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Childhood nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325044/predictors-of-per-and-polyfluoroalkyl-substance-pfas-plasma-concentrations-in-6-10-year-old-american-children
#1
Maria H Harris, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Ana Maria Mora, Thomas F Webster, Emily Oken, Sharon K Sagiv
Certain per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are suspected developmental toxicants, but data on PFAS concentrations and exposure routes in children are limited. We measured plasma PFASs in children aged 6-10 years from the Boston-area Project Viva pre-birth cohort, and used multivariable linear regression to estimate associations with sociodemographic, behavioral, and health-related factors, and maternal PFASs measured during pregnancy. PFAS concentrations in Project Viva children (sampled 2007-2010) were similar to concentrations among youth participants (aged 12-19 years) in the 2007-8 and 2009-10 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); mean concentrations of most PFASs declined from 2007 to 2010 in Project Viva and NHANES...
March 22, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324862/heterogeneity-in-predictive-power-of-early-childhood-nutritional-indicators-for-mid-childhood-outcomes-evidence-from-vietnam
#2
Le Thuc Duc, Jere R Behrman
We utilize longitudinal data on nearly 1800 children in Vietnam to study the predictive power of alternative measures of early childhood undernutrition for outcomes at age eight years: weight-for-age (WAZ8), height-for-age (HAZ8), and education (reading, math and receptive vocabulary). We apply two-stage procedures to derive unpredicted weight gain and height growth in the first year of life. Our estimates show that a standard deviation (SD) increase in birth weight is associated with an increase of 0.14 (standard error [SE]: 0...
March 11, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315898/modifiable-risk-factors-and-interventions-for-childhood-obesity-prevention-within-the-first-1-000-days
#3
Anne M Dattilo
Worldwide, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased, amounting to 42 million overweight or obese children, and there is increasing evidence that the origins are within the first 1,000 days: the period of conception through 2 years. Antecedents of early childhood obesity are multifactorial, and associations of varying strength have been documented for genetic/epigenetic, biologic, dietary, environmental, social, and behavioral influences. Modifiable factors in pregnancy and early infancy associated with childhood obesity include maternal overweight/obesity, maternal smoking, gestational weight gain, infant and young child feeding, caregiver responsive feeding practices, as well as sleep duration, and physical activity...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315891/results-with-complementary-food-using-local-food-ingredients
#4
Tahmeed Ahmed, Munirul Islam, Nuzhat Choudhury, Iqbal Hossain, Sayeeda Huq, Mustafa Mahfuz, Shafiqul Alam Sarker
Appropriate complementary food is a must for optimum growth of infants and children. The food should be diverse and be given in sufficient quantities 2-4 times a day depending upon age. Poverty, food insecurity, and lack of awareness regarding the choice of nutritious food ingredients are deterrents to optimum complementary feeding. In Bangladesh, 77% of children do not receive appropriate complementary food and, hence, the high prevalence of childhood malnutrition. We developed ready-to-use complementary foods (RUCFs) using locally available food ingredients, rice/lentil and chickpea, which conform to standard specifications...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315890/evidence-for-the-effects-of-complementary-feeding-interventions-on-the-growth-of-infants-and-young-children-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#5
Rebecca A Heidkamp
As momentum for investment in early childhood nutrition grows, so does the evidence base for the effectiveness of interventions to improve complementary feeding in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), where the risk of early growth faltering is high. The aim of this chapter is to review the current state of the evidence for the impact of two categories of interventions (nutrition education alone and provision of food or nutrient supplements with or without education) on linear and ponderal growth of children aged 6-23 months in LMIC...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315889/patterns-of-growth-in-early-childhood-and-infectious-disease-and-nutritional-determinants
#6
Robert E Black
The physical growth of young children in low- and middle-income countries is reduced compared to international standards. The deviations in growth in both weight and height are greatest in the first 2 years of life and this has serious consequences for child mortality, development, adult stature, and health. The determinants of these patterns of growth faltering include intergenerational factors, such as maternal height, short birth interval, and conditions in pregnancy, including maternal underweight and anemia...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315860/determinants-and-duration-of-impact-of-early-gut-bacterial-colonization
#7
Christine Ann Edwards
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies show low diversity of the gut microbiome in those with chronic diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. Manipulation of the microbiota may promote health. However, the adult microbiota is stable and may be difficult to change. Understanding the fixed and modifiable factors, which determine colonization in early life, may provide strategies for acquisition of a health-promoting microbiome. SUMMARY: Not enough is known about the long-term effects of established determinants of gut colonization, including delivery mode, perinatal antibiotics, and infant diet...
March 18, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301856/the-role-of-dietary-experience-in-the-development-of-eating-behavior-during-the-first-years-of-life
#8
Sophie Nicklaus
Infants are born equipped to ingest nutrients, but because of the transitions in the mode of feeding in the first years (from "tube" feeding in utero to eating table foods with the family), they have to learn how, what and how much to eat. Eating behavior established during early years may follow throughout childhood; therefore, it is fundamental to understand the most important drivers of the early development of eating behavior. Beyond the first flavor discoveries during the gestational and lactation periods (through the infant's exposure to flavors from foods of the mother's diet), the most important phases for learning food preferences and appetite control may be the beginning of complementary feeding (CF)...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301845/dietary-intakes-of-arachidonic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-in-early-life-with-a-special-focus-on-complementary-feeding-in-developing-countries
#9
Stewart Forsyth, Sheila Gautier, Norman Salem
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, dietary intakes of arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in early life are lower than current recommended levels. This review specifically focusses on the contribution that complementary feeding makes to ARA and DHA intakes in medium- to low-income countries. The aims of the review are (1) to determine the availability of ARA and DHA food sources in developing countries, (2) to estimate the contribution of complementary feeding to dietary intakes of ARA and DHA in infants aged 6-36 months, and (3) to relate the dietary ARA and DHA intake data to key socioeconomic and health indicators...
March 17, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300336/the-second-epidemiologic-transition-on-the-brink-what-we-can-learn-from-the-island-of-newfoundland-during-the-early-20th-century
#10
Dana M Schmidt, Lisa Sattenspiel
OBJECTIVES: We aim to understand how the second epidemiologic transition unfolded on the island of Newfoundland during the early 20th century. The focus is on changes in predominant causes of mortality throughout this period, urban and rural differences, and comparisons with other Western nations. We explore factors driving these patterns including the economy, nutrition, sanitation, and access to healthcare and discuss their relevance to understanding epidemiologic transitions in other developing regions...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299420/vegetarian-diets-in-children-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
S Schürmann, M Kersting, U Alexy
PURPOSE: While the prevalence of children on vegetarian diets is assumed to be on the rise in industrialized countries, there are hardly any representative data available. In general, vegetarian diets are presumed to be healthy; nevertheless, there are concerns as to whether the dietary specifications required during infancy, childhood, and adolescence can be met. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review was to evaluate studies on the dietary intake and the nutritional or health status of vegetarian infants, children, and adolescents...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298543/a-nutrition-education-program-in-rural-bangladesh-was-associated-with-improved-feeding-practices-but-not-with-child-growth
#12
Aatekah Owais, Benjamin Schwartz, David G Kleinbaum, Parminder S Suchdev, Abu Syed Golam Faruque, Sumon K Das, Shahed Rahman, Aryeh D Stein
Background: Childhood undernutrition is a major public health problem in Bangladesh. Evaluating child nutrition programs is a priority.Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate a community-based nutrition education program (implemented from 2011 to 2013) aimed at improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices and growth in rural Bangladesh.Methods: A cohort-based evaluation was conducted that included 2400 women (1200 from Karimganj, the intervention subdistrict, and 1200 from Katiadi, the control subdistrict) enrolled at 28-31 wk gestation in 3 waves between January and October 2011...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291591/the-inma-infancia-y-medio-ambiente-environment-and-childhood-project-more-than-10-years-contributing-to-environmental-and-neuropsychological-research
#13
REVIEW
Mireia Gascon, Mònica Guxens, Martine Vrijheid, Maties Torrent, Jesús Ibarluzea, Eduardo Fano, Sabrina Llop, Ferran Ballester, Mariana F Fernández, Adonina Tardón, Ana Fernández-Somoano, Jordi Sunyer
BACKGROUND: In 2003 the INMA-INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood) project, a Spanish national network of birth cohorts including more than 3500 participants, was set up with the aim to assess the health impacts of pre- and postnatal environmental exposures on children. The project has published more than 60 papers on maternal and environmental factors related to neuropsychological development in children, one of the main research interests within the project. With the present review, we evaluate the evidence provided by the INMA project on this topic and discuss how the data can contribute to cover the challenges that children's environmental health research will face in the coming years...
February 28, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287332/association-of-energy-intake-and-expenditure-with-obesity-a-cross-sectional-study-of-150-pediatric-patients-following-treatment-for-leukemia
#14
Richa Srivastava, Atul Batra, Deepa Dhawan, Sameer Bakhshi
Increased obesity in leukemia survivors has been attributed to chemotherapy and radiation. Data on total energy intake (TEI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) are lacking in obese childhood leukemia patients after completion of therapy from India. We conducted a cross-sectional study in pediatric acute leukemia patients after completion of therapy wherein energy intake was assessed by 24-hour recall method. TEE was calculated using Harris-Benedict equation, by assessing the physical activity level using Physical Activity Questionnaire for children and basal metabolic rate by World Health Organization equation...
March 13, 2017: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285655/correlation-of-metabolic-syndrome-severity-with-cardiovascular-health-markers-in-adolescents
#15
Arthur M Lee, Matthew J Gurka, Mark D DeBoer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in childhood is a significant risk factor for later cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent data showed temporal decreases in a sex- and race/ethnicity-specific MetS severity z-score among U.S. adolescents. Our goal was to characterize the relationship of this MetS z-score with other CVD risk indicators and assess their temporal trends and lifestyle influences. METHODS: We analyzed 4837 participants aged 12-20years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey by 2-year waves from 1999 to 2012...
April 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285468/progress-in-nurturing-human-well-being
#16
EDITORIAL
Anthony Biglan, Ronald Prinz
Substantial evidence in the behavioral and social sciences has accrued in support of numerous intervention programs and policies bearing on improving the lives of children and families. To this end, Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review features a special journal issue on "Evolving Toward a More Nurturing Society." The field has achieved numerous advances regarding how to create and promote nurturing environments that foster successful development and prevent psychological and behavioral problems in children and youth...
March 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285312/world-perspective-on-the-epidemiology-of-stunting-between-1990-and-2015%C3%A2
#17
Susan C Campisi, Arlin Mary Cherian, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: Stunting is the most prevalent form of child undernutrition with current worldwide estimates at 156 million. The majority of these children reside in low- and middle-income countries. When stunting prevails to adulthood, optimal growth potential and economic productivity are minimized. RESULTS: In 2015 there were 98.5 million fewer stunted children under 5 years of age than in 1990. In East Asia and Pacific and South Asia, the stunting prevalence decreased by 24...
March 10, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283258/growth-trajectories-of-body-mass-index-during-childhood-associated-factors-and-health-outcome-at-adulthood
#18
Sandrine Péneau, Kelly Virecoulon Giudici, Gaëlle Gusto, Didier Goxe, Olivier Lantieri, Serge Hercberg, Marie-Françoise Rolland-Cachera
OBJECTIVE: To identify body mass index (BMI) trajectories from birth to age 10 years and to assess their association with child and parental characteristics and with adult nutritional status and metabolic risk factors. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study with 1188 subjects aged 20-60 years. Childhood growth was assessed using measured weight and height data collected retrospectively from health booklets, which also provided information on gestational age, birth weight, and early nutrition...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283032/sustainability-via-active-garden-education-sage-results-from-two-feasibility-pilot-studies
#19
Rebecca E Lee, Nathan H Parker, Erica G Soltero, Tracey A Ledoux, Scherezade K Mama, Lorna McNeill
BACKGROUND: Low physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption in early childhood are continued public health challenges. This manuscript describes outcomes from two pilot studies for Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE), a program designed to increase PA and F&V consumption among 3 to 5 year old children. METHODS: SAGE was developed using community-based participatory research (CBPR) and delivered to children (N = 89) in early care and education centers (ECEC, N = 6) in two US cities...
March 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282852/developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease-a-lifecourse-approach-to-the-prevention-of-non-communicable-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Janis Baird, Chandni Jacob, Mary Barker, Caroline H D Fall, Mark Hanson, Nicholas C Harvey, Hazel M Inskip, Kalyanaraman Kumaran, Cyrus Cooper
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis, affect individuals in all countries worldwide. Given the very high worldwide prevalence of NCDs across a range of human pathology, it is clear that traditional approaches targeting those at most risk in older adulthood will not efficiently ameliorate this growing burden. It will thus be essential to robustly identify determinants of NCDs across the entire lifecourse and, subsequently, appropriate interventions at every stage to reduce an individual's risk of developing these conditions...
March 8, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
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