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Roy Adaptation Model

Claire A Frank, Kathryn Schroeter, Chris Shaw
Psychological injuries after an acute traumatic event are commonly overlooked. Currently within United States, there is no consistently utilized screening process that addresses traumatic stress within the acute trauma population. Roy's Adaptation Model guided this project, focusing on the idea that bedside nurses are at the frontline of providing early identification through nursing assessment. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate whether the implementation of the Primary Care-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PC-PTSD) screening tool by bedside nurses would result in identifying more patients at risk for traumatic stress after an acute trauma as compared with the use of no screening method...
March 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
Rômulo Pillon Barcelos, Luiz Fernando Freire Royes, Javier Gonzalez-Gallego, Guilherme Bresciani
The liver is remarkably important during exercise outcomes due to its contribution to detoxification, synthesis, and release of biomolecules, and energy supply to the exercising muscles. Recently, liver has been also shown to play an important role in redox status and inflammatory modulation during exercise. However, while several studies have described the adaptations of skeletal muscles to acute and chronic exercise, hepatic changes are still scarcely investigated. Indeed, acute intense exercise challenges the liver with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation onset, whereas regular training induces hepatic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory improvements...
February 2017: Free Radical Research
Carley Riley, Brita Roy, Nurit Harari, Anita Vashi, Pina Violano, Ann Greene, Georgina Lucas, Jerry Smart, Teresa Hines, Stacy Spell, Sharon Taylor, Barbara Tinney, Maurice Williams, Emily A Wang
Living in communities with persistent gun violence is associated with negative social, behavioral, and health outcomes, analogous to those of a natural disaster. Taking a disaster-preparedness approach may identify targets for community-based action to respond to on-going gun violence. We assessed the relevance of adapting a disaster-preparedness approach to gun violence and, specifically, the relationship between perceived collective efficacy, its subscales of social cohesion and informal social control, and exposure to gun violence...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
A Roy, O Nohadani
PURPOSE: To incorporate uncertainties in oxygenation of tumor cells into radiation therapy planning via robust optimization. The model is demonstrated using a clinical prostate cancer case. METHODS: The tumor oxygenation levels are determined based on pre- and mid-treatment PET scans. To account for oxygenation changes, we use a radio-sensitivity factor for the effective dose necessary to treat hypoxic cells. Due to the unpredictable nature of re-oxygenation of hypoxic cells, the radio-sensitivity factor and its change is modeled to reside in a time-dependent uncertainty set...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Mathieu Botte, Nathan R Zaccai, Jelger Lycklama À Nijeholt, Remy Martin, Kèvin Knoops, Gabor Papai, Juan Zou, Aurélien Deniaud, Manikandan Karuppasamy, Qiyang Jiang, Abhishek Singha Roy, Klaus Schulten, Patrick Schultz, Juri Rappsilber, Giuseppe Zaccai, Imre Berger, Ian Collinson, Christiane Schaffitzel
The conserved SecYEG protein-conducting channel and the accessory proteins SecDF-YajC and YidC constitute the bacterial holo-translocon (HTL), capable of protein-secretion and membrane-protein insertion. By employing an integrative approach combining small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), low-resolution electron microscopy and biophysical analyses we determined the arrangement of the proteins and lipids within the super-complex. The results guided the placement of X-ray structures of individual HTL components and allowed the proposal of a model of the functional translocon...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Remko Soer, Patrick Vroomen, Roy Stewart, Maarten Coppes, Patrick Stegeman, Pieter Dijkstra, Michiel Reneman
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire (ÖMPQ) has good psychometric properties to predict return to work in patients with acute low back pain. Although it is used in patients with chronic back pain and nonworkers, there is no evidence on the factor structure of the ÖMPQ in these populations. This is deemed an important prerequisite for future prediction studies. PURPOSE: This study aimed to analyze the factor structure of the ÖMPQ in working and nonworking patients with chronic back pain...
December 1, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Isaac Sugden, Claire S Adjiman, Constantinos C Pantelides
The global search stage of crystal structure prediction (CSP) methods requires a fine balance between accuracy and computational cost, particularly for the study of large flexible molecules. A major improvement in the accuracy and cost of the intramolecular energy function used in the CrystalPredictor II [Habgood et al. (2015). J. Chem. Theory Comput. 11, 1957-1969] program is presented, where the most efficient use of computational effort is ensured via the use of adaptive local approximate model (LAM) placement...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
Alexina J Mason, Juan Gonzalez-Maffe, Killian Quinn, Nicki Doyle, Ken Legg, Peter Norsworthy, Roy Trevelion, Alan Winston, Deborah Ashby
The design of phase I studies is often challenging, because of limited evidence to inform study protocols. Adaptive designs are now well established in cancer but much less so in other clinical areas. A phase I study to assess the safety, pharmacokinetic profile and antiretroviral efficacy of C34-PEG4 -Chol, a novel peptide fusion inhibitor for the treatment of HIV infection, has been set up with Medical Research Council funding. During the study workup, Bayesian adaptive designs based on the continual reassessment method were compared with a more standard rule-based design, with the aim of choosing a design that would maximise the scientific information gained from the study...
November 27, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
Yuriko Harigaya, Roy Parker
BACKGROUND: Recent experiments have shown that codon optimality is a major determinant of mRNA stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and that this phenomenon may be conserved in Escherichia coli and some metazoans, although work in Neurospora crassa is not consistent with this model. RESULTS: We examined the association between codon optimality and mRNA stability in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Our analysis revealed the following points. First, we observe a genome-wide association between codon optimality and mRNA stability also in S...
November 8, 2016: BMC Genomics
Dieter Hackenberg, Michael R McKain, Soon Goo Lee, Swarup Roy Choudhury, Tyler McCann, Spencer Schreier, Alex Harkess, J Chris Pires, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Joseph M Jez, Elizabeth A Kellogg, Sona Pandey
Signaling pathways regulated by heterotrimeric G-proteins exist in all eukaryotes. The regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins are key interactors and critical modulators of the Gα protein of the heterotrimer. However, while G-proteins are widespread in plants, RGS proteins have been reported to be missing from the entire monocot lineage, with two exceptions. A single amino acid substitution-based adaptive coevolution of the Gα:RGS proteins was proposed to enable the loss of RGS in monocots. We used a combination of evolutionary and biochemical analyses and homology modeling of the Gα and RGS proteins to address their expansion and its potential effects on the G-protein cycle in plants...
September 16, 2016: New Phytologist
Sébastien A B Roy, Joannie M Allaire, Camille Ouellet, Faiza Maloum-Rami, Véronique Pomerleau, Étienne Lemieux, Jean-Philippe Babeu, Jasmin Rousseau, Marilène Paquet, Perrine Garde-Granger, François Boudreau, Nathalie Perreault
Bmps are morphogens involved in various gastric cellular functions. Studies in genetically-modified mice have shown that Bmp disruption in gastric epithelial and stromal cell compartments leads to the development of tumorigenesis. Our studies have demonstrated that abrogation of gastric epithelial Bmp signaling alone was not sufficient to recapitulate the neoplastic features associated with total gastric loss of Bmp signaling. Thus, epithelial Bmp signaling does not appear to be a key player in gastric tumorigenesis initiation...
September 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Émilie Lecompte, Mohand-Ameziane Bouanani, Alexandra Magro, Brigitte Crouau-Roy
Population genetics and phenotypic structures are often predicted to vary along the geographic range of a species. This phenomenon would be accentuated for species with large range areas, with discontinuities and marginal populations. We herein compare the genetic patterns of central populations of Coccinella septempunctata L. with those of two phenotypically differentiated populations considered as rear-edge populations and subspecies based on phenotype (Algeria and Japan). According to the central-marginal model and expected characteristics of rear-edge populations, we hypothesize that these rear-edge populations have (1) a reduced genetic diversity, resulting from their relative isolation over long periods of time, (2) a higher population genetic differentiation, explained by low contemporary gene flow levels, and (3) a relationship between genetic diversity characteristics and phenotypes, due to historical isolation and/or local adaptation...
August 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Richard P Shefferson, Mélanie Roy, Ülle Püttsepp, Marc-André Selosse
Evolutionary losses of photosynthesis in terrestrial plants all originate in photosynthetic ancestors. The adaptive context under which this transition happens has remained elusive because of the rarity of plants in which both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic forms exist as a polymorphism. Here, we report on demographic patterns in photosynthetic ("green") and nonphotosynthetic ("albino") individuals within populations of two such species, Cephalanthera damasonium and C. longifolia, which also acquire nutrition from their mycorrhizal hosts (partial mycoheterotrophy)...
June 2016: Ecology
Gitashri Naiya, Paromita Raha, Manas Kumar Mondal, Uttam Pal, Rajesh Saha, Susobhan Chaudhuri, Subrata Batabyal, Samir Kumar Pal, Dhananjay Bhattacharyya, Nakul C Maiti, Siddhartha Roy
Recognition of multiple functional DNA sequences by a DNA-binding protein occurs widely in nature. The physico-chemical basis of this phenomenon is not well-understood. The E. coli gal repressor, a gene regulatory protein, binds two homologous but non-identical sixteen basepair sequences in the gal operon and interacts by protein-protein interaction to regulate gene expression. The two sites have nearly equal affinities for the Gal repressor. Spectroscopic studies of the Gal repressor bound to these two different DNA sequences detected significant conformational differences between them...
August 21, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Somnath Roy, B C Marndi, B Mawkhlieng, A Banerjee, R M Yadav, A K Misra, K C Bansal
BACKGROUND: Hill rices (Oryza sativa L.) are direct seeded rices grown on hill slopes of different gradients. These landraces have evolved under rainfed and harsh environmental conditions and may possess genes governing adaptation traits such as tolerance to cold and moisture stress. In this study, 64 hill rice landraces were collected from the state of Arunachal Pradesh of North-Eastern region of India, and assessed by agro-morphological variability and microsatellite markers polymorphism...
2016: BMC Genetics
Kaitlyn N Lewis, Ilya Soifer, Eugene Melamud, Margaret Roy, R Scott McIsaac, Matthew Hibbs, Rochelle Buffenstein
Animals have evolved to survive, and even thrive, in different environments. Genetic adaptations may have indirectly created phenotypes that also resulted in a longer lifespan. One example of this phenomenon is the preternaturally long-lived naked mole-rat. This strictly subterranean rodent tolerates hypoxia, hypercapnia, and soil-based toxins. Naked mole-rats also exhibit pronounced resistance to cancer and an attenuated decline of many physiological characteristics that often decline as mammals age. Elucidating mechanisms that give rise to their unique phenotypes will lead to better understanding of subterranean ecophysiology and biology of aging...
August 2016: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
Ayse Kacaroglu Vicdan, Bilgi Gulseven Karabacak
BACKGROUND: The Roy Adaptation Model examines the individual in 4 fields: physiological mode, self-concept mode, role function mode, and interdependence mode. Hemodialysis treatment is associated with the Roy Adaptation Model as it involves fields that might be needed by the individual with chronic renal disease. PURPOSE: This research was conducted as randomized controlled experiment with the aim of determining the effect of the education given in accordance with the Roy Adaptation Model on physiological, psychological, and social adaptation of individuals undergoing hemodialysis treatment...
July 2016: Clinical Nurse Specialist CNS
John A Reid, Peter A Mollica, Garett D Johnson, Roy C Ogle, Robert D Bruno, Patrick C Sachs
The precision and repeatability offered by computer-aided design and computer-numerically controlled techniques in biofabrication processes is quickly becoming an industry standard. However, many hurdles still exist before these techniques can be used in research laboratories for cellular and molecular biology applications. Extrusion-based bioprinting systems have been characterized by high development costs, injector clogging, difficulty achieving small cell number deposits, decreased cell viability, and altered cell function post-printing...
June 7, 2016: Biofabrication
Susan DeSanto-Madeya, Jacqueline Fawcett
Healing and transcendence are concepts of considerable interest to nurses who engage in holistic nursing practice. The two concepts are often used within the context of adaptation to describe the processes experienced by individuals who experience suffering and distress from various life events. Despite their intuitive significance to the human experience, the similarities and differences between the two concepts remains unclear. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a Roy adaptation model-guided comparison of the two concepts that addresses their shared and distinct characteristics...
July 2016: Nursing Science Quarterly
Danny Vining, Jennifer C Robinson
Schizophrenia has a significant risk of damaging an individual's self-concept. Through the process of illness engulfment an individual's self-concept becomes reorganized entirely around the experience of having schizophrenia. The purpose of this manuscript is to clarify the structure and function of the concept of illness engulfment in schizophrenia using Walker and Avant's (2011) method of concept analysis. Data came from a review of scholarly literature, as well as contemporary and historical art, literature, music, and other media forms...
June 2016: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
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