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Marko Klobučar, Petra Grbčić, Sandra Kraljević Pavelić, Nives Jonjić, Sarah Visentin, Mirela Sedić
Acid ceramidase (ASAH1) has been implicated in the progression and chemoresistance in different cancers. Its role in colon cancer biology and response to standard chemotherapy has been poorly addressed so far. Here, we have investigated ASAH1 expression at the protein level in human colon cancer cell lines and tissues from colon cancer patients, and have examined in vitro the possible link between ASAH1 expression and functional activity of p53 protein whose inactivation is associated with the progression from adenoma to malignant tumour in colon cancer...
June 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Michelle S Lau, Peter D Mooney, William L White, Michael A Rees, Simon H Wong, Marios Hadjivassiliou, Peter H R Green, Benjamin Lebwohl, David S Sanders
OBJECTIVES: Celiac disease (CD) is common yet under-detected. A point of care test (POCT) may improve CD detection. We aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of an IgA/IgG-deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP)-based POCT for CD detection, patient acceptability, and inter-observer variability of the POCT results. METHODS: From 2013-2017, we prospectively recruited patients referred to secondary care with gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia and/or weight loss (group 1); and patients with self-reported gluten sensitivity with unknown CD status (group 2)...
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Kurt Hanevik, Elisabeth Wik, Nina Langeland, Trygve Hausken
Markers of celiac disease (CeD) may be elevated in various conditions of intestinal inflammation or autoimmune disease. Recent reports argue that intestinal infection may induce development of CeD in susceptible individuals. Serum anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) and anti-endomysium antibodies (EMA) have been proposed in previous reports to be helpful in differentiating between giardiasis and CeD. In this report, we describe eight cases with elevated CeD serological markers and pathological duodenal histology during, or shortly after, Giardia infection...
June 16, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Tinne C J Mertens, Ankit Hanmandlu, Ly Tu, Carole Phan, Scott D Collum, Ning-Yuan Chen, Tingting Weng, Jonathan Davies, Chen Liu, Holger K Eltzschig, Soma S K Jyothula, Keshava Rajagopal, Yang Xia, Ashrith Guha, Brian A Bruckner, Michael R Blackburn, Christophe Guignabert, Harry Karmouty-Quintana
Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a devastating and progressive disease characterized by excessive proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and remodeling of the lung vasculature. Adenosine signaling through the ADORA2B receptor has previously been implicated in disease progression and tissue remodeling in chronic lung disease. In experimental models of PH associated with chronic lung injury, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of ADORA2B improved markers of chronic lung injury and hallmarks of PH...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Manuela D'Eletto, Federica Rossin, Olga Fedorova, Maria Grazia Farrace, Mauro Piacentini
The maintenance of protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is a fundamental aspect of cell physiology that is essential for the survival of organisms under a variety of environmental and/or intracellular stress conditions. Acute and/or persistent stress exceeding the capacity of the intracellular homeostatic systems results in protein aggregation and/or damaged organelles that leads to pathological cellular states often resulting in cell death. These events are continuously suppressed by a complex macromolecular machinery that uses different intracellular pathways to maintain the proteome integrity in the various subcellular compartments ensuring a healthy cellular life span...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Thomas Jonathan Stewart, Carl Bazergy
Background : Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory skin disorder with not as yet fully understood pathogenesis. In this controlled study, we assessed acne vulgaris patients for several possible pathogenic factors such as vitamin D deficiency, vegan diet, increased body mass index (BMI) and positive anti-transglutaminase antibody. Methods : We screened 10 years of records at a family medicine clinic for patients diagnosed with acne vulgaris. In eligible subjects, we collected data regarding 25-hydroxylvitamin D levels, BMI, dietary preference and serum IgA tissue transglutaminase levels...
2018: Dermato-endocrinology
Norman Händel, Thomas Mothes, David Petroff, Ronny Baber, Anne Jurkutat, Gunter Flemming, Wieland Kiess, Andreas Hiemisch, Antje Körner, Wolfgang Schlumberger, Joachim Thiery, Johannes Wolf
OBJECTIVES: Assessing the seroprevalence and the prevalence of definite Coeliac disease (CD) in the German LIFE Child Health study cohort including IgA antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (IgA-TTG) in addition to IgG antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptides (IgG-DGP) as well as HLA-DQ2/8 genotyping. METHODS: Samples from children and adolescents were first screened for IgA-TTG and IgG-DGP. If IgA-TTG was above 0.5 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) and/or IgG-DGP was positive, IgA antibodies against endomysium (IgA-EmA) were measured and HLA was genotyped...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Xin Liu, Hai Wang, Bin Wang, Li Pan
Bacillus subtilis is widely used for the large-scale industrial production of proteins. In this study, the transcriptomes of B. subtilis 168 and B. megaterium DSM319 cells grown in stationary phase were analyzed to expand the repertoire of highly-active promoters for high-level protein expression based on the transcriptomes of these Bacillus strains. 24 genes with the highest expression levels among 2048 highly expressed gene families were chosen to examine promoter activity. The activities of four promoters with the beta-galactosidase (bgaB) gene as a reporter were stronger than those of the well-characterized strong promoter P43...
June 9, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
Panagiotis Zis, Ptolemaios Georgios Sarrigiannis, Dasappaiah Ganesh Rao, Marios Hadjivassiliou
BACKGROUND: Gluten neuropathy (GN) is defined as an otherwise idiopathic peripheral neuropathy in the presence of serological evidence of gluten sensitivity (positive native gliadin antibodies and/or transglutaminase or endomysium antibodies). We aimed to compare the quality of life (QoL) of GN patients with that of control subjects and to investigate the effects of a gluten-free diet (GFD) on the QoL. METHODS: All consecutive patients with GN attending a specialist neuropathy clinic were invited to participate...
May 23, 2018: Nutrients
Takao Someya, Katsura Sano, Kotaro Hara, Yoshimasa Sagane, Toshihiro Watanabe, R G S Wijesekara
This data article provides gene expression profiles, determined by using real-time PCR, of fibroblasts and keratinocytes treated with 0.01% and 0.001% extracts of holy basil plant ( Ocimum tenuiflorum ), sri lankan local name "maduruthala", 0.1% and 0.01% extracts of malabar nut plant ( Justicia adhatoda ), sri lankan local name "adayhoda" and 0.003% and 0.001% extracts of emblic myrobalan plant ( Phyllanthus emblica ), sri lankan local name "nelli", harvested in Sri Lanka. For fibroblasts, the dataset includes expression profiles for genes encoding hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1), hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), hyaluronidase-1 (HYAL1), hyaluronidase-2 (HYAL2), versican, aggrecan, CD44, collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1), collagen, type III, alpha 1 (COL3A1), collagen, type VII, alpha 1 (COL7A1), matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1), acid ceramidase, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF7), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), cyclooxygenase-2 (cox2), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and aquaporin 3 (AQP3)...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Timothy J Smith, Holger Sondermann, George A O'Toole
Bacteria have evolved several secretion strategies for polling and responding to environmental flux and insult. Of these, the type 1 secretion system (T1SS) is known to secrete an array of biologically diverse proteins - from small < 10 kDa bacteriocins to gigantic adhesins with a mass over 1 MDa. For the last several decades T1SS have been characterized as a one-step translocation strategy whereby the secreted substrate is transported directly into the extracellular environment from the cytoplasm with no periplasmic intermediate...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Se-Hui Jung, Hye-Yoon Jeon, Seong-Hyeon Lee, Eun-Taek Han, Won Sun Park, Seok-Ho Hong, Young-Myeong Kim, Kwon-Soo Ha
Transglutaminase 2 (TGase2), a multifunctional enzyme exhibiting both transamidase and kinase activity, is involved in a variety of cellular processes and diseases. However, details of the regulation of TGase2 have not been reported due to the lack of a suitable assay to examine both activities on the same platform under near-physiologic conditions. Thus, we developed an on-chip dual enzyme activity assay for TGase2 to simultaneously monitor the transamidase and kinase activities. Reaction mixtures specific for each enzyme activity were applied onto osteopontin arrays, and enzyme activity was monitored by sequential probing with Cy5-strepavidin and Pro-Q Diamond stain...
October 16, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Samuel K Oteng-Pabi, Christopher M Clouthier, Jeffrey W Keillor
Transglutaminases (TGases) are enzymes that catalyse protein cross-linking through a transamidation reaction between the side chain of a glutamine residue on one protein and the side chain of a lysine residue on another. Generally, TGases show low substrate specificity with respect to their amine substrate, such that a wide variety of primary amines can participate in the modification of specific glutamine residue. Although a number of different TGases have been used to mediate these bioconjugation reactions, the TGase from Bacillus subtilis (bTG) may be particularly suited to this application...
2018: PloS One
Nicholas R Franich, Manuela Basso, Emily A André, Joseph Ochaba, Amit Kumar, Soe Thein, Gianna Fote, Marketta Kachemov, Alice L Lau, Sylvia Y Yeung, Alexander Osmand, Scott O Zeitlin, Rajiv R Ratan, Leslie M Thompson, Joan S Steffan
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with aging, caused by an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat within the Huntingtin (HTT) protein. In HD, degeneration of the striatum and atrophy of the cortex are observed while cerebellum is less affected. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that HTT protein levels decline with age, which together with HTT mutation could influence disease progression. METHODS: Using whole brain cell lysates, a unique method of SDS-PAGE and western analysis was used to quantitate HTT protein, which resolves as a monomer and as a high molecular weight species that is modulated by the presence of transglutaminase 2...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Huntington's Disease
Stefanie Giera, Rong Luo, Yanqin Ying, Sarah D Ackerman, Sung-Jin Jeong, Hannah M Stoveken, Christopher J Folts, Christina A Welsh, Gregory G Tall, Beth Stevens, Kelly R Monk, Xianhua Piao
In the central nervous system (CNS), myelin formation and repair are regulated by oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage cells, which sense and integrate signals from their environment, including from other glial cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The signaling pathways that coordinate this complex communication, however, remain poorly understood. The adhesion G protein-coupled receptor ADGRG1 (also known as GPR56) is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of OL development in humans, mice, and zebrafish, although its activating ligand for OL lineage cells is unknown...
May 29, 2018: ELife
Luigina De Leo, Vincenzo Villanacci, Fabiana Ziberna, Serena Vatta, Stefano Martelossi, Grazia Di Leo, Chiara Zanchi, Matteo Bramuzzo, Fabiola Giudici, Alessandro Ventura, Tarcisio Not
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (anti-tTG) have simplified celiac disease (CD) diagnosis. However, in atypical forms of CD, intestinal biopsy is still required. This prospective study investigates whether histological analysis of the duodenal bulb combined with intestinal IgA anti-tTG deposit immunoassay makes CD diagnosis possible in at-risk children with low concentrations of serum anti-tTG. METHODS: Histological and intestinal IgA anti-tTG deposit immunoassays were used...
May 25, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Shenghui Yao, Taifeng Liu
The aim of the present study was to identify the differentially expressed genes between cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) and adjacent normal tissue, and to construct a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. A CIN dataset was obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus, and data of gene expression in CIN and adjacent normal tissue were extracted from GSE64217. The differentially expressed genes were selected using software package and heat map was drawn using the 'pheatmap' package. The selected differentially expressed genes were subjected to PPI, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis using Cytoscape, Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery, STRING and KOBAS...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Paridhi Gulati, Luis Sabillón, Devin J Rose
Previous studies have reported a substantial decline in in vitro digestibility of proso millet protein upon cooking. In this study, several processing techniques and cooking solutions were tested with the objective of preventing the loss in pepsin digestibility. Proso millet flour was subjected to the following processing techniques: high pressure processing (200 and 600 MPa for 5 and 20 min); germination (96 h); fermentation (48 h); roasting (dry heating); autoclaving (121 °C, 3 h), and treatment with transglutaminase (160 mg/g protein, 37 °C, 2 h)...
July 2018: Food Research International
Pooria Sabooni, Rezvan Pourahmad, Hamid Reza Mahdavi Adeli
BACKGROUND: Using kefir as a probiotic food carrier has many benefits. At the same time, it is considered an appropriate product for the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of xanthan gum and transglutaminase enzyme on the viability of probiotics and the organoleptic qualities and physicochemical characteristics of kefir. METHODS: Three levels of transglutaminase enzyme (50, 100 and 150 ppm), and xanthan gum (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2%) were used...
April 2018: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
Berend van der Wildt, Micha M M Wilhelmus, Wissam Beaino, Esther J M Kooijman, Robert C Schuit, John G J M Bol, John J P Breve, Ralf Pasternack, Adriaan A Lammertsma, Albert D Windhorst, Benjamin Drukarch
BACKGROUND: The protein cross-linking enzyme tissue transglutaminase (TG2; EC is associated with the pathogenesis of various diseases, including cancer. Recently, the synthesis and initial evaluation of two high-potential radiolabelled irreversible TG2 inhibitors were reported by us. In the present study, these two compounds were evaluated further in a breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) tumour xenograft model for imaging active tissue transglutaminase in vivo. RESULTS: The metabolic stability of [11 C]1 and [18 F]2 in SCID mice was comparable to the previously reported stability in Wistar rats...
May 25, 2018: EJNMMI Research
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