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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522896/shear-stress-counteracts-endothelial-cx3cl1-induction-and-monocytic-cell-adhesion
#1
Aaron Babendreyer, Lisa Molls, Daniela Dreymueller, Stefan Uhlig, Andreas Ludwig
Flow conditions critically regulate endothelial cell functions in the vasculature. Reduced shear stress resulting from disturbed blood flow can drive the development of vascular inflammatory lesions. On endothelial cells, the transmembrane chemokine CX3CL1/fractalkine promotes vascular inflammation by functioning as a surface-expressed adhesion molecule and by becoming released as soluble chemoattractant for monocytic cells expressing the receptor CX3CR1. Here, we report that endothelial cells from human artery, vein, or microvasculature constitutively express CX3CL1 when cultured under static conditions...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520214/mtorc1-inhibits-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-nfatc1-signaling-and-prevents-osteoclast-precursor-differentiation-in-vitro-and-in-mice
#2
Yue Zhang, Song Xu, Kai Li, Kang Tan, Kangyan Liang, Jian Wang, Junhui Shen, Wenchong Zou, Le Hu, Daozhang Cai, Changhai Ding, Mangmang Li, Guozhi Xiao, Bin Liu, Anling Liu, Xiaochun Bai
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a critical sensor for bone homeostasis and bone formation; however, the role of mTORC1 in osteoclast development and the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully established. Here, we found that mTORC1 activity declined during osteoclast precursors differentiation in vitro and in vivo. We further targeted deletion of Raptor (mTORC1 key component) or Tsc1 (mTORC1 negative regulator) to constitutively inhibit or activate mTORC1 in osteoclast precursors (monocytes/macrophages), using LyzM-cre mice...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508565/menaquinone-4-enhances-osteogenic-potential-of-human-amniotic-fluid-mesenchymal-stem-cells-cultured-in-a-2d-and-3d-dynamic-culture-system
#3
Domitilla Mandatori, Letizia Penolazzi, Caterina Pipino, Pamela Di Tomo, Sara Di Silvestre, Natalia Di Pietro, Sara Trevisani, Marco Angelozzi, Mariangela Ucci, Roberta Piva, Assunta Pandolfi
Menaquinones, also known as Vitamin K2 family, regulate calcium homeostasis in a "bone-vascular cross talk" and recently received particular attention for their positive effect on bone formation. Since the correlation between menaquinones and bone metabolism to date is still unclear, the objective of our study was to investigate the possible role of menaquinone-4 (MK-4), an isoform of the menaquinones family, in the modulation of osteogenesis. For this reason we used a model of human Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hAFMSCs) cultured both in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D, RCCS™bioreactor) in vitro culture systems...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507952/comparison-of-growth-and-the-cytokines-induced-by-pathogenic-yersinia-enterocolitica-bio-serotypes-3-o-3-and-2-o-9
#4
Haoshu Yang, Wenpeng Gu, Haiyan Qiu, Guixiang Sun, Junrong Liang, Kewei Li, Yuchun Xiao, Ran Duan, Huaiqi Jing, Xin Wang
Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica is widely distributed in China where the primary bio-serotypes are 3/O: 3 and 2/O: 9. Recently, the distribution of 2/O: 9 strains are being gradually replaced by 3/O: 3 strains where presently 3/O: 3 strains are the major pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in China. To identify the growth conditions and cytokines induced by Y. enterocolitica and providing some clues for this shift, we performed competitive growth in vitro and in vivo for these two bio-serotype strains; and we also compared the cytokines induced by them in infected BALB/C mice...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507070/limited-colonization-undermined-by-inadequate-early-immune-responses-define-the-dynamics-of-decidual-listeriosis
#5
Gabrielle Rizzuto, Elisa Tagliani, Priyanka Manandhar, Adrian Erlebacher, Anna I Bakardjiev
The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes causes a food-borne systemic disease in pregnant women that can lead to preterm labor, stillbirth, or severe neonatal disease. Colonization of the maternal decidua appears to be an initial step in the maternal component of the disease as well as bacterial transmission to the placenta and fetus. Host-pathogen interactions in the decidua during this early stage of infection remain poorly understood. Here, we assessed the dynamics of L. monocytogenes infection in primary human decidual organ cultures and in the murine decidua in vivo...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506444/monocyte-lineage-derived-il-6-does-not-affect-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-function
#6
Nathan Singh, Ted J Hofmann, Zachary Gershenson, Bruce L Levine, Stephan A Grupp, David T Teachey, David M Barrett
BACKGROUND AIMS: Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy targeting CD19 has demonstrated remarkable success in targeting B-cell malignancies but is often complicated by serious systemic toxicity in the form of cytokine release syndrome (CRS). CRS symptoms are primarily mediated by interleukin 6 (IL-6), and clinical management has focused on inhibition of IL-6 signaling. The cellular source and function of IL-6 in CRS remain unknown. METHODS: Using co-culture assays and data from patients on our clinical CAR T-cell trials, we investigated the cellular source of IL-6, as well as other CRS-associated cytokines, during CAR T-cell activation...
May 11, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500253/linc00341-exerts-an-anti-inflammatory-effect-on-endothelial-cells-by-repressing-vcam1
#7
Tse-Shun Huang, Kuei-Chun Wang, Sara Quon, Phu Nguyen, Ting-Yu Chang, Zhen Chen, Yi-Shuan Li, Shankar Subramaniam, John Y-J Shyy, Shu Chien
The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which constitute a large portion of the transcriptome, have gained intense research interest because of their roles in regulating physiological and pathophysiological functions in the cell. We identified from RNA-seq profiling a set of lncRNAs in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) that are differentially regulated by atheroprotective vs. atheroprone shear flows. Among the comprehensively annotated lncRNAs, including both known and novel transcripts, LINC00341 is one of the most abundant lncRNAs in endothelial cells...
May 12, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499455/bovis-bacillus-calmette-guerin-bcg-infection-induces-exosomal-mirna-release-by-human-macrophages
#8
Shamila D Alipoor, Esmaeil Mortaz, Payam Tabarsi, Parissa Farnia, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Johan Garssen, Masoud Movassaghi, Ian M Adcock
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant global health concern and its diagnosis is challenging due to the limitations in the specificity and sensitivity of the current diagnostic tests. Exosomes are bioactive 30-100 nm vesicles produced by most cell types and are found in almost all human body fluids. Exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) can transfer biological information between cells and tissues and may act as potential biomarkers in many diseases. In this pilot study, we assessed the miRNA profile of exosomes released from human monocyte-derived macrophages upon infection with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497578/effector-and-regulatory-dendritic-cells-display-distinct-patterns-of-mirna-expression
#9
Vincent Lombardi, Sonia Luce, Hélène Moussu, Lise Morizur, Claire Gueguen, Catherine Neukirch, Sylvie Chollet-Martin, Laurent Mascarell, Michel Aubier, Véronique Baron-Bodo, Philippe Moingeon
INTRODUCTION: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the regulation of dendritic cell (DC) polarization, thereby influencing the balance of adaptive immune responses. Herein, we studied the expression of miRNAs in polarized DCs and analyzed whether expression of these miRNAs could be associated with allergic rhinitis and allergen immunotherapy (AIT) outcome. METHOD: Using specific culture conditions, we differentiated immature human monocyte-derived DCs into DC1, DC2, and DCreg subsets (supporting the differentiation of TH 1, TH 2 or regulatory T cells, respectively)...
May 12, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495789/dietary-nondigestible-oligosaccharides-and-bifidobacterium-breve-m-16v-suppress-allergic-inflammation-in-intestine-via-targeting-dendritic-cell-maturation
#10
Sander de Kivit, Atanaska I Kostadinova, JoAnn Kerperien, Mary E Morgan, Veronica Ayechu Muruzabal, Gerard A Hofman, Leon M J Knippels, Aletta D Kraneveld, Johan Garssen, Linette E M Willemsen
Dietary intervention with short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides (scGOS), long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (lcFOS) and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V (Bb) (GF/Bb) suppresses food allergic symptoms in mice, potentially via intestinal epithelial cell (IEC)-derived galectin-9. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides (GF) to enhance the immunomodulatory capacity of a TLR9 ligand representing bacterial CpG DNA when exposed to IEC. In this study, we investigated whether GF/Bb modulates dendritic cells (DCs) and subsequent Th2 and regulatory T cell (Treg) frequency in the small intestinal lamina propria (SI-LP)...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494933/comparative-phenotypic-and-functional-analyses-of-the-effects-of-autologous-plasma-and-recombinant-human-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-m-csf-on-porcine-monocyte-to-macrophage-differentiation
#11
Giulia Franzoni, Piero Bonelli, Simon Paul Graham, Antonio Giovanni Anfossi, Silvia Dei Giudici, Giovannantonio Pilo, Marco Pittau, Paola Nicolussi, Annalisa Oggiano
Porcine monocyte-derived macrophages (moMΦ) have been employed as a model cell in numerous studies of the porcine immune system. However, the lack of a standardized method for moMΦ differentiation hampers the comparison of results coming from the use of different laboratory protocols. In this study we compared the use of varying concentrations of autologous plasma (10, 20 and 30% v/v) or recombinant human macrophage-colony stimulating factor (hM-CSF; 50, 100, and 200ng/ml) to differentiate porcine monocytes into macrophages...
May 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487694/human-bronchial-epithelial-cells-induce-cd141-cd123-dc-sign-flt3-monocytes-that-promote-allogeneic-th17-differentiation
#12
Amiq Gazdhar, Fabian Blank, Valerie Cesson, Alban Lovis, John David Aubert, Romain Lazor, Francois Spertini, Anne Wilson, Katrin Hostettler, Laurent P Nicod, Carolina Obregon
Little is known about monocyte differentiation in the lung mucosal environment and about how the epithelium shapes monocyte function. We studied the role of the soluble component of bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) obtained under basal culture conditions in innate and adaptive monocyte responses. Monocytes cultured in bronchial epithelial cell-conditioned media (BEC-CM) specifically upregulate CD141, CD123, and DC-SIGN surface levels and FLT3 expression, as well as the release of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10. BEC-conditioned monocytes stimulate naive T cells to produce IL-17 through IL-1β mechanism and also trigger IL-10 production by memory T cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487429/rationally-designed-tlr4-ligands-for-vaccine-adjuvant-discovery
#13
Kelsey A Gregg, Erin Harberts, Francesca M Gardner, Mark R Pelletier, Corinne Cayatte, Li Yu, Michael P McCarthy, Jason D Marshall, Robert K Ernst
Adjuvant properties of bacterial cell wall components like MPLA (monophosphoryl lipid A) are well described and have gained FDA approval for use in vaccines such as Cervarix. MPLA is the product of chemically modified lipooligosaccharide (LOS), altered to diminish toxic proinflammatory effects while retaining adequate immunogenicity. Despite the virtually unlimited number of potential sources among bacterial strains, the number of useable compounds within this promising class of adjuvants are few. We have developed bacterial enzymatic combinatorial chemistry (BECC) as a method to generate rationally designed, functionally diverse lipid A...
May 9, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487392/epha2-expression-regulates-inflammation-and-fibroproliferative-remodeling-in-atherosclerosis
#14
Alexandra C Finney, Steven D Funk, Jonette Green, Arif Yurdagul, Mohammad A Rana, Rebecca Pistorius, Miriam Henry, Andrew D Yurochko, Christopher B Pattillo, James G Traylor, Jin Chen, Matthew D Woolard, Christopher G Kevil, A Wayne Orr
Background -Atherosclerotic plaque formation results from chronic inflammation and fibroproliferative remodeling in the vascular wall. We previously demonstrated that both human and mouse atherosclerotic plaques show elevated expression of EphA2, a guidance molecule involved in cell-cell interactions and tumorigenesis. Methods -Here, we assessed EphA2's role in atherosclerosis by deleting EphA2 in a mouse model of atherosclerosis (Apoe(-/-)) and by assessing EphA2 function in multiple vascular cell culture models...
May 9, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486838/brain-microglial-cells-are-highly-susceptible-to-hiv-1-infection-and-spread
#15
Jennifer J Cenker, Ryan D Stultz, David McDonald
Macrophages are a target of HIV-1 infection and may serve as an important reservoir of the virus in the body, particularly after depletion of CD4+ T cells in HIV/AIDS. Recently, sterile alpha motif and histidine/aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) was identified as the major restriction factor of HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells. SAMHD1 is targeted for proteolytic degradation by Vpx, a viral protein encoded by HIV-2 and many SIVs but not HIV-1. In this study, we assessed SAMHD1 restriction in in vitro differentiated macrophages and in freshly isolated macrophages from the lungs, abdomen, and brain...
May 9, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483840/fusobacterium-nucleatum-subspecies-animalis-influences-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-expression-and-monocyte-activation-in-human-colorectal-tumors
#16
Xiangcang Ye, Rui Wang, Rajat Bhattacharya, Delphine Boulbes, Fan Fan, Ling Xia, Harish Adoni, Nadim J Ajami, Matthew C Wong, Daniel P Smith, Joseph F Petrosino, Susan Venable, Wei Qiao, Veerabhadran Baladandayuthapani, Dipen M Maru, Lee M Ellis
Chronic infection and associated inflammation have long been suspected to promote human<br />carcinogenesis. Recently, certain gut bacteria, including some in the Fusobacterium genus, have been implicated in playing a role in human colorectal cancer (CRC) development. However, the Fusobacterium species and subspecies involved and their oncogenic mechanisms remain to be determined. We sought to identify the specific Fusobacterium spp. and ssp. in clinical CRC specimens by targeted sequencing of Fusobacterium 16S ribosomal RNA gene...
May 8, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483134/a-woman-in-her-30s-with-a-history-of-cervical-cancer-presents-with-shortness-of%C3%A2-breath-and-pleuritic-chest-pain
#17
Jing Gennie Wang, Patrick Gerard Cox
A woman in her 30s presented to the ED with a 3-month history of shortness of breath on exertion, dry cough, and pleuritic chest pain. A month ago, the patient was seen at an internal medicine clinic and was found to have a right pleural effusion. A thoracentesis revealed straw-colored fluid, a total nucleated cell count of 1,260 × 10(6)/L, and a differential with neutrophils of 0.15, lymphocytes of 0.55, macrophages/monocytes of 0.19, and eosinophils of 0.10. Fluid cytology and culture were negative. The patient was presumed to have a parapneumonic effusion and treated empirically with antibiotics...
May 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480538/glucuronides-of-phytoestrogen-flavonoid-enhance-macrophage-function-via-conversion-to-aglycones-by-%C3%AE-glucuronidase-in-macrophages
#18
Atsushi Kaneko, Takashi Matsumoto, Yosuke Matsubara, Kyoji Sekiguchi, Junichi Koseki, Ryo Yakabe, Katsuyuki Aoki, Setsuya Aiba, Kenshi Yamasaki
INTRODUCTION: Flavonoids are converted to inactive metabolites like glucuronides in the gut, and circulate mainly as glucuronides in blood stream, resulting in low concentrations of active aglycones in plasma. It is therefore unclear how oral flavonoids exert their effects in tissues. We recently reported the plasma pharmacokinetics of some flavonoids and suggested the possibility that the absorbed flavonoids modified macrophage functions leading to enhance bacterial clearance. We aimed to confirm their pharmacological profiles focusing on tissue macrophages...
May 8, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476581/tumour-associated-macrophages-activate-migration-and-stat3-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-cells-in-co-cultures
#19
Aino Salmiheimo, Harri Mustonen, Sanna Vainionpää, Zhanlong Shen, Esko Kemppainen, Pauli Puolakkainen, Hanna Seppänen
OBJECTIVES: Tumour-associated macrophages participate in tumour development and progression. The aim of this study was to assess the interactions of pancreatic cancer cells and pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, specifically their effect on pancreatic cancer cell migration and the changes in STAT-signalling. METHODS: Monocytes were isolated from healthy subjects and differentiated into macrophages with M-CSF. The macrophages were polarized towards M1 by IL-12 and towards M2 by IL-10...
April 24, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476406/influence-of-cdx2-and-taqi-gene-variants-on-vitamin-d3-modulated-intracellular-chemokine-positive-t-cell-subsets-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#20
Murugesan Harishankar, Paramasivam Selvaraj
PURPOSE: We studied the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 (vitamin D3) on intracellular chemokine-positive T-cell subsets in whole blood cultures of healthy controls and patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: Genotyping was performed by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The regulatory role of the Cdx2 and 3'UTR TaqI gene variants on chemokine-positive T-cell subsets was studied from culture filtrate antigen stimulated with or without vitamin D3 treated whole blood cultures of 60 healthy controls and 50 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis...
May 2, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
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