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Childhood nutrition

Naomi M Saville, Bhim P Shrestha, Sarah Style, Helen Harris-Fry, B James Beard, Aman Sengupta, Sonali Jha, Anjana Rai, Vikas Paudel, Anni-Maria Pulkki-Brannstrom, Andrew Copas, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Bishnu Bhandari, Rishi Neupane, Joanna Morrison, Lu Gram, Raghbendra Sah, Machhindra Basnet, Jayne Harthan, Dharma S Manandhar, David Osrin, Anthony Costello
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW, < 2500 g) affects one third of newborn infants in rural south Asia and compromises child survival, infant growth, educational performance and economic prospects. We aimed to assess the impact on birth weight and weight-for-age Z-score in children aged 0-16 months of a nutrition Participatory Learning and Action behaviour change strategy (PLA) for pregnant women through women's groups, with or without unconditional transfers of food or cash to pregnant women in two districts of southern Nepal...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Konstantin Evdokimov, Kong Sayasinh, Phonethipsavanh Nouanthong, Keooudomphone Vilivong, Bounthome Samountry, Darouny Phonekeo, Michel Strobel, Frank Haegeman, Peter Heimann, Claude P Muller, Antony P Black
OBJECTIVES: In Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) the high burden of vaccine preventable diseases is thought to be mainly due to low vaccine coverage. Here, we investigated the seroprotective response against diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPw-HepB-Hib) vaccine in children. METHODS: Serum was collected from 1131 children aged 9 to 50 months and their mothers in a cross-sectional study between December 2013 and July 2014...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Tonje Holte Stea, Tommy Haugen, Sveinung Berntsen, Vigdis Guttormsen, Nina Cecilie Øverby, Kristin Haraldstad, Eivind Meland, Eirik Abildsnes
BACKGROUND: In light of the high prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, there is a need of developing effective prevention programs to address the rising prevalence and the concomitant health consequences. The main aim of the present study is to systematically develop and implement a tailored family-based intervention for improving lifestyle habits among overweight and obese children, aged 6-10 years old, enhancing parental self-efficacy, family engagement and parent-child interaction...
October 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
Omar Ali Juma, Zachary Obinna Enumah, Hannah Wheatley, Mohamed Yunus Rafiq, Seif Shekalaghe, Ali Ali, Shishira Mgonia, Salim Abdulla
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition has long been associated with poverty, poor diet and inadequate access to health care, and it remains a key global health issue that both stems from and contributes to ill-health, with 50 % of childhood deaths due to underlying undernutrition. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition among children under-five seen at Bagamoyo District Hospital (BDH) and three rural health facilities ranging between 25 and 55 km from Bagamoyo: Kiwangwa, Fukayosi, and Yombo...
October 19, 2016: BMC Public Health
Peter Nilsson
A number of chronic disease conditions tend to cluster in families with an increased risk in first-degree relatives, but also an increased risk in second-degree relatives. This fact is most often referred to as the heritability (heredity) of these diseases and explained by the influence of genetic factors, or shared environment, even if the more specific details or mechanism leading to disease are not known. New methods have to be explored in screening studies and register linkage studies to define and measure consequences of a positive family history of disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
B Patro-Gołąb, B M Zalewski, M Kołodziej, S Kouwenhoven, L Poston, K M Godfrey, B Koletzko, J B van Goudoever, H Szajewska
This study, performed as part of the international EarlyNutrition research project (, provides a systematic review of systematic reviews on the effects of nutritional interventions or exposures in children (up to 3 years of age) on the subsequent risk of obesity, overweight and adiposity. Electronic databases (including MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library) were searched up until September 2015. Forty systematic reviews were included. A consistent association of breastfeeding with a modest reduction in the risk of later overweight and obesity in childhood and adulthood was found (the odds decreased by 13% based on high-quality studies), but residual confounding cannot be excluded...
October 17, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Chiara Sartori, Pietro Lazzeroni, Silvia Merli, Viviana Dora Patianna, Francesca Viaroli, Francesca Cirillo, Sergio Amarri, Maria Elisabeth Street
Adipokines are cytokines produced mainly by adipose tissue, besides many other tissues such as placenta, ovaries, peripheral-blood mononuclear cells, liver, muscle, kidney, heart, and bone marrow. Adipokines play a significant role in the metabolic syndrome and in cardiovascular diseases, have implications in regulating insulin sensitivity and inflammation, and have significant effects on growth and reproductive function. The objective of this review was to analyze the functions known today of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin from placenta throughout childhood and adolescence...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Joseph F Levy, Marjorie A Rosenberg, Philip M Farrell
BACKGROUND: Previous estimates of the cost of care for pediatric Cystic fibrosis (CF) showed wide variation, without specific summary of pulmonary drug costs. METHODS: Enrolled CF children from the Wisconsin newborn screening trial were evaluated quarterly per protocol. Assessments systematically included all treatments, hospitalizations, and nutritional and pulmonary outcomes. Direct medical costs from hospital billing and medical records from 1989 to 2010 were used to describe costs by age-ranges and subgroups throughout follow-up...
October 14, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Nuzhat Choudhury, Mohammad Jyoti Raihan, Sabiha Sultana, Zeba Mahmud, Fahmida Dil Farzana, Md Ahshanul Haque, Ahmed Shafiqur Rahman, Jillian L Waid, Ahmed Mushtaque Raza Chowdhury, Robert E Black, Tahmeed Ahmed
Globally, undernutrition affects nearly half of all children aged less than 5 years. It is more prominent in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to identify the age-specific risk factors for different categories of undernutrition among Bangladeshi children aged less than 2 years. Data of 10,291 children aged less than 2 years were collected between October 2011 to November 2013 through the Food Security Nutritional Surveillance Project in Bangladesh. Simple logistic regression established bivariate relationships between the categories of undernutrition and the relevant risk factors...
October 12, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Dong-Hun Han, Young-Ho Khang
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the association between lifecourse socioeconomic position (SEP) indicators and tooth loss in a large representative sample of the Korean adult population. METHODS: Data from the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey on 17,549 Korean adults aged 50 years or older were analyzed. The study design was cross-sectional. Tooth loss was defined as either edentulism (0 teeth) or severe tooth loss (<20 teeth)...
October 10, 2016: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
S R C Howie, J Schellenberg, O Chimah, R C Ideh, B E Ebruke, C Oluwalana, G Mackenzie, M Jallow, M Njie, S Donkor, K L Dionisio, G Goldberg, K Fornace, C Bottomley, P C Hill, C C Grant, T Corrah, A M Prentice, M Ezzati, B M Greenwood, P G Smith, R A Adegbola, K Mulholland
SETTING: Greater Banjul and Upper River Regions, The Gambia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate tractable social, environmental and nutritional risk factors for childhood pneumonia. DESIGN: A case-control study examining the association of crowding, household air pollution (HAP) and nutritional factors with pneumonia was undertaken in children aged 2-59 months: 458 children with severe pneumonia, defined according to the modified WHO criteria, were compared with 322 children with non-severe pneumonia, and these groups were compared to 801 neighbourhood controls...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Amanda W Singer, Suzan L Carmichael, Steve Selvin, Cecilia Fu, Gladys Block, Catherine Metayer
Previous studies on maternal nutrition and childhood leukaemia risk have focused on the role of specific nutrients such as folate and have not considered broader measures of diet quality, which may better capture intake of diverse nutrients known to impact fetal development. We examined the relationship between maternal diet quality before pregnancy, as summarised by a diet quality index, and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in a case-control study in California...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Pia R Britto, Stephen J Lye, Kerrie Proulx, Aisha K Yousafzai, Stephen G Matthews, Tyler Vaivada, Rafael Perez-Escamilla, Nirmala Rao, Patrick Ip, Lia C H Fernald, Harriet MacMillan, Mark Hanson, Theodore D Wachs, Haogen Yao, Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Adrian Cerezo, James F Leckman, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection...
October 3, 2016: Lancet
Maureen M Black, Susan P Walker, Lia C H Fernald, Christopher T Andersen, Ann M DiGirolamo, Chunling Lu, Dana C McCoy, Günther Fink, Yusra R Shawar, Jeremy Shiffman, Amanda E Devercelli, Quentin T Wodon, Emily Vargas-Barón, Sally Grantham-McGregor
Early childhood development programmes vary in coordination and quality, with inadequate and inequitable access, especially for children younger than 3 years. New estimates, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty, indicate that 250 million children (43%) younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. There is therefore an urgent need to increase multisectoral coverage of quality programming that incorporates health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and early learning...
October 3, 2016: Lancet
Linda M Richter, Bernadette Daelmans, Joan Lombardi, Jody Heymann, Florencia Lopez Boo, Jere R Behrman, Chunling Lu, Jane E Lucas, Rafael Perez-Escamilla, Tarun Dua, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Karin Stenberg, Paul Gertler, Gary L Darmstadt
Building on long-term benefits of early intervention (Paper 2 of this Series) and increasing commitment to early childhood development (Paper 1 of this Series), scaled up support for the youngest children is essential to improving health, human capital, and wellbeing across the life course. In this third paper, new analyses show that the burden of poor development is higher than estimated, taking into account additional risk factors. National programmes are needed. Greater political prioritisation is core to scale-up, as are policies that afford families time and financial resources to provide nurturing care for young children...
October 3, 2016: Lancet
Jun Chen, Yoshitaka Toyomasu, Yujiro Hayashi, David R Linden, Joseph H Szurszewski, Heidi Nelson, Gianrico Farrugia, Purna C Kashyap, Nicholas Chia, Tamas Ordog
BACKGROUND: Nutritional interventions often fail to prevent growth failure in childhood and adolescent malnutrition and the mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies revealed altered microbiota in malnourished children and anorexia nervosa. To facilitate mechanistic studies under physiologically relevant conditions, we established a mouse model of growth failure following chronic dietary restriction and examined microbiota in relation to age, diet, body weight, and anabolic treatment...
October 3, 2016: Genome Medicine
Takehiro Sugiyama, Masako Horino, Kaori Inoue, Yasuki Kobayashi, Martin F Shapiro, William J McCarthy
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes on self- and parental weight perceptions and parental communication with healthcare professionals (HCPs) in the United States during the mid-2000s period when the terminology changed for classifications of childhood obesity/overweight. METHODS: A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted with 6799 children aged 8-15 years with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2014. BMI was calculated from objectively measured heights and weights, and children were classified as normal/underweight, overweight or obese, using the new terminology...
October 6, 2016: Childhood Obesity
Quynh Th Pham, Anthony Worsley
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Food marketing has been identified as a target for intervention in the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity within countries and globally, and promotion of healthy diets has been classified as a key strategy to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases and health inequalities. The present study aims to investigate how Vietnamese middle-class household food providers are impacted by food advertising communications, their views of food marketing and the ways they think the government can control food marketing to assist people to consume healthier diets...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Carmen Piernas, Dantong Wang, Shufa Du, Bing Zhang, Zhihong Wang, Chang Su, Barry M Popkin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: China's nutrition transition is characterized by dramatic increases in overweight and cardiometabolic (CM) risk. The burden of obesity, CM risk factors and dietary intake among Chinese children were explored. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Children 7-12 y old from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey with available dietary intake data, anthropometry, blood pressure, and fasting blood samples were included (n=663). CM risk prevalence was calculated; logistic regression was used to investigate the association of nutrient intakes with CM risk, adjusting for age, gender, physical activity, area of residence and income...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Amanda Veile, Karen L Kramer
OBJECTIVE: The epidemiologic link between cesarean birth and childhood obesity is unresolved, partly because most studies come from industrialized settings where many post-birth factors affect the risk for obesity. We take advantage of an unusual ethnographic situation where hospital and cesarean birth modes have recently been introduced among Yucatec Maya subsistence farmers, but young children have had minimal exposure to the nutritional transition. While we expect to find very low rates of childhood obesity, we predict that cesarean-born children will be larger and heavier than vaginally born children...
October 4, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
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