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Fernando Vargas-Romero, Guillermo Mendoza-Hernández, Francisco Suarez-Güemes, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Mauricio Castañón-Arreola
Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of tuberculosis in farms, wildlife and causes sporadic disease in humans. Despite the high similitude in genome sequence between M. bovis strains, some strains like the wild boar 04-303 isolate show a highly virulent phenotype in animal models. Comparative studies will contribute to link protein expression with the virulence phenotype. In vitro, the 04-303 strain was more phagocytized by J774A.1 macrophages in comparison with 444 strain (a cow isolate with the same genotype) and BCG...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Oren Rom, Hila Korach-Rechtman, Tony Hayek, Yael Danin-Poleg, Haim Bar, Yechezkel Kashi, Michael Aviram
The unsaturated aldehyde acrolein is pro-atherogenic, and the polyphenol-rich pomegranate juice (PJ), known for its anti-oxidative/anti-atherogenic properties, inhibits macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark feature of early atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate two unexplored areas of acrolein atherogenicity: macrophage lipid metabolism and the gut microbiota composition. The protective effects of PJ against acrolein atherogenicity were also evaluated. Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice that were fed acrolein (3 mg/kg/day) for 1 month showed significant increases in serum and aortic cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipid peroxides...
September 30, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Poonam Malhotra, Manish Adhikari, Saurabh Mishra, Sumit Singh, Piyush Kumar, Shravan Kumar Singh, Raj Kumar
Radiation exposure to immune system induces imbalance in cytokines expression involved in Th1/Th2 homeostasis perturbations. In the present study, N-acetyl tryptophan glucoside (NATG), a bacterial secondary metabolite, was evaluated for its possible radioprotective potential to immune system using J774A.1 murine macrophages. In this study, expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-2, IL-12, IL-13 and IL-17A cytokines was analyzed in irradiated and NATG pretreated cells using ELISA assay. Results of the study indicated that irradiated macrophages (NK-1R(+ )cells) pretreated with NATG showed higher (p < ...
October 11, 2016: Free Radical Research
L I Wei-Yang, Shi Yu-Meng, Liu Xin, Yang Lin, L I Li-Ying
Objective To investigate the effect of 15-Deoxy-△(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15 d-PGJ2) on the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and its underlying mechanism in J774A.1. Methods The murine monocyte/macrophage cell line J774A.1 were divided into six groups:lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group,incubated with 1 μg/ml LPS for 1 h;normal control group,incubated with PBS for 1 h;negative control group,incubated with 5 μmol/L 15 d-PGJ2 for 1 h;15 d-PGJ2 group,incubated with 5 μmol/L 15 d-PGJ2 for 1 h followed by 1 μg/ml LPS for 1 h;GW9662 group,incubated with 5 μmol/L 15 d-PGJ2 for 1 h following GW9662 10 μmol/L for 1 h,and then incubated with 1 μg/ml LPS for 1 h;and Vehicle group,control of GW9662,GW9662 was replaced by its solvent DMSO...
June 10, 2016: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
Dalibor Breznan, Subramanian Karthikeyan, Marcelle Phaneuf, Prem Kumarathasan, Sabit Cakmak, Michael S Denison, Jeffrey R Brook, Renaud Vincent
BACKGROUND: Association of particulate matter with adverse health effects has been established in epidemiological studies and animal experiments. Epidemiological studies are difficult to undertake while animal studies are impractical for high-throughput toxicity testing. The ease and rapidity of in vitro tests emphasizes their potential for use in risk assessment of chemicals and particles. We examined the association between in vitro and in vivo responses to ambient particles, to determine the potential of cell-based assays as standalone toxicity screening tools...
2016: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Oren Rom, Helana Jeries, Tony Hayek, Michael Aviram
During the last decades there has been a staggering rise in human consumption of soybean oil (SO) and its major polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid (LA). The role of SO or LA in cardiovascular diseases is highly controversial, and their impact on macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherogenesis, is unclear. To investigate the effects of high SO or LA intake on macrophage lipid metabolism and the related mechanisms of action, C57BL/6 mice were orally supplemented with increasing levels of SO-based emulsion or equivalent levels of purified LA for 1 month, followed by analyses of lipid accumulation and peroxidation in aortas, serum and in peritoneal macrophages (MPM) of the mice...
August 12, 2016: BioFactors
Guilherme Felipe Dos Santos Fernandes, Paula Carolina de Souza, Leonardo Biancolino Marino, Konstantin Chegaev, Stefano Guglielmo, Loretta Lazzarato, Roberta Fruttero, Man Chin Chung, Fernando Rogério Pavan, Jean Leandro Dos Santos
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious health problem responsible to cause millions of deaths annually. The scenario becomes alarming when it is evaluated that the number of new drugs does not increase proportionally to the emergence of resistance to the current therapy. Furoxan derivatives, known as nitric oxide (NO) donors, have been described to exhibit antitubercular activity. Herein, a novel series of hybrid furoxan derivatives (1,2,5-oxadiazole 2-N-oxide) (compounds 4a-c, 8a-c and 14a-c) were designed, synthesized and evaluated in vitro against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) H37Rv (ATCC 27294) and a clinical isolate MDR-TB strain...
November 10, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
X Bai, X L Wang, B Tang, H N Shi, P Boireau, B Rosenthal, X P Wu, M Y Liu, X L Liu
The excretory-secretory products (ESPs) released by the muscle-larvae (ML) stage of Trichinella spiralis have been suggested to be involved in nurse cell formation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ML-ESPs modulate nurse cell formation remain unclear. Macrophages exert either beneficial or deleterious effects on tissue repair, depending on their activation/polarization state. They are crucial for skeletal muscle repair, notably, via their actions on myogenic precursor cells. However, these interactions during T...
July 29, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Ioannis D Kyriazis, Olga S Koutsoni, Nektarios Aligiannis, Kalliopi Karampetsou, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis, Eleni Dotsika
BACKGROUND: Much research effort has been focused on investigating new compounds derived from low-cost sources, such as natural products, for treating leishmaniasis. Oleuropein derived from numerous plants, particularly from the olive tree, Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae), is a biophenol with many biological activities. Our previous findings showed that oleuropein exhibits leishmanicidal effects against three Leishmania spp. in vitro, and minimizes the parasite burden in L. donovani-infected BALB/c mice...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Adam Bohr, Jorrit J Water, Yingya Wang, Lærke Arnfast, Moritz Beck-Broichsitter
Films composed of poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC), a biodegradable polymer, were compared with poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) films loaded with and without the tuberculosis drug rifampicin to study the characteristics and performance of PEC as a potential carrier for controlled drug delivery to macrophages. All drug-loaded PLGA and PEC films were amorphous indicating good miscibility of the drug in the polymers, even at high drug loading (up to 50wt.%). Polymer degradation studies showed that PLGA degraded slowly via bulk erosion while PEC degraded more rapidly and near-linearly via enzyme mediated surface erosion (by cholesterol esterase)...
September 25, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Bei-Bei Zhao, Xiang-Hui Li, Yong-Lun Zeng, Yong-Jun Lu
BACKGROUND: The opportunistic bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila uses substrate effectors of Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) to accomplish survival and replication in amoebae cells and mammalian alveolar macrophages. During the conversion between its highly resistant, infectious dormant form and vigorously growing, uninfectious replicative form, L. pneumophila utilizes a complicated regulatory network in which proteolysis may play a significant role. As a highly conserved core protease, ClpP is involved in various cellular processes as well as virulence in bacteria, and has been proved to be required for the expression of transmission traits and cell division of L...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Thiago André R Dos Santos, Aline Caroline da Silva, Elany Barbosa Silva, Paulo André Teixeira de Moraes Gomes, José Wanderlan Pontes Espíndola, Marcos Veríssimo de Oliveira Cardoso, Diogo Rodrigo Magalhaes Moreira, Ana Cristina Lima Leite, Valéria R A Pereira
Cancer remains a high incidence and mortality disease, causing around 8.2 million of deaths in the last year. Current chemotherapy needs to be expanded, making research for new drugs a necessary task. Immune system modulation is an emerging concept in cancer cell proliferation control. In fact, there are a number of mechanisms underlying the role immune system plays in tumor cells. In this work, we describe the structural design, synthesis, antitumor and immunomodulatory potential of 31 new 1,3-thiazole and thiosemicarbazone compounds...
August 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Wei-Yang Li
<strong>Objective </strong>To investigate the effect of 15-Deoxy-ε(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15 d-PGJ2) on the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and its underlying mechanism in J774A.1. <strong>Methods </strong>The murine monocyte/macrophage cell line J774A.1 were divided into six groups:lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group,incubated with 1 Μg/ml LPS for 1 h;normal control group,incubated with PBS for 1 h;negative control group,incubated with 5 Μmol/L 15 d-PGJ2 for 1 h;15 d-PGJ2 group,incubated with 5 Μmol/L 15 d-PGJ2 for 1 h followed by 1 Μg/ml LPS for 1 h;GW9662 group,incubated with 5 Μmol/L 15 d-PGJ2 for 1 h following GW9662 10 Μmol/L for 1 h,and then incubated with 1 Μg/ml LPS for 1 h;and Vehicle group,control of GW9662,GW9662 was replaced by its solvent DMSO...
June 10, 2016: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
Pratap C Naha, Kristen C Lau, Jessica C Hsu, Maryam Hajfathalian, Shaameen Mian, Peter Chhour, Lahari Uppuluri, Elizabeth S McDonald, Andrew D A Maidment, David P Cormode
Earlier detection of breast cancer reduces mortality from this disease. As a result, the development of better screening techniques is a topic of intense interest. Contrast-enhanced dual-energy mammography (DEM) is a novel technique that has improved sensitivity for cancer detection. However, the development of contrast agents for this technique is in its infancy. We herein report gold-silver alloy nanoparticles (GSAN) that have potent DEM contrast properties and improved biocompatibility. GSAN formulations containing a range of gold : silver ratios and capped with m-PEG were synthesized and characterized using various analytical methods...
July 14, 2016: Nanoscale
Vaibhav Khare, Amarinder Singh, Girish Mahajan, Noor Alam, Smit Kour, Mehak Gupta, Ajay Kumar, Gurdarshan Singh, Shashank K Singh, Ajit K Saxena, Dilip M Mondhe, Prem N Gupta
The anticancer potential of gemcitabine, a nucleoside analog, is compromised due to the enzymatic degradation into inactive form leading to the short half-life in systemic circulation. Novel delivery strategies are required to improve therapeutic efficacy of this potential drug. Monomethoxy polyethylene glycol amine-polylactide-co-glycolide (mPEG-PLGA) co-polymer was synthesized and characterized by FTIR and (1)H NMR. Gemcitabine loaded mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) were developed and investigated for pharmacokinetic profile and in vivo anticancer activity...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Mohini Chaurasia, Pankaj K Singh, Anil K Jaiswal, Animesh Kumar, Vivek K Pawar, Anuradha Dube, Sarvesh K Paliwal, Manish K Chourasia
PURPOSE: To develop a biocompatible and bioresorbable calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles (NPs) bearing Amphotericin B (AmB) with an aim to provide macrophage specific targeting in visceral leishmaniasis (VL). MATERIALS & METHODS: CaP-AmB-NPs were architectured through emulsion precipitation method. The developed formulation was extensively characterized for various parameters including in-vitro and in-vivo antileishmanial activity. Moreover, plasma pharmacokinetics, tissue biodistribution and toxicity profile were also assessed...
November 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
Mira Rosenblat, Oren Rom, Nina Volkova, Michael Aviram
Nitro-fatty acids possess anti-atherogenic properties, but their effects on macrophage oxidative status and lipid metabolism that play important roles in atherosclerosis development are unclear. This study compared the effects of nitro-oleic acid (OLA-NO2) with those of native oleic acid (OLA) on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, anti-oxidants and metabolism of triglycerides and cholesterol in J774A.1 macrophages. Upon incubating the cells with physiological concentrations of OLA-NO2 (0-1 µM) or with equivalent levels of OLA, ROS levels measured by 2, 7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, decreased dose-dependently, but the anti-oxidative effects of OLA-NO2 were significantly augmented...
August 2016: Lipids
Stephen J Baskey, Eric A Lehoux, Isabelle Catelas
A T lymphocyte-mediated hypersensitivity reaction has been observed in some patients with CoCrMo-based implants. However, the role of cobalt and chromium ions in this reaction remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of Co(2+) and Cr(3+) in culture medium, as well as the effects of culture supernatants of macrophages exposed to Co(2+) or Cr(3+) , on the migration of lymphocytes. The release of cytokines/chemokines by macrophages exposed to Co(2+) and Cr(3+) was also analyzed...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Julian Weiser, Hanae A Henke, Nina Hector, Anna Both, Martin Christner, Henning Büttner, Jeffery B Kaplan, Holger Rohde
Biofilm-associated Staphylococcus epidermidis implant infections are notoriously reluctant to antibiotic treatment. Here we studied the effect of sub-inhibitory concentrations of penicillin, oxacillin, vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid and tigecycline on S. epidermidis 1585 biofilm formation, expression of extracellular matrix binding protein (Embp) and potential implications for S. epidermidis - macrophage interactions. Penicillin, vancomycin, daptomycin, and linezolid had no biofilm augmenting effect at any of the concentrations tested...
September 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Crystal N Propst, Stephanie L Pylypko, Ryan J Blower, Saira Ahmad, Mohammad Mansoor, Monique L van Hoek
Francisella (F.) philomiragia is a Gram-negative bacterium with a preference for brackish environments that has been implicated in causing bacterial infections in near-drowning victims. The purpose of this study was to characterize the ability of F. philomiragia to infect cultured mammalian cells, a commonly used invertebrate model, and, finally, to characterize the ability of F. philomiragia to infect BALB/c mice via the pulmonary (intranasal) route of infection. This study shows that F. philomiragia infects J774A...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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