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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813042/the-carotenoid-pathway-what-is-important-for-excitation-quenching-in-plant-antenna-complexes
#1
Kieran F Fox, Vytautas Balevičius, Jevgenij Chmeliov, Leonas Valkunas, Alexander V Ruban, Christopher D P Duffy
Plant light-harvesting is regulated by the Non-Photochemical Quenching (NPQ) mechanism involving the reversible formation of excitation quenching sites in the Photosystem II (PSII) antenna in response to high light. While the major antenna complex, LHCII, is known to be a site of NPQ, the precise mechanism of excitation quenching is not clearly understood. A preliminary model of the quenched crystal structure of LHCII implied that quenching arises from slow energy capture by Car pigments. It predicted a thoroughly quenched system but offered little insight into the defining aspects of this quenching...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813041/supported-nickel-rhenium-catalysts-for-selective-hydrogenation-of-methyl-esters-to-alcohols
#2
Kaituo Liu, James Pritchard, Li Lu, Robbert van Putten, M W G M Tiny Verhoeven, Mike Schmitkamp, Xiaoming Huang, Laurent Lefort, Christopher J Kiely, Emiel J M Hensen, Evgeny A Pidko
The addition of Re to Ni on TiO2 yields efficient catalysts for the hydrogenation of acids and esters to alcohols under mild conditions. Rhenium promotes the formation of atomically dispersed and sub-nanometre-sized bimetallic species interacting strongly with the oxide support.
August 16, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812955/igg-cooperativity-is-there-allostery-implications-for-antibody-functions-and-therapeutic-antibody-development
#3
Danlin Yang, Rachel Kroe-Barrett, Sanjaya Singh, Christopher J Roberts, Thomas M Laue
A central dogma in immunology is that an antibody's in vivo functionality is mediated by two independent events: antigen binding by the variable (V) region, followed by effector activation by the constant (C) region. However, this view has recently been challenged by reports suggesting allostery exists between the two regions, triggered by conformational changes or configurational differences. The possibility of allosteric signals propagating through the IgG domains complicates our understanding of the antibody structure-function relationship, and challenges the current subclass selection process in therapeutic antibody design...
August 16, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812943/tear-osmolarity-is-sensitive-to-exercise-induced-fluid-loss-but-is-not-associated-with-common-hydration-measures-in-a-field-setting
#4
Justin J Holland, Michelle Ray, Christopher Irwin, Tina L Skinner, Michael Leveritt, Ben Desbrow
This investigation (i) examined changes in tear osmolarity in response to fluid loss that occurs with exercise in a field setting, and (ii) compared tear osmolarity with common field and laboratory hydration measures.  Sixty-three participants [age 27.8 ± 8.4 years, body mass 72.15 ± 10.61 kg] completed a self-paced 10 km run outside on a predetermined course. Body mass, tear fluid, venous blood and urine samples were collected immediately before and after exercise.  Significant (p < 0.001) reductions in body mass (1...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812895/correlating-free-volume-hole-distribution-to-the-glass-transition-temperature-of-epoxy-polymers
#5
Amin Aramoon, Timothy D Breitzman, Christopher F Woodward, Jaafar A El-Awady
A new algorithm is developed to quantify the free-volume hole distribution and its evolution in coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of polymeric networks. This is achieved by analyzing the geometry of the network rather than a voxelized image of the structure to accurately and efficiently find and quantify free-volume hole distributions within large scale simulations of polymer networks. The free-volume holes are quantified by fitting the largest ellipsoids and spheres in the free-volumes between polymer chains...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812765/rational-design-of-polymeric-core-shell-ratiometric-oxygen-sensing-nanostructures
#6
Aisling Byrne, Jaco Jacobs, Christopher S Burke, Aaron Martin, Andreas Heise, Tia E Keyes
A new approach for the fabrication of luminescent ratiometric sensing nanosensors is described using core-shell nanoparticles in which the probe and reference are spatially separated into the shell and core of the nanostructure respectively. The isolation of the reference in the core of the particle ensures a stable emission reference signal unaffected by the external environment. The core shell structure was prepared by engineering structurally well-defined Ru-conjugated block copolymers which acted as emulsifiers in the miniemulsion polymerisation of BODIPY loaded styrene nanoparticles...
August 16, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812749/radical-driven-processes-within-a-peptidic-sequence-of-type-i-collagen-upon-single-photon-ionisation-in-the-gas-phase
#7
Lucas Schwob, Mathieu Lalande, Dmitrii Egorov, Jimmy Rangama, Ronnie Hoekstra, Violaine Vizcaino, Thomas Schlathölter, Jean-Christophe Poully
We report on an experimental single-photon absorption study on gas-phase protonated collagen peptides employing a combination of mass spectrometry and synchrotron radiation. Partial ion yields for the main photoabsorption products vary steadily with photon energy over the range from 14 to 545 eV. At low energy, non-dissociative photoionisation competes with neutral molecule loss from the precursor ion, whereas fragmentation of the peptide backbone dominates at soft X-ray energies. Neutral molecule losses from the ionised peptide are found to have low energy barriers and most likely involve amino-acid residue side-chains with radical character, in particular aspartic acid...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812709/adaptation-to-deep-sea-chemosynthetic-environments-as-revealed-by-mussel-genomes
#8
Jin Sun, Yu Zhang, Ting Xu, Yang Zhang, Huawei Mu, Yanjie Zhang, Yi Lan, Christopher J Fields, Jerome Ho Lam Hui, Weipeng Zhang, Runsheng Li, Wenyan Nong, Fiona Ka Man Cheung, Jian-Wen Qiu, Pei-Yuan Qian
Hydrothermal vents and methane seeps are extreme deep-sea ecosystems that support dense populations of specialized macro-benthos such as mussels. But the lack of genome information hinders the understanding of the adaptation of these animals to such inhospitable environments. Here we report the genomes of a deep-sea vent/seep mussel (Bathymodiolus platifrons) and a shallow-water mussel (Modiolus philippinarum). Phylogenetic analysis shows that these mussel species diverged approximately 110.4 million years ago...
April 3, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812696/skeletal-trauma-reflects-hunting-behaviour-in-extinct-sabre-tooth-cats-and-dire-wolves
#9
Caitlin Brown, Mairin Balisi, Christopher A Shaw, Blaire Van Valkenburgh
Skeletal-injury frequency and distribution are likely to reflect hunting behaviour in predatory vertebrates and might therefore differ between species with distinct hunting modes. Two Pleistocene predators from the Rancho La Brea asphalt seeps, the sabre-tooth cat, Smilodon fatalis, and dire wolf, Canis dirus, represent ambush and pursuit predators, respectively. On the basis of a collection of over 1,900 pathological elements, the frequency of traumatic injury across skeletal elements in these two species was calculated...
April 10, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812652/parasites-dominate-hyperdiverse-soil-protist-communities-in-neotropical-rainforests
#10
Frédéric Mahé, Colomban de Vargas, David Bass, Lucas Czech, Alexandros Stamatakis, Enrique Lara, David Singer, Jordan Mayor, John Bunge, Sarah Sernaker, Tobias Siemensmeyer, Isabelle Trautmann, Sarah Romac, Cédric Berney, Alexey Kozlov, Edward A D Mitchell, Christophe V W Seppey, Elianne Egge, Guillaume Lentendu, Rainer Wirth, Gabriel Trueba, Micah Dunthorn
High animal and plant richness in tropical rainforest communities has long intrigued naturalists. It is unknown if similar hyperdiversity patterns are reflected at the microbial scale with unicellular eukaryotes (protists). Here we show, using environmental metabarcoding of soil samples and a phylogeny-aware cleaning step, that protist communities in Neotropical rainforests are hyperdiverse and dominated by the parasitic Apicomplexa, which infect arthropods and other animals. These host-specific parasites potentially contribute to the high animal diversity in the forests by reducing population growth in a density-dependent manner...
March 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812639/late-pliocene-environmental-change-during-the-transition-from-australopithecus-to-homo
#11
Joshua R Robinson, John Rowan, Christopher J Campisano, Jonathan G Wynn, Kaye E Reed
It has long been hypothesized that the transition from Australopithecus to Homo in eastern Africa was linked to the spread of open and arid environments near the Plio-Pleistocene boundary, but data for the latest Pliocene are scarce. Here we present new stable carbon isotope data from the late Pliocene mammalian fauna from Ledi-Geraru, in the lower Awash Valley (LAV), Ethiopia, and mammalian community analyses from the LAV and Turkana Basin. These data, combined with pedogenic carbonate stable isotopes, indicate that the two regions were largely similar through the Plio-Pleistocene, but that important environmental differences existed during the emergence of Homo around 2...
May 15, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812594/ecological-homogenization-of-residential-macrosystems
#12
Peter M Groffman, Meghan Avolio, Jeannine Cavender-Bares, Neil D Bettez, J Morgan Grove, Sharon J Hall, Sarah E Hobbie, Kelli L Larson, Susannah B Lerman, Dexter H Locke, James B Heffernan, Jennifer L Morse, Christopher Neill, Kristen C Nelson, Jarlath O'Neil-Dunne, Diane E Pataki, Colin Polsky, Rinku Roy Chowdhury, Tara L E Trammell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812591/body-size-shifts-and-early-warning-signals-precede-the-historic-collapse-of-whale-stocks
#13
Christopher F Clements, Julia L Blanchard, Kirsty L Nash, Mark A Hindell, Arpat Ozgul
Predicting population declines is a key challenge in the face of global environmental change. Abundance-based early warning signals have been shown to precede population collapses; however, such signals are sensitive to the low reliability of abundance estimates. Here, using historical data on whales harvested during the 20th century, we demonstrate that early warning signals can be present not only in the abundance data, but also in the more reliable body size data of wild populations. We show that during the period of commercial whaling, the mean body size of caught whales declined dramatically (by up to 4 m over a 70-year period), leading to early warning signals being detectable up to 40 years before the global collapse of whale stocks...
June 22, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812589/connecting-earth-observation-to-high-throughput-biodiversity-data
#14
Alex Bush, Rahel Sollmann, Andreas Wilting, Kristine Bohmann, Beth Cole, Heiko Balzter, Christopher Martius, András Zlinszky, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Christina A Cobbold, Terence P Dawson, Brent C Emerson, Simon Ferrier, M Thomas P Gilbert, Martin Herold, Laurence Jones, Fabian H Leendertz, Louise Matthews, James D A Millington, John R Olson, Otso Ovaskainen, Dave Raffaelli, Richard Reeve, Mark-Oliver Rödel, Torrey W Rodgers, Stewart Snape, Ingrid Visseren-Hamakers, Alfried P Vogler, Piran C L White, Martin J Wooster, Douglas W Yu
Understandably, given the fast pace of biodiversity loss, there is much interest in using Earth observation technology to track biodiversity, ecosystem functions and ecosystem services. However, because most biodiversity is invisible to Earth observation, indicators based on Earth observation could be misleading and reduce the effectiveness of nature conservation and even unintentionally decrease conservation effort. We describe an approach that combines automated recording devices, high-throughput DNA sequencing and modern ecological modelling to extract much more of the information available in Earth observation data...
June 22, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812533/immunoreactivity-of-canine-liposarcoma-to-muscle-and-brown-adipose-antigens
#15
Elise Eva Bella LaDouceur, Sarah E Stevens, Jason Wood, Christopher M Reilly
Liposarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and hibernoma share some overlapping histologic and immunohistochemical features. Although immunohistochemistry (IHC) is commonly used in the diagnosis of these neoplasms, expression of muscle markers has been reported in human liposarcoma and canine hibernoma in addition to rhabdomyosarcoma. Thus, these neoplasms are a diagnostic challenge but important to distinguish because of differences in prognosis and treatment. Rhabdomyosarcoma and liposarcoma are both malignant, but rhabdomyosarcoma has a higher potential for metastasis...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812446/higher-dietary-intake-of-vitamin-d-may-influence-total-cholesterol-and-carbohydrate-profile-independent-of-body-composition-in-men-with-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Christopher Beal, Ashraf Gorgey, Pamela Moore, Nathan Wong, Robert A Adler, David Gater
STUDY DESIGN: A case-control design. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of dietary vitamin D intake on insulin sensitivity (Si), glucose effectiveness (Sg), and lipid profile in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: 20 male, paraplegic (T3-L1) with chronic (> one year) motor complete SCI (AIS A or B) were recruited. Three-day dietary records were analyzed for dietary vitamin D (calciferol), and participants were assigned to one of two groups, a high vitamin D intake group and a low vitamin D intake group based on the mid-point of vitamin D frequency distribution...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812404/effects-of-a-low-resistance-interval-bicycling-intervention-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Mehmet Uygur, Maria Bellumori, Christopher A Knight
Previous studies have shown that people with Parkinson's disease (PD) benefit from a variety of exercise modalities with respect to symptom management and function. Among the possible exercise modalities, speedwork has been identified as a promising strategy, with direct implications for the rate and amplitude of nervous system involvement. Considering that previous speed-based exercise for PD has often been equipment, personnel and/or facility dependent, and often time intensive, our purpose was to develop a population-specific exercise program that could be self-administered with equipment that is readily found in fitness centers or perhaps the home...
August 16, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812356/single-molecule-nanopore-spectrometry-for-peptide-detection
#18
Amy E Chavis, Kyle T Brady, Grace A Hatmaker, Christopher E Angevine, Nuwan Kothalawala, Amala Dass, Joseph W F Robertson, Joseph E Reiner
Sensing and characterization of water-soluble peptides is of critical importance in a wide variety of bioapplications. Single molecule nanopore spectrometry (SMNS) is based on the idea that one can use biological protein nanopores to resolve different sized molecules down to limits set by the blockade duration and noise. Previous work has shown that this enables discrimination between polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules that differ by a single monomer unit. This paper describes efforts to extend SMNS to a variety of biologically relevant, water-soluble peptides...
August 16, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812193/cost-analysis-of-robot-assisted-choledochotomy-and-common-bile-duct-exploration-as-an-option-for-complex-choledocholithiasis
#19
Ahmed Almamar, Nawar A Alkhamesi, Ward T Davies, Christopher M Schlachta
AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness of elective, robot-assisted choledochotomy and common bile duct exploration (RCD/CBDE) compared to open surgery for ERCP refractory choledocholithiasis. METHOD: A prospective database of all RCD/CBDE has been maintained since our first procedure in April 2007 though April 2016. With ethics approval, this database was compared with all contemporaneous elective open procedures (OCD/CBDE) performed since March 2005...
August 15, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812168/a-wireless-pressure-sensor-for-continuous%C3%A2-monitoring-of-intraocular-pressure-in-conscious-animals
#20
Simon A Bello, Christopher L Passaglia
An important aspect of eye health in humans and animal models of human diseases is intraocular pressure (IOP). IOP is typically measured by hand with a tonometer, so data are sparse and sporadic and round-the-clock variations are not well characterized. Here we present a novel system for continuous wireless IOP and temperature measurement in small animals. The system consists of a cannula implanted in the anterior chamber of the eye connected to pressure sensing electronics that can be worn by rats or implanted in larger mammals...
August 15, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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