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Roy Adaptation Model

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606767/model-identifies-causes-of-nasal-drying-during-pressurised-breathing
#1
David E White, Roy J Nates, Jim Bartley
Patients nasally breathing pressurised air frequently experience symptoms suggestive of upper airway drying. While supplementary humidification is often used for symptom relief, the cause(s) of nasal drying symptoms remains speculative. Recent investigations have found augmented air pressure affects airway surface liquid (ASL) supply and inter-nasal airflow apportionment. However the influence these two factors have on ASL hydration is unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine how ASL supply and airflow apportionment affect ASL hydration status for both ambient and pressurised air breathing conditions...
June 9, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566683/combinatorial-delivery-of-dual-and-triple-tlr-agonists-via-polymeric-pathogen-like-particles-synergistically-enhances-innate-and-adaptive-immune-responses
#2
Ranjna Madan-Lala, Pallab Pradhan, Krishnendu Roy
Despite decades of research very few vaccine-adjuvants have received FDA approval. Two fundamental challenges plague clinical translation of vaccine-adjuvants: reducing acute toxicities that result from systemic diffusion of many soluble adjuvants, and delivering multiple adjuvants at the same time to mimic the synergistic immune-stimulation of pathogens, while being safe. In order to address these barriers, we evaluated combinations of four clinically relevant immune-agonists, specifically Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, using biodegradable, polymer microparticles...
May 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559461/the-hgf-c-met-pathway-is-a-driver-and-biomarker-of-vegfr-inhibitor-resistance-and-vascular-remodeling-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#3
Tina Cascone, Li Xu, Heather Y Lin, Wenbin Liu, Hai T Tran, Yuan Liu, Kathryn J Howells, Vincent Haddad, Emer O Hanrahan, Monique Nilsson, Maria Angelica Cortez, Uma Giri, Humam Kadara, Babita Saigal, Yun-Yong Park, Weiyi Peng, Ju-Seog Lee, Anderson J Ryan, Juliane M Juergensmeier, Roy S Herbst, Jing Wang, Robert R Langley, Ignacio I Wistuba, J Jack Lee, John Heymach
Resistance to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors is a major obstacle in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We investigated the cellular mechanisms mediating resistance of NSCLCs to VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors.<br /><br />Experimental Design: We generated murine models of human NSCLC and performed targeted inhibition studies with the VEGFR TKIs cediranib and vandetanib. We used species-specific hybridization of microarrays to compare cancer (human) and stromal (mouse) cell transcriptomes of TKI-sensitive and -resistant tumors...
May 30, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544882/inference-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-genome-scale-regulatory-networks-in-large-phylogenies
#4
Christopher Koch, Jay Konieczka, Toni Delorey, Ana Lyons, Amanda Socha, Kathleen Davis, Sara A Knaack, Dawn Thompson, Erin K O'Shea, Aviv Regev, Sushmita Roy
Changes in transcriptional regulatory networks can significantly contribute to species evolution and adaptation. However, identification of genome-scale regulatory networks is an open challenge, especially in non-model organisms. Here, we introduce multi-species regulatory network learning (MRTLE), a computational approach that uses phylogenetic structure, sequence-specific motifs, and transcriptomic data, to infer the regulatory networks in different species. Using simulated data from known networks and transcriptomic data from six divergent yeasts, we demonstrate that MRTLE predicts networks with greater accuracy than existing methods because it incorporates phylogenetic information...
May 24, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528981/development-and-validation-of-a-daily-pain-catastrophizing-scale
#5
Beth D Darnall, John A Sturgeon, Karon F Cook, Chloe J Taub, Anuradha Roy, John W Burns, Michael Sullivan, Sean C Mackey
To date, there is no validated measure for pain catastrophizing at the daily level. The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) is widely used to measure trait pain catastrophizing. We sought to develop and validate a brief, daily version of the PCS for use in daily diary studies to facilitate research on mechanisms of catastrophizing treatment, individual differences in self-regulation, and to reveal the nuanced relationships between catastrophizing, correlates, and pain outcomes. After adapting the PCS for daily use, we evaluated the resulting 14 items using 3 rounds of cognitive interviews with 30 adults with chronic pain...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466497/histopathological-comparisons-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-experimental-infected-porcine-burn-wounds
#6
Sarah B Chaney, Kasturi Ganesh, Shomita Mathew-Steiner, Paul Stromberg, Sashwati Roy, Chandan K Sen, Daniel J Wozniak
Chronic skin wounds are a significant human health concern and are often complicated by infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, particularly methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Translating the knowledge gained from extensive study of virulence mechanisms and pathogenesis of these bacterial species to new treatment modalities has been lacking in part due to a paucity of animal models able to recapitulate human disease. Our groups recently described a novel porcine chronic burn wound model for the study of bacterial infection; however, the histopathology of infection has yet to be described...
May 2, 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446566/induction-of-adaptive-immunity-leads-to-nigrostriatal-disease-progression-in-mptp-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Goutam Chandra, Avik Roy, Suresh B Rangasamy, Kalipada Pahan
Although the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model is the most widely used animal model for Parkinson's disease (PD), it is known that nigrostriatal pathologies do not persist in the acute MPTP mouse model. This study highlights the importance of adaptive immunity in driving persistent and progressive disease in acute MPTP-intoxicated mice. Although marked infiltration of T cells into the nigra was found on 1 d of MPTP insult, T cell infiltration decreased afterward, becoming normal on 30 d of insult...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414757/predictors-of-smoking-among-primary-and-secondary-school-students-in-botswana
#8
Bontle Mbongwe, Roy Tapera, Nthabiseng Phaladze, Andrew Lord, Nicola M Zetola
This study seeks to determine the prevalence and risk factors for smoking among students aged 12-18 years in two cities in Botswana. Using a sample of 2554 students we adapted the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) methodology to assess students' smoking practices, knowledge, beliefs and attitudes. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate factors associated with smoking. The results revealed that 10% of students were current tobacco smokers with 29% reporting having tried smoking. Self-image and acceptance by peers were the strongest predictors of smoking overall (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]: 3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406996/ultrasensitivity-and-fluctuations-in-the-barkai-leibler-model-of-chemotaxis-receptors-in-escherichia-coli
#9
Ushasi Roy, Manoj Gopalakrishnan
A stochastic version of the Barkai-Leibler model of chemotaxis receptors in Escherichia coli is studied here with the goal of elucidating the effects of intrinsic network noise in their conformational dynamics. The model was originally proposed to explain the robust and near-perfect adaptation of E. coli observed across a wide range of spatially uniform attractant/repellent (ligand) concentrations. In the model, a receptor is either active or inactive and can stochastically switch between the two states. The enzyme CheR methylates inactive receptors while CheB demethylates active receptors and the probability for a receptor to be active depends on its level of methylation and ligand occupation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389147/contribution-of-crop-models-to-adaptation-in-wheat
#10
REVIEW
Karine Chenu, John Roy Porter, Pierre Martre, Bruno Basso, Scott Cameron Chapman, Frank Ewert, Marco Bindi, Senthold Asseng
With world population growing quickly, agriculture needs to produce more with fewer inputs while being environmentally friendly. In a context of changing environments, crop models are useful tools to simulate crop yields. Wheat (Triticum spp.) crop models have been evolving since the 1960s to translate processes related to crop growth and development into mathematical equations. These have been used over decades for agronomic purposes, and have more recently incorporated advances in the modeling of environmental footprints, biotic constraints, trait and gene effects, climate change impact, and the upscaling of global change impacts...
June 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272180/addressing-traumatic-stress-in-the-acute-traumatically-injured-patient
#11
Claire A Frank, Kathryn Schroeter, Chris Shaw
Psychological injuries after an acute traumatic event are commonly overlooked. Currently within United States, there is no consistently utilized screening process that addresses traumatic stress within the acute trauma population. Roy's Adaptation Model guided this project, focusing on the idea that bedside nurses are at the frontline of providing early identification through nursing assessment. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate whether the implementation of the Primary Care-Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PC-PTSD) screening tool by bedside nurses would result in identifying more patients at risk for traumatic stress after an acute trauma as compared with the use of no screening method...
March 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166653/oxidative-stress-and-inflammation-liver-responses-and-adaptations-to-acute-and-regular-exercise
#12
REVIEW
Rômulo Pillon Barcelos, Luiz Fernando Freire Royes, Javier Gonzalez-Gallego, Guilherme Bresciani
The liver is remarkably important during exercise outcomes due to its contribution to detoxification, synthesis, and release of biomolecules, and energy supply to the exercising muscles. Recently, liver has been also shown to play an important role in redox status and inflammatory modulation during exercise. However, while several studies have described the adaptations of skeletal muscles to acute and chronic exercise, hepatic changes are still scarcely investigated. Indeed, acute intense exercise challenges the liver with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation onset, whereas regular training induces hepatic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory improvements...
February 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116587/preparing-for-disaster-a-cross-sectional-study-of-social-connection-and-gun-violence
#13
Carley Riley, Brita Roy, Nurit Harari, Anita Vashi, Pina Violano, Ann Greene, Georgina Lucas, Jerry Smart, Teresa Hines, Stacy Spell, Sharon Taylor, Barbara Tinney, Maurice Williams, Emily A Wang
Living in communities with persistent gun violence is associated with negative social, behavioral, and health outcomes, analogous to those of a natural disaster. Taking a disaster-preparedness approach may identify targets for community-based action to respond to on-going gun violence. We assessed the relevance of adapting a disaster-preparedness approach to gun violence and, specifically, the relationship between perceived collective efficacy, its subscales of social cohesion and informal social control, and exposure to gun violence...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047906/su-c-202-01-incorporating-time-dependent-hypoxia-in-imrt-planning
#14
A Roy, O Nohadani
PURPOSE: To incorporate uncertainties in oxygenation of tumor cells into radiation therapy planning via robust optimization. The model is demonstrated using a clinical prostate cancer case. METHODS: The tumor oxygenation levels are determined based on pre- and mid-treatment PET scans. To account for oxygenation changes, we use a radio-sensitivity factor for the effective dose necessary to treat hypoxic cells. Due to the unpredictable nature of re-oxygenation of hypoxic cells, the radio-sensitivity factor and its change is modeled to reside in a time-dependent uncertainty set...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924919/a-central-cavity-within-the-holo-translocon-suggests-a-mechanism-for-membrane-protein-insertion
#15
Mathieu Botte, Nathan R Zaccai, Jelger Lycklama À Nijeholt, Remy Martin, Kèvin Knoops, Gabor Papai, Juan Zou, Aurélien Deniaud, Manikandan Karuppasamy, Qiyang Jiang, Abhishek Singha Roy, Klaus Schulten, Patrick Schultz, Juri Rappsilber, Giuseppe Zaccai, Imre Berger, Ian Collinson, Christiane Schaffitzel
The conserved SecYEG protein-conducting channel and the accessory proteins SecDF-YajC and YidC constitute the bacterial holo-translocon (HTL), capable of protein-secretion and membrane-protein insertion. By employing an integrative approach combining small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), low-resolution electron microscopy and biophysical analyses we determined the arrangement of the proteins and lipids within the super-complex. The results guided the placement of X-ray structures of individual HTL components and allowed the proposal of a model of the functional translocon...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916683/factor-analyses-for-the-%C3%A3-rebro-musculoskeletal-pain-questionnaire-for-working-and-nonworking-patients-with-chronic-low-back-pain
#16
Remko Soer, Patrick Vroomen, Roy Stewart, Maarten Coppes, Patrick Stegeman, Pieter Dijkstra, Michiel Reneman
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire (ÖMPQ) has good psychometric properties to predict return to work in patients with acute low back pain. Although it is used in patients with chronic back pain and nonworkers, there is no evidence on the factor structure of the ÖMPQ in these populations. This is deemed an important prerequisite for future prediction studies. PURPOSE: This study aimed to analyze the factor structure of the ÖMPQ in working and nonworking patients with chronic back pain...
December 1, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910837/accurate-and-efficient-representation-of-intramolecular-energy-in-ab-initio-generation-of-crystal-structures-i-adaptive-local-approximate-models
#17
Isaac Sugden, Claire S Adjiman, Constantinos C Pantelides
The global search stage of crystal structure prediction (CSP) methods requires a fine balance between accuracy and computational cost, particularly for the study of large flexible molecules. A major improvement in the accuracy and cost of the intramolecular energy function used in the CrystalPredictor II [Habgood et al. (2015). J. Chem. Theory Comput. 11, 1957-1969] program is presented, where the most efficient use of computational effort is ensured via the use of adaptive local approximate model (LAM) placement...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891651/developing-a-bayesian-adaptive-design-for-a-phase-i-clinical-trial-a-case-study-for-a-novel-hiv-treatment
#18
Alexina J Mason, Juan Gonzalez-Maffe, Killian Quinn, Nicki Doyle, Ken Legg, Peter Norsworthy, Roy Trevelion, Alan Winston, Deborah Ashby
The design of phase I studies is often challenging, because of limited evidence to inform study protocols. Adaptive designs are now well established in cancer but much less so in other clinical areas. A phase I study to assess the safety, pharmacokinetic profile and antiretroviral efficacy of C34-PEG4 -Chol, a novel peptide fusion inhibitor for the treatment of HIV infection, has been set up with Medical Research Council funding. During the study workup, Bayesian adaptive designs based on the continual reassessment method were compared with a more standard rule-based design, with the aim of choosing a design that would maximise the scientific information gained from the study...
February 28, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825301/analysis-of-the-association-between-codon-optimality-and-mrna-stability-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#19
Yuriko Harigaya, Roy Parker
BACKGROUND: Recent experiments have shown that codon optimality is a major determinant of mRNA stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and that this phenomenon may be conserved in Escherichia coli and some metazoans, although work in Neurospora crassa is not consistent with this model. RESULTS: We examined the association between codon optimality and mRNA stability in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Our analysis revealed the following points. First, we observe a genome-wide association between codon optimality and mRNA stability also in S...
November 8, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634188/g%C3%AE-and-regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-rgs-protein-pairs-maintain-functional-compatibility-and-conserved-interaction-interfaces-throughout-evolution-despite-frequent-loss-of-rgs-proteins-in-plants
#20
Dieter Hackenberg, Michael R McKain, Soon Goo Lee, Swarup Roy Choudhury, Tyler McCann, Spencer Schreier, Alex Harkess, J Chris Pires, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Joseph M Jez, Elizabeth A Kellogg, Sona Pandey
Signaling pathways regulated by heterotrimeric G-proteins exist in all eukaryotes. The regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins are key interactors and critical modulators of the Gα protein of the heterotrimer. However, while G-proteins are widespread in plants, RGS proteins have been reported to be missing from the entire monocot lineage, with two exceptions. A single amino acid substitution-based adaptive coevolution of the Gα:RGS proteins was proposed to enable the loss of RGS in monocots. We used a combination of evolutionary and biochemical analyses and homology modeling of the Gα and RGS proteins to address their expansion and its potential effects on the G-protein cycle in plants...
September 16, 2016: New Phytologist
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