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Peechanika Pinweha, Pornpan Pumirat, Jon Cuccui, Niramol Jitprasutwit, Veerachat Muangsombut, Varintip Srinon, Usa Boonyuen, Parameth Thiennimitr, Paiboon Vattanaviboon, Felipe Cia, Sam Willcocks, Gregory J Bancroft, Brendan W Wren, Sunee Korbsrisate
Burkholderia pseudomallei, a gram-negative intracellular bacillus, is the causative agent of a tropical infectious disease called melioidosis. Bacterial ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters import and export a variety of molecules across bacterial cell membranes. At present, their significance in B. pseudomallei pathogenesis is poorly understood. We report here characterization of the BPSL1039-1040 ABC transporter. B. pseudomallei cultured in M9 medium supplemented with nitrate, demonstrated that BPSL1039-1040 is involved in nitrate transport for B...
2018: PloS One
Jinlian Tan, Pravin C Patil, Frederick A Luzzio, Donald R Demuth
The interaction of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis with oral streptococci is important for initial colonization of the oral cavity by P. gingivalis and is mediated by a discrete motif of the streptococcal antigen I/II protein. A synthetic peptide encompassing this motif functions as a potent inhibitor of P. gingivalis adherence but the use of peptides as topically applied therapeutic agents in the oral cavity has limitations arising from the relatively high cost of peptide synthesis and their susceptibility to degradation by proteases expressed by oral organisms...
May 14, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Guohui Xiao, Liangliang Kong, Rongbo Che, Yusi Yi, Qinchao Zhang, Jie Yan, Xu'ai Lin
Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. The most common species, Leptospira interrogans , can transfer from contaminated soil or water to the human body. It is able to survive these changing environments through sensing and responding to the changes of environmental cues. Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a special secondary messenger in bacteria, which can respond to the environment and regulate diverse bacterial behaviors. The c-di-GMP levels in bacterial cells are regulated by diguanylatecyclases (DGC) and phosphodiesterases (PDE), which are responsible for synthesizing or hydrolyzing c-di-GMP, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Blanca Teresa Perez-Maceda, María Encarnación López-Fernández, Iván Díaz, Aaron Kavanaugh, Fabrizio Billi, María Lorenza Escudero, María Cristina García-Alonso, Rosa María Lozano
Macrophages are the main cells involved in inflammatory processes and in the primary response to debris derived from wear of implanted CoCr alloys. The biocompatibility of wear particles from a high carbon CoCr alloy produced under polarization in hyaluronic acid (HA) aqueous solution was evaluated in J774A.1 mouse macrophages cultures. Polarization was applied to mimic the electrical interactions observed in living tissues. Wear tests were performed in a pin-on-disk tribometer integrating an electrochemical cell in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and in PBS supplemented with 3 g/L HA, an average concentration that is generally found in synovial fluid, used as lubricant solution...
May 8, 2018: Materials
Jens Balke, Pierre Volz, Falko Neumann, Robert Brodwolf, Alexander Wolf, Hannah Pischon, Moritz Radbruch, Lars Mundhenk, Achim D Gruber, Nan Ma, Ulrike Alexiev
Nanoparticles hold a great promise in biomedical science. However, due to their unique physical and chemical properties they can lead to overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). As an important mechanism of nanotoxicity, there is a great need for sensitive and high-throughput adaptable single-cell ROS detection methods. Here, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is employed for single-cell ROS detection (FLIM-ROX) providing increased sensitivity and enabling high-throughput analysis in fixed and live cells...
May 4, 2018: Small
Priscila C B Halicki, Laís A Ferreira, Kelly C G De Moura, Paula F Carneiro, Karina P Del Rio, Tatiane Dos S C Carvalho, Maria do C F R Pinto, Pedro E A da Silva, Daniela F Ramos
Despite being a curable disease, tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health problem worldwide mainly due to lengthy treatment, as well as its toxic effects, TB/HIV co-infection and the emergence of resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. These barriers reinforcing the need for development of new antimicrobial agents, that ideally should reduce the time of treatment and be active against susceptible and resistant strains. Quinones are compounds found in natural sources and among them, the naphthoquinones show antifungal, antiparasitic, and antimycobacterial activity...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gurpreet Kaur Sinhmar, Neel N Shah, Shruti U Rawal, Nimitt V Chokshi, Hiren N Khatri, Bhoomika M Patel, Mayur M Patel
The major challenge for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the incompetence to deliver the drug molecule selectively at the site of inflammation. Taking this into consideration, we proposed development of mannosylated nanostructured lipid carrier system (Mn-NLCs) for active targeting and site-specific delivery of budesonide to the inflamed tissues. The developed Mn-NLCs were characterized for particle size and size distribution, zeta potential, %entrapment efficiency, FTIR and TEM analysis...
April 16, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Yongguo Cao, Xufeng Xie, Wenlong Zhang, Dianjun Wu, Changchun Tu
Currently, accumulating evidence is challenging subtherapeutic therapy. Low-dose Norfloxacin (Nor) has been reported to suppress the immune response and worsen leptospirosis. In this study, we investigated the influence of low-dose Nor (0.03 μg/ml, 0.06 μg/ml, 0.125 μg/ml) on leptospiral gene expression and analyzed the immunomodulatory effects of low-dose Nor-treated leptospires in J774A.1 cells. To study the expression profiles of low-dose Nor-treated leptospires, we chose LipL71/LipL21 as reference genes determined by the geNorm applet in this experiment...
April 10, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Claudia Scalfi-Happ, Zhenxin Zhu, Susanna Graefe, Arno Wiehe, Anastasia Ryabova, Victor Loschenov, Rainer Wittig, Rudolf W Steiner
BACKGROUND: Organic crystalline nanoparticles (NPs) are not fluorescent due to the crystalline structure of the flat molecules organized in layers. In earlier experiments with Aluminum Phthalocyanine (AlPc)-derived NPs, the preferential uptake and dissolution by macrophages was demonstrated [3]. Therefore, inflamed tissue or cancer tissue with accumulated macrophages may exhibit specific fluorescence in contrast to healthy tissue which does not fluoresce. The present study addresses the photobiological effects of NP generated from Temoporfin (mTHPC), a clinically utilized photosensitizer belonging to the chlorin family...
March 19, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Vahid Mirshafiee, Bingbing Sun, Chong Hyun Chang, Yu-Pei Liao, Wen Jiang, Jinhong Jiang, Xiangsheng Liu, Xiang Wang, Tian Xia, André E Nel
The liver and the mononuclear phagocyte system are a frequent target for engineered nanomaterials, either as a result of particle uptake and spread from primary exposure sites or systemic administration of therapeutic and imaging nanoparticles. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of the toxicological impact of 29 metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs), some commonly used in consumer products, in transformed or primary Kupffer cells (KCs) and hepatocytes. We not only observed differences between KCs and hepatocytes, but also differences in the toxicological profiles of transition-metal oxides (TMOs, e...
April 24, 2018: ACS Nano
Gopinath Viswanathan, Md Jafurulla, G Aditya Kumar, Tirumalai R Raghunand, Amitabha Chattopadhyay
Mycobacteria are intracellular pathogens that can invade and survive within host macrophages. Mycobacterial infections remain a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with serious concerns of emergence of multi and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. While significant advances have been made in identifying mycobacterial virulence determinants, the detailed molecular mechanism of internalization of mycobacteria into host cells remains poorly understood. Although several studies have highlighted the crucial role of sphingolipids in mycobacterial growth, persistence and establishment of infection, the role of sphingolipids in the entry of mycobacteria into host cells is not known...
March 8, 2018: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Hongmin Jia, Shuhe Xia, Huan Feng, Qingtao Meng, Chengchen Duan, Zhiqiang Zhang, Run Zhang
Quantitative detection and visualization of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in biological samples has emerged as a hot topic in biochemical research because of the important role of this biomolecule in live organisms. In this contribution, a novel 1,8-naphthalimide-based fluorescence probe, DNPH-NA, was designed and synthesized for HOCl detection in aqueous solutions and in biological systems. In the presence of HOCl, significant changes in absorption and fluorescence spectra were observed, which allow for the quantitative detection of HOCl in PBS buffer...
March 28, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Soutick Nandi, Sooram Banesh, Vishal Trivedi, Shyam Biswas
Here, we describe a new dinitro-functionalized Zr(iv) MOF (MOF = metal-organic framework) having a UiO-66 (UiO = University of Oslo) framework topology called UiO-66-(NO2 )2 (1). It shows fluorescence turn-on behavior towards H2 S in simulated biological medium (HEPES buffer, pH = 7.4). By employing solvothermal conditions, 1 was successfully synthesized by reacting ZrCl4 , H2 BDC-(NO2 )2 [H2 BDC-(NO2 )2 = 2,5-dinitro-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid] ligand and benzoic acid with a molar ratio of 1 : 1 : 10 in DMF (DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide) at 130 °C for 24 h...
March 12, 2018: Analyst
A P Isaac-Márquez, P Talamás-Rohana, N Galindo-Sevilla, S E Gaitan-Puch, N A Díaz-Díaz, G A Hernández-Ballina, C M Lezama-Dávila
We evaluated, for the first time, the leishmanicidal potential of decanethiol functionalized silver nanoparticles (AgNps-SCH) on promastigotes and amastigotes of different strains and species of Leishmania: L. mexicana and L. major isolated from different patients suffering from localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and L. mexicana isolated from a patient suffering from diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL). We recorded the kinetics of promastigote growth by daily parasite counting for 5 days, promastigote mobility, parasite reproduction by CFSE staining's protocol and promastigote killing using the propidium iodide assay...
February 19, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Ezdihar A Hassoun, Xiaoqun Zeng
The brominated and mixed bromo-chloro-haloacetates, such as dibromoacetate (DBA), bromochloroacetate (BCA), and bromodichloroacetate (BDCA), are by-products of water chlorination and are found at lower levels than the fully chlorinated acetates in the drinking water. The toxicities of the compounds were assessed in J774A.1 cells and were found to induce concentration-dependent increases in cell death and superoxide anion and protein carbonyl compounds production. Compared to the previously tested concentrations of dichoroacetate (DCA) and trichloroacetate (TCA) in the same cell line, the tested haloacetates induced similar effects on cellular viability and superoxide anion production but at DBA and BCA concentrations that were approximately 40-160 times lower than those of DCA and TCA, and at BDCA concentrations that were 4-16 times lower than those of DCA and TCA...
April 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Aniruddha Das, Sooram Banesh, Vishal Trivedi, Shyam Biswas
An Al(iii) metal-organic framework (MOF) called Al-MIL-53-N3 (1) was synthesized under solvothermal reaction conditions using Al(NO3 )3 ·9H2 O and H2 BDC-N3 (H2 BDC-N3 = 2-azido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid) ligand in a DMF/water (DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide) mixture. Phase purity was checked by performing X-ray powder diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis suggests that 1 is highly stable up to 300 °C under air atmosphere. The activated 1 (called 1') showed a very fast fluorescence response to H2 S (turn-on) and Fe(iii) ions (turn-off) in an aqueous medium with excellent sensitivity and selectivity even in the presence of other potentially intrusive analytes...
February 20, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Claudia Grajeda-Iglesias, Oren Rom, Shadi Hamoud, Nina Volkova, Tony Hayek, Niroz Abu-Saleh, Michael Aviram
Whereas atherogenicity of dietary lipids has been largely studied, relatively little is known about the possible contribution of dietary amino acids to macrophage foam-cell formation, a hallmark of early atherogenesis. Recently, we showed that leucine has antiatherogenic properties in the macrophage model system. In this study, an in-depth investigation of the role of leucine in macrophage lipid metabolism was conducted by supplementing humans, mice, or cultured macrophages with leucine. Macrophage incubation with serum obtained from healthy adults supplemented with leucine (5 g/d, 3 weeks) significantly decreased cellular cholesterol mass by inhibiting the rate of cholesterol biosynthesis and increasing cholesterol efflux from macrophages...
February 5, 2018: BioFactors
Jingda Li, Chengjie Yu, Renjun Wang, Changzhen Fu, Zhilong Xiu, Qingping Liu
CD36, the major scavenger receptor, is intimately involved in the uptake of oxLDL in macrophages. To further study the function of CD36 in macrophages, we constructed CD36 gene silence cell lines (J774A.1) by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference technique, and analyzed the effect of CD36 in caveolin-1 protein expression. At first, 5 shRNA fragments were designed and synthesized according to the coding sequence (CDS) region of CD36 gene. Next, the CD36-shRNA was inserted into lentiviral vector to yield pLKO...
January 25, 2018: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Poonam Malhotra, Ashutosh K Gupta, Darshana Singh, Saurabh Mishra, Shravan K Singh, Raj Kumar
Immune system is amongst the most radiosensitive system to radiation-induced cellular and molecular damage. Present study was focused on the evaluation of radioprotective efficacy of a novel secondary metabolite, N-acetyl tryptophan glucoside (NATG), isolated from a radioresistant bacterium Bacillus sp. INM-1 using murine macrophage J774A.1 cells experimental model. Radioprotective efficacy of NATG against radiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis was estimated using phosphatidyl-serine-externalization Annexin V-PI and Comet assay analysis...
January 25, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Luca Pompermaier, Stefania Marzocco, Simona Adesso, Mawunu Monizi, Stefan Schwaiger, Christoph Neinhuis, Hermann Stuppner, Thea Lautenschläger
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: 32 plants, from which 30 are used in local traditional medicine - identified by interviews with the resident population - in the province of Uíge in northern Angola for the treatment of inflammation related disorders, were screened on different anti-inflammatory parameters. Three extracts were selected for a detailed ethnobotanical, pharmacological and phytochemical investigation based on their in vitro activity. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to assess the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of these plants and highlight the active principles of the three most promising candidates...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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