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Andrew J Irvine, William D Chey, Alexander C Ford
OBJECTIVES: Celiac disease (CD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) share similar symptoms, leading to confusion between the two and diagnostic delay. International guidelines recommend screening individuals with IBS for CD, via serological testing. However, studies published recently have cast doubt on the utility of this. We updated a previous meta-analysis examining this issue. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and EMBASE Classic were searched through to May 2016. Eligible studies recruited adults with IBS according to symptom-based criteria, physician's opinion, or questionnaire data...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Ding-Jun Hao, Cuicui Liu, Lingling Zhang, Bo Chen, Qian Zhang, Rui Zhang, Jing An, Jingjing Zhao, Mingmei Wu, Yi Wang, Alfred Simental, Baorong He, Hao Yang
The gradual deterioration following central nervous system (CNS) injuries or neurodegenerative disorders is usually accompanied by infiltration of degenerated and apoptotic neural tissue debris. A rapid and efficient clearance of these deteriorated cell products is of pivotal importance in creating a permissive environment for regeneration of those damaged neurons. Our recent report revealed that the phagocytic activity of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) can make a substantial contribution to neuronal growth in such a hostile environment...
October 14, 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Chiung-Yueh Hsu, Géraldine Gasc, Anne-Aurélie Raymond, Odile Burlet-Schiltz, Hidenari Takahara, Guy Serre, Marie-Claire Méchin, Michel Simon
Hornerin (HRNR) shares numerous features with filaggrin, a key contributor to the epidermal barrier functions. The two proteins display a related structural organization, are expressed by the granular keratinocytes as a large precursor processed by proteolysis, and are cross-linked to the cornified cell envelopes. Two main steps in the metabolism of filaggrin are its deimination and calpain-1 cleavage. Here, using ion-exchange chromatography and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of human epidermis extracts, we determined that HRNR is deiminated in vivo...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Anna K Le Fevre, Marjorie M Walker, Amir Hadjiashrafy, Rani Bhatia, Joerg Mattes, Nicholas J Talley, Scott Nightingale
OBJECTIVES: This study compared the clinical and histopathological characteristics of children with EoE and elevated anti-transglutaminase (TTG Ab) with those with EoE and normal TTG Ab titres. METHODS: Single center chart and blinded histopathological review of patients diagnosed with EoE over a four-year period, who had esophageal and duodenal biopsies taken at time of endoscopy, and TTG Ab measured within 6 months of biopsy. Patients with histology-proven CD were excluded...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Ercan Mıhçı, Banu Güzel Nur, Sibel Berker-Karaüzüm, Aygen Yılmaz, Reha Artan
Celiac disease is an autoimmune, gastrointestinal disorder characterized by intolerance to the dietary grain protein gluten. An increased prevalence of celiac disease has been reported in Down syndrome and Turner syndrome, but there has been only few previous reports with respect to the association of celiac disease in Williams-Beuren syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of celiac disease in our 24 Williams-Beuren syndrome patients. Gastrointestinal problems and celiac disease symptoms of patients were noted...
November 2015: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Barbara Spolaore, Samanta Raboni, Abhijeet Ajit Satwekar, Antonella Grigoletto, Anna Mero, Isabella Monia Montagner, Antonio Rosato, Gianfranco Pasut, Angelo Fontana
Interferon alpha (IFN α) subtypes are important protein drugs that have been used to treat infectious diseases and cancers. Here, we studied the reactivity of IFN α-2b to microbial transglutaminase (TGase) with the aim to obtain a site-specific conjugation of this protein drug. Interestingly, TGase allowed the production of two mono-derivatized isomers of IFN with high yields. Characterization by mass spectrometry of the two conjugates indicated that they are exclusively modified at the level of Gln101 if the protein is reacted in the presence of an amino containing ligand (i...
October 12, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Priya D Shanmugarajah, Nigel Hoggard, Stuart Currie, Daniel P Aeschlimann, Pascale C Aeschlimann, Dermot C Gleeson, Mohammed Karajeh, Nicola Woodroofe, Richard A Grünewald, Marios Hadjivassiliou
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related cerebellar degeneration is one of the commonest acquired forms of cerebellar ataxia. The exact pathogenic mechanisms by which alcohol leads to cerebellar damage remain unknown. Possible autoreactive immune mediated mechanisms have not been explored previously. In this study, we aim to investigate the potential role of alcohol-induced immune mediated cerebellar degeneration. METHODS: Patients with ataxia and a history of alcohol misuse were recruited from the Ataxia and Hepatology tertiary clinics at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust...
2016: Cerebellum & Ataxias
E Kamycheva, T Goto, C A Camargo
: We investigated the association between celiac disease (CD) and bone mass density (BMD) and risk of osteoporotic fractures in the general US population. In children and men ≥18 years, CD was associated with reduced BMD, and in men ≥40 years, CD was associated with increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. INTRODUCTION: Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune condition, characterized by inflammation of the small intestine. CD has an increasing prevalence, and if unrecognized or untreated, CD can lead to complications from malabsorption and micronutrient deficiencies...
October 6, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Suchit Sahai, Marysuna Wilkerson, Ana Maria Zaske, Scott D Olson, Charles S Cox, Fabio Triolo
Immobilizing hydrated soft tissue specimens for atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a challenge. Here, we describe a simple and very cost-effective immobilization method, based on the use of transglutaminase in an aqueous environment, and successfully apply it to AFM characterization of human native Wharton's Jelly (nWJ), the gelatinous connective tissue matrix of the umbilical cord. A side-by-side comparison with a widely used polyphenolic protein-based tissue adhesive (Corning Cell-Tak), which is known to bind strongly to virtually all inorganic and organic surfaces in aqueous environments, shows that both adhesives successfully immobilize nWJ in its physological hydrated state...
October 1, 2016: BioTechniques
Nancy A McNamara, Shaokui Ge, Salena M Lee, Alison M Enghauser, Lindsey Kuehl, Feeling Y-T Chen, Marianne Gallup, Robert L McKown
Purpose: To determine whether levels of endogenous tear protein, lacritin, are linked to altered corneal innervation and dry eye severity in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Methods: Clinical data were obtained from 10 SS and 10 age-matched controls. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to assess total tear lacritin extracted from Schirmer strips. Western blot was used to detect active lacritin monomer (∼25 kDa), active lacritin fragment (∼12-15 kDa), and inactive tissue transglutaminase-generated lacritin (≥40 kDa)...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Janaína Guilhem Muniz, Vera Lucia Sdepanian, Ulysses Fagundes
Background: Celiac disease is a permanent intolerance induced by gluten, which is expressed by T-cell mediated enteropathy, and has a high prevalence in the general population. There is evidence of a strong genetic predisposition to celiac disease. Objective: To determine the prevalence of genetic markers HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 in blood donors from São Paulo and measure human recombinant tissue transglutaminase antibody IgA class in HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 positive donors...
October 2016: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Gang Yang, Zhenghua Xiao, Xiaomei Ren, Haiyan Long, Hong Qian, Kunlong Ma, Yingqiang Guo
Gelatin hydrogel crosslinked by microbial transglutaminase (mTG) exhibits excellent performance in cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. We examined the gelation time and gel strength of gelatin/mTG hydrogels in various proportions to investigate their physical properties and tested their degradation performances in vitro. Cell morphology and viability of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) cultured on the 2D gel surface or in 3D hydrogel encapsulation were evaluated by immunofluorescence staining...
2016: PeerJ
Michael Schumann, Lydia Lebenheim
Celiac disease occurs as a result of a T-cell-dependent immune reaction on gluten peptides. It is a complex genetic disorder that is mediated by an unknown number of genes, of which more than 50 have been identified in whole genome association studies. The genetic component helps identify oligosymptomatic or even subclinical celiacs by screening first-degree relatives and patients suffering from other autoimmune diseases. To offer sensitive as well as specific diagnostics for celiac disease (serology and small intestinal histology) some general rules should be followed including performing diagnostics only when patients are on a gluten-containing diet or after an appropriate re-exposition...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Xinyao Lu, Yuliya Hrynets, Mirko Betti
BACKGROUND: Biogenic amines (BAs) are produced by the enzymatic decarboxylation of amino acids, and are well-known for their toxicity to humans. This study describes a new method using microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) to covalently link BAs such as histamine (HIS) and tyramine (TYR) to the glutamine residues of alcalase-hydrolyzed pea protein (PPH). RESULTS: The incubation of PPH and HIS and TYR in the presence of MTGase at 37 °C led to the formation of conjugates, as determined by liquid chromatography, after derivatization with dansyl chloride...
October 3, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Izhar Burhan, Giulia Furini, Hugues Lortat-Jacob, Adeola G Atobatele, Alessandra Scarpellini, Nina Schroeder, John Atkinson, Mabrouka Maamra, Faith H Nutter, Philip Watson, Manlio Vinciguerra, Timothy S Johnson, Elisabetta A M Verderio
Transglutaminase-2 (TG2) is a new anti-fibrotic target for chronic kidney disease, for its role in altering the extracellular homeostatic balance leading to excessive build-up of matrix in kidney. However, there is no confirmation that TG2 is the only transglutaminase involved, neither there are strategies to control its action specifically over that of the conserved family-members. In this study, we have profiled transglutaminase isozymes in the rat subtotal nephrectomy (SNx) model of progressive renal scarring...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Courtney E Hart, Michael J Lauth, Cassidy S Hunter, Brennan R Krasny, Kristin M Hardy
The xenoestrogen 4-nonylphenol (NP) is a ubiquitous aquatic pollutant and has been shown to impair reproduction, development, growth and, more recently, immune function in marine invertebrates. We investigated the effects of short-term (7 d) exposure to low (2 μg l(-1)) and high (100 μg l(-1)) levels of NP on cellular and humoral elements of the innate immune response of Crassostrea gigas to a bacterial challenge. To this end, we measured 1) total hemocyte counts (THC), 2) relative transcript abundance of ten immune-related genes (defh1, defh2, bigdef1, bigdef2, bpi, lysozyme-1, galectin, C-type lectin 2, timp, and transglutaminase) in the hemocytes, gill and mantle, and 3) hemolymph plasma lysozyme activity, following experimental Vibrio campbellii infection...
September 28, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Aida Serra, Xavier Gallart-Palau, Juan Wei, Siu Kwan Sze
Deamidation of glutamine (Gln) residues is a spontaneous or enzymatic process with significant implications in aging and human pathology. Although some methods are available to identify the γ/α-glutamyl products of deamidation, none of these methods allows the characterization of this post-translational modification (PTM) from complex biological samples by shotgun proteomics. Here we present LERLIC-MS/MS, a chromatographic strategy that uses a long (50 cm) anion-exchange capillary column operating in the electrostatic repulsion-hydrophilic interaction mode (ERLIC) and coupled directly to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for proteome analysis in a single injection...
October 13, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Jorunn Stamnaes, Inês Cardoso, Rasmus Iversen, Ludvig M Sollid
Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a ubiquitous crosslinking enzyme present in both intra- and extracellular in many cell types and tissues. TG2 is upregulated upon cellular stress or injury, and extracellular TG2 is implicated in several human diseases, including celiac disease. However, incomplete knowledge about extracellular TG2 biology limits our understanding of how TG2 is involved in disease. Here, we demonstrate that binding of TG2 to the ECM of small intestinal tissue sections is the sum of binding to fibronectin (FN) via its N-terminal domain and binding to an abundant, novel extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction partner via its second C-terminal beta-barrel domain...
September 29, 2016: FEBS Journal
Enzo Agostinelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Amino Acids
Helen Troilo, Ruth Steer, Richard F Collins, Cay M Kielty, Clair Baldock
TGFβ plays key roles in fibrosis and cancer progression, and latency is conferred by covalent linkage to latent TGFβ binding proteins (LTBPs). LTBP1 is essential for TGFβ folding, secretion, matrix localization and activation but little is known about its structure due to its inherent size and flexibility. Here we show that LTBP1 adopts an extended conformation with stable matrix-binding N-terminus, extended central array of 11 calcium-binding EGF domains and flexible TGFβ-binding C-terminus. Moreover we demonstrate that LTBP1 forms short filament-like structures independent of other matrix components...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
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