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Errol M Thomson, Dalibor Breznan, Subramanian Karthikeyan, Christine MacKinnon-Roy, Ngoc Q Vuong, Ewa Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Valbona Celo, Jean-Pierre Charland, Prem Kumarathasan, Jeffrey R Brook, Renaud Vincent
BACKGROUND: Industrial sources contribute a significant proportion of anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions, producing particles of varying composition that may differentially impact health. This study investigated the in vitro toxicity of ambient PM collected near industrial sites in relation to particle size and composition. METHODS: Size-fractionated particles (ultrafine, PM0.1-2.5, PM2.5-10, PM>10) were collected in the vicinity of steel, copper, aluminium, and petrochemical industrial sites...
December 1, 2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Anil Kumar Jaiswal, K Bhaskara Rao, Pragati Kushwaha, Keerti Rawat, Ram K Modukuri, Prashant Khare, Sumit Joshi, Shikha Mishra, Ambak Rai, Koneni V Sashidhara, Anuradha Dube
Green fluorescent protein produces significant fluorescence and is extremely stable, however its excitation maximum is close to the ultraviolet range and thus can damage living cells. Hence, Leishmania donovani stably expressing DsRed were developed and their suitability for flow cytometry-based antileishmanial screening was assessed by evaluating the efficacies of standard drugs as well as newly synthesised chalcone thiazolyl-hydrazone compounds. The DsRed gene was successfully integrated at the 18S rRNA locus of L...
November 2, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Cheng Jun Jin, Anna Janina Engstler, Cathrin Sellmann, Doreen Ziegenhardt, Marianne Landmann, Giridhar Kanuri, Hakima Lounis, Markus Schröder, Walter Vetter, Ina Bergheim
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases worldwide with universally accepted treatments still lacking. Oral supplementation of sodium butyrate (SoB) has been suggested to attenuate liver damage of various aetiologies. Our study aimed to further delineate mechanisms involved in the SoB-dependent hepatic protection using a mouse model of fructose-induced NAFLD and in in vitro models. C57BL/6J mice were either pair-fed a fructose-enriched liquid diet ±0·6 g/kg body weight per d SoB or standard chow for 6 weeks...
November 23, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Rajamouli Pasula, Bradley E Britigan, Banurekha Kesavalu, Maher Y Abdalla, William J Martin
Mycobacterium avium (M. avium) causes significant pulmonary infection, especially in immunocompromised hosts. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) represent the first line of host defense against infection in the lung. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) activation of AMs enhances in vitro killing of pathogens such as M. avium We hypothesized that airway delivery of AMs into the lungs of immunodeficient mice infected with M. avium will inhibit M. avium growth in the lung and that this macrophage function is in part IFN-γ dependent...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
Yi-Dan Liang, Wen-Jing Bai, Chen-Guang Li, Li-Hui Xu, Hong-Xia Wei, Hao Pan, Xian-Hui He, Dong-Yun Ouyang
Piperine is a phytochemical present in black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn) and other related herbs, possessing a wide array of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory effects. Previously, we demonstrated that piperine has therapeutic effects on bacterial sepsis in mice, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influences of piperine on pyroptosis in murine macrophages. The results showed that piperine dose-dependently inhibited ATP-induced pyroptosis, thereby suppressing interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) release in LPS-primed bone marrow-derived macrophages and J774A...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Fernando Vargas-Romero, Guillermo Mendoza-Hernández, Francisco Suárez-Güemes, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Mauricio Castañón-Arreola
Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of tuberculosis in farms, wildlife and causes sporadic disease in humans. Despite the high similitude in genome sequence between M. bovis strains, some strains like the wild boar 04-303 isolate show a highly virulent phenotype in animal models. Comparative studies will contribute to link protein expression with the virulence phenotype. In vitro, the 04-303 strain was more phagocytized by J774A.1 macrophages in comparison with 444 strain (a cow isolate with the same genotype) and BCG...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Oren Rom, Hila Korach-Rechtman, Tony Hayek, Yael Danin-Poleg, Haim Bar, Yechezkel Kashi, Michael Aviram
The unsaturated aldehyde acrolein is pro-atherogenic, and the polyphenol-rich pomegranate juice (PJ), known for its anti-oxidative/anti-atherogenic properties, inhibits macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark feature of early atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate two unexplored areas of acrolein atherogenicity: macrophage lipid metabolism and the gut microbiota composition. The protective effects of PJ against acrolein atherogenicity were also evaluated. Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice that were fed acrolein (3 mg/kg/day) for 1 month showed significant increases in serum and aortic cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipid peroxides...
September 30, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Poonam Malhotra, Manish Adhikari, Saurabh Mishra, Sumit Singh, Piyush Kumar, Shravan Kumar Singh, Raj Kumar
Radiation exposure to immune system induces imbalance in cytokines expression involved in Th1/Th2 homeostasis perturbations. In the present study, N-acetyl tryptophan glucoside (NATG), a bacterial secondary metabolite, was evaluated for its possible radioprotective potential to immune system using J774A.1 murine macrophages. In this study, expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-2, IL-12, IL-13 and IL-17A cytokines was analyzed in irradiated and NATG pretreated cells using ELISA assay. Results of the study indicated that irradiated macrophages (NK-1R(+ )cells) pretreated with NATG showed higher (p < ...
2016: Free Radical Research
L I Wei-Yang, Shi Yu-Meng, Liu Xin, Yang Lin, L I Li-Ying
Objective To investigate the effect of 15-Deoxy-△(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15 d-PGJ2) on the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and its underlying mechanism in J774A.1. Methods The murine monocyte/macrophage cell line J774A.1 were divided into six groups:lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group,incubated with 1 μg/ml LPS for 1 h;normal control group,incubated with PBS for 1 h;negative control group,incubated with 5 μmol/L 15 d-PGJ2 for 1 h;15 d-PGJ2 group,incubated with 5 μmol/L 15 d-PGJ2 for 1 h followed by 1 μg/ml LPS for 1 h;GW9662 group,incubated with 5 μmol/L 15 d-PGJ2 for 1 h following GW9662 10 μmol/L for 1 h,and then incubated with 1 μg/ml LPS for 1 h;and Vehicle group,control of GW9662,GW9662 was replaced by its solvent DMSO...
June 10, 2016: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
Dalibor Breznan, Subramanian Karthikeyan, Marcelle Phaneuf, Prem Kumarathasan, Sabit Cakmak, Michael S Denison, Jeffrey R Brook, Renaud Vincent
BACKGROUND: Association of particulate matter with adverse health effects has been established in epidemiological studies and animal experiments. Epidemiological studies are difficult to undertake while animal studies are impractical for high-throughput toxicity testing. The ease and rapidity of in vitro tests emphasizes their potential for use in risk assessment of chemicals and particles. We examined the association between in vitro and in vivo responses to ambient particles, to determine the potential of cell-based assays as standalone toxicity screening tools...
2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Oren Rom, Helana Jeries, Tony Hayek, Michael Aviram
During the last decades there has been a staggering rise in human consumption of soybean oil (SO) and its major polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid (LA). The role of SO or LA in cardiovascular diseases is highly controversial, and their impact on macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherogenesis, is unclear. To investigate the effects of high SO or LA intake on macrophage lipid metabolism and the related mechanisms of action, C57BL/6 mice were orally supplemented with increasing levels of SO-based emulsion or equivalent levels of purified LA for 1 month, followed by analyses of lipid accumulation and peroxidation in aortas, serum and in peritoneal macrophages (MPM) of the mice...
August 12, 2016: BioFactors
Guilherme Felipe Dos Santos Fernandes, Paula Carolina de Souza, Leonardo Biancolino Marino, Konstantin Chegaev, Stefano Guglielmo, Loretta Lazzarato, Roberta Fruttero, Man Chin Chung, Fernando Rogério Pavan, Jean Leandro Dos Santos
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious health problem responsible to cause millions of deaths annually. The scenario becomes alarming when it is evaluated that the number of new drugs does not increase proportionally to the emergence of resistance to the current therapy. Furoxan derivatives, known as nitric oxide (NO) donors, have been described to exhibit antitubercular activity. Herein, a novel series of hybrid furoxan derivatives (1,2,5-oxadiazole 2-N-oxide) (compounds 4a-c, 8a-c and 14a-c) were designed, synthesized and evaluated in vitro against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) H37Rv (ATCC 27294) and a clinical isolate MDR-TB strain...
November 10, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
X Bai, X L Wang, B Tang, H N Shi, P Boireau, B Rosenthal, X P Wu, M Y Liu, X L Liu
The excretory-secretory products (ESPs) released by the muscle-larvae (ML) stage of Trichinella spiralis have been suggested to be involved in nurse cell formation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ML-ESPs modulate nurse cell formation remain unclear. Macrophages exert either beneficial or deleterious effects on tissue repair, depending on their activation/polarization state. They are crucial for skeletal muscle repair, notably, via their actions on myogenic precursor cells. However, these interactions during T...
July 29, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Ioannis D Kyriazis, Olga S Koutsoni, Nektarios Aligiannis, Kalliopi Karampetsou, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis, Eleni Dotsika
BACKGROUND: Much research effort has been focused on investigating new compounds derived from low-cost sources, such as natural products, for treating leishmaniasis. Oleuropein derived from numerous plants, particularly from the olive tree, Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae), is a biophenol with many biological activities. Our previous findings showed that oleuropein exhibits leishmanicidal effects against three Leishmania spp. in vitro, and minimizes the parasite burden in L. donovani-infected BALB/c mice...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Adam Bohr, Jorrit J Water, Yingya Wang, Lærke Arnfast, Moritz Beck-Broichsitter
Films composed of poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC), a biodegradable polymer, were compared with poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) films loaded with and without the tuberculosis drug rifampicin to study the characteristics and performance of PEC as a potential carrier for controlled drug delivery to macrophages. All drug-loaded PLGA and PEC films were amorphous indicating good miscibility of the drug in the polymers, even at high drug loading (up to 50wt.%). Polymer degradation studies showed that PLGA degraded slowly via bulk erosion while PEC degraded more rapidly and near-linearly via enzyme mediated surface erosion (by cholesterol esterase)...
September 25, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Bei-Bei Zhao, Xiang-Hui Li, Yong-Lun Zeng, Yong-Jun Lu
BACKGROUND: The opportunistic bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila uses substrate effectors of Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) to accomplish survival and replication in amoebae cells and mammalian alveolar macrophages. During the conversion between its highly resistant, infectious dormant form and vigorously growing, uninfectious replicative form, L. pneumophila utilizes a complicated regulatory network in which proteolysis may play a significant role. As a highly conserved core protease, ClpP is involved in various cellular processes as well as virulence in bacteria, and has been proved to be required for the expression of transmission traits and cell division of L...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Thiago André R Dos Santos, Aline Caroline da Silva, Elany Barbosa Silva, Paulo André Teixeira de Moraes Gomes, José Wanderlan Pontes Espíndola, Marcos Veríssimo de Oliveira Cardoso, Diogo Rodrigo Magalhaes Moreira, Ana Cristina Lima Leite, Valéria R A Pereira
Cancer remains a high incidence and mortality disease, causing around 8.2 million of deaths in the last year. Current chemotherapy needs to be expanded, making research for new drugs a necessary task. Immune system modulation is an emerging concept in cancer cell proliferation control. In fact, there are a number of mechanisms underlying the role immune system plays in tumor cells. In this work, we describe the structural design, synthesis, antitumor and immunomodulatory potential of 31 new 1,3-thiazole and thiosemicarbazone compounds...
August 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Wei-Yang Li
<strong>Objective </strong>To investigate the effect of 15-Deoxy-ε(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15 d-PGJ2) on the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and its underlying mechanism in J774A.1. <strong>Methods </strong>The murine monocyte/macrophage cell line J774A.1 were divided into six groups:lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group,incubated with 1 Μg/ml LPS for 1 h;normal control group,incubated with PBS for 1 h;negative control group,incubated with 5 Μmol/L 15 d-PGJ2 for 1 h;15 d-PGJ2 group,incubated with 5 Μmol/L 15 d-PGJ2 for 1 h followed by 1 Μg/ml LPS for 1 h;GW9662 group,incubated with 5 Μmol/L 15 d-PGJ2 for 1 h following GW9662 10 Μmol/L for 1 h,and then incubated with 1 Μg/ml LPS for 1 h;and Vehicle group,control of GW9662,GW9662 was replaced by its solvent DMSO...
June 10, 2016: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
Pratap C Naha, Kristen C Lau, Jessica C Hsu, Maryam Hajfathalian, Shaameen Mian, Peter Chhour, Lahari Uppuluri, Elizabeth S McDonald, Andrew D A Maidment, David P Cormode
Earlier detection of breast cancer reduces mortality from this disease. As a result, the development of better screening techniques is a topic of intense interest. Contrast-enhanced dual-energy mammography (DEM) is a novel technique that has improved sensitivity for cancer detection. However, the development of contrast agents for this technique is in its infancy. We herein report gold-silver alloy nanoparticles (GSAN) that have potent DEM contrast properties and improved biocompatibility. GSAN formulations containing a range of gold : silver ratios and capped with m-PEG were synthesized and characterized using various analytical methods...
July 14, 2016: Nanoscale
Vaibhav Khare, Amarinder Singh, Girish Mahajan, Noor Alam, Smit Kour, Mehak Gupta, Ajay Kumar, Gurdarshan Singh, Shashank K Singh, Ajit K Saxena, Dilip M Mondhe, Prem N Gupta
The anticancer potential of gemcitabine, a nucleoside analog, is compromised due to the enzymatic degradation into inactive form leading to the short half-life in systemic circulation. Novel delivery strategies are required to improve therapeutic efficacy of this potential drug. Monomethoxy polyethylene glycol amine-polylactide-co-glycolide (mPEG-PLGA) co-polymer was synthesized and characterized by FTIR and (1)H NMR. Gemcitabine loaded mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) were developed and investigated for pharmacokinetic profile and in vivo anticancer activity...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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