyanth Srinivasan, Benjamin Vaccaro, Pooja Rao, Rohit Ghosh, Prashant Warier, Tariq Ahmad, Nihar Desai
BACKGROUND: The number of heart transplants performed is limited by organ availability and is managed by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). Efforts are underway to make organ disbursement more equitable as demand increases. HYPOTHESIS: Significant variation exists in contemporary patterns of care, wait times, and outcomes among patients undergoing heart transplantation across UNOS regions. METHODS: We identified adult patients undergoing first, single-organ heart transplantation between January 2006 and December 2014 in the UNOS dataset and compared sociodemographic and clinical profiles, wait times, use of mechanical circulatory support (MCS), status at time of transplantation, and 1-year survival across UNOS regions...
January 22, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355954/comprehensive-analysis-of-area-specific-and-time-dependent-changes-in-gene-expression-in-the-motor-cortex-of-macaque-monkeys-during-recovery-from-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Noriyuki Higo, Akira Sato, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Takao Oishi, Yukio Nishimura, Yumi Murata, Hirotaka Onoe, Tadashi Isa, Toshio Kojima
The present study aimed to assess the molecular bases of cortical compensatory mechanisms following spinal cord injury in primates. To accomplish this, comprehensive changes in gene expression were investigated in the bilateral primary motor cortex (M1), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), and ventral premotor cortex (PMv) after a unilateral lesion of the lateral corticospinal tract (l-CST). At 2 weeks after the lesion, a large number of genes exhibited altered expression levels in the contralesional M1, which is directly linked to the lesioned l-CST...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355934/cross-sector-collaboration-in-the-high-poverty-setting-qualitative-results-from-a-community-based-diabetes-intervention
#20
Elizabeth L Tung, Kathryn E Gunter, Nyahne Q Bergeron, Stacy Tessler Lindau, Marshall H Chin, Monica E Peek
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the motivations of stakeholders from diverse sectors who engaged in cross-sector collaboration with an academic medical center. DATA SOURCE: Primary qualitative data (2014-2015) were collected from 22 organizations involved in a cross-sector diabetes intervention on the South Side of Chicago. STUDY DESIGN: In-depth, semistructured interviews; participants included leaders from all stakeholder organization types (e...
January 22, 2018: Health Services Research
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