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Jacques Klein, Arachk de Górski, Daniel Benamran, Jean-Paul Vallee, Thomas De Perrot, Gregory J Wirth, Christophe E Iselin
INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to evaluate 3 different modalities of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies (PBs; 2D-, 3D- and targeted 3D-TRUS with fusion to MRI - T3D). Primary end point was the detection rate of prostate cancer (PC). Secondary end point was the detection rate of insignificant PC according to the Epstein criteria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Inclusion of 284 subsequent patients who underwent 2D-, 3D- or T3D PB from 2011 to 2015. All patients having PB for initial PC detection with a serum prostate-specific antigen value ≤20 ng/ml were included...
October 27, 2016: Urologia Internationalis
Peter Sandner, Peter Berger, Christoph Zenzmaier
Fibrotic diseases cause high rates of morbidity and mortality, and their incidence increases with age. Despite intense research and development efforts, effective and well-tolerated antifibrotic treatments are scarce. Transforming growth factor-β signaling, which is widely considered the most important profibrotic factor, causes a pro-oxidant shift in redox homeostasis and a concomitant decrease in nitric oxide (NO) signaling. The NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling cascade plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cell and organ function in whole-body hemostasis...
October 27, 2016: Gerontology
David A Bushinsky, Patrick Rossignol, David M Spiegel, Wade W Benton, Jinwei Yuan, Geoffrey A Block, Christopher S Wilcox, Rajiv Agarwal
BACKGROUND: Persistent hyperkalemia (serum potassium (K) ≥5.5 mEq/l) is a common condition in hemodialysis (HD) patients, is associated with increased mortality, and treatment options are limited. The effect of patiromer, a gastrointestinal K binder, on serum K was examined in HD patients. METHODS: Six hyperkalemic HD patients (5 anuric) were admitted to clinical research units for 15 days (1 pretreatment week and 1 patiromer treatment week) and they received a controlled diet with identical meals on corresponding days of pretreatment and treatment weeks...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
Musaffe Tuna, Christopher I Amos
Approximately 18% of all human cancers have a viral etiology, and human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as one of the most prevalent viruses that plays causative role in nearly all cervical cancers and, in addition, in subset of head and neck, anal, penile and vulvar cancers. The recent introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) and other 'omics' approaches have resulted in comprehensive knowledge on the pathogenesis of HPV-driven tumors. Specifically, these approaches have provided detailed information on genomic HPV integration sites, disrupted genes and pathways, and common and distinct genetic and epigenetic alterations in different human HPV-associated cancers...
October 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Chwan Hong Foo, Christina L Rootes, Karla Cowley, Glenn A Marsh, Cathryn M Gould, Celine Deffrasnes, Christopher J Cowled, Reuben Klein, Sarah J Riddell, Deborah Middleton, Kaylene J Simpson, Lin-Fa Wang, Andrew G D Bean, Cameron R Stewart
Hendra and Nipah viruses (family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus) are bat-borne viruses that cause fatal disease in humans and a range of other mammalian species. Gaining a deeper understanding of host pathways exploited by henipaviruses for infection may identify targets for new anti-viral therapies. Here we have performed genome-wide high-throughput agonist and antagonist screens at biosafety level 4 to identify host-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) impacting henipavirus infection in human cells. Members of the miR-181 and miR-17~93 families strongly promoted Hendra virus infection...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Christopher L Kirkland, Breandán A MacGabhann, Brian L Kirkland, J Stephen Daly
The Hellefjord Schist, a volcaniclastic psammite-pelite formation in the Caledonides of Arctic Norway contains discoidal impressions and apparent tube casts that share morphological and taphonomic similarities to Neoproterozoic stem-holdfast forms. U-Pb zircon geochronology on the host metasediment indicates it was deposited between 437 ± 2 and 439 ± 3 Ma, but also indicates that an inferred basal conglomerate to this formation must be part of an older stratigraphic element, as it is cross-cut by a 546 ± 4 Ma pegmatite...
2016: PloS One
Didier Decaudin, Christophe Le Tourneau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2016: Aging
C Gunnar Werncke, Mohammed-Amine Bouammali, Julie Baumard, Nicolas Suaud, Cyril Martins, Nathalie Guihéry, Laure Vendier, Jianxia Zheng, Jean-Baptiste Sortais, Christophe Darcel, Sylviane Sabo-Etienne, Jean-Pascal Sutter, Sébastien Bontemps, Céline Pichon
A family of four-coordinate Fe(II) complexes formed with N,N'-chelating amido-pyridine ligands was synthesized, and their magnetic properties were investigated. These distorted tetrahedral complexes exhibit significant magnetic anisotropy with zero-field splitting parameter D ranging between -17 and -12 cm(-1). Ab initio calculations enabled identification of the structural factors that control the nature of the magnetic anisotropy and the rationalization of the variation of D in these complexes. It is shown that a reduced N-Fe-N angle involving the chelating nitrogen atoms of the ligands is at the origin of the negative D value and that the torsion between the two N-Fe-N planes imposed by steric hindrances further increases the |D| value...
October 26, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Stefania Perticaroli, Georg Ehlers, Christopher B Stanley, Eugene Mamontov, Hugh M O'Neill, Qiu Zhang, Xiaolin Cheng, Dean A A Myles, John Katsaras, Jonathan D Nickels
The structurally and dynamically perturbed hydration shells that surround proteins and biomolecules have a substantial influence upon their function and stability. This makes the extent and degree of water perturbation of practical interest for general biological study and industrial formulation. We present an experimental description of the dynamical perturbation of hydration water around green fluorescent protein in solution. Less than two shells (~5.5 Å) were perturbed, with dynamics a factor of 2‒10 times slower than bulk water, depending on their distance from the protein surface and the probe length of the measurement...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Christopher Adamson, Robert J Pengelly, Saeideh Shamsi Kazem Abadi, Saswati Chakladar, Jason Draper, Robert Britton, Tracey M Gloster, Andrew J Bennet
Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) have attracted considerable attention as targets for therapeutic agents, and thus mechanism-based inhibitors are of great interest. We report the first structural analysis of a carbocyclic mechanism-based GH inactivator, the results of which show that the two Michaelis complexes are in (2) H3 conformations. We also report the synthesis and reactivity of a fluorinated analogue and the structure of its covalently linked intermediate (flattened (2) H3 half-chair). We conclude that these inactivator reactions mainly involve motion of the pseudo-anomeric carbon atom, knowledge that should stimulate the design of new transition-state analogues for use as chemical biology tools...
October 26, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Zhijun Li, Matthew D Muller, Jianli Wang, Christopher T Sica, Prasanna Karunanayaka, Lawrence I Sinoway, Qing X Yang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the dynamic characteristics of T2* -weighted signal change in exercising skeletal muscle of healthy subjects and peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients under a low-intensity exercise paradigm. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine PAD patients and nine age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers underwent a low-intensity exercise paradigm while magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (3.0T) was obtained. T2*-weighted signal time-courses in lateral gastrocnemius, medial gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior were acquired and analyzed...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Amit Mukerji, Prakesh S Shah, Sandesh Shivananda, Wendy Yee, Brooke Read, John Minski, Ruben Alvaro, Christoph Fusch
AIM: To evaluate practice variation with respect to non-invasive respiratory support (NRS) use across Canadian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). METHODS: A web-based survey was sent to all site investigators of the 30 level 3 NICUs participating in the Canadian Neonatal Network. The survey inquired about the use of five commonly described NRS modes. In addition, the presence and adherence to local guidelines were ascertained. Descriptive analyses were performed to identify variations in practice...
October 26, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Christopher S Fowler, Barrett A Lee, Stephen A Matthews
Although the trend toward greater ethnoracial diversity in the United States has been documented at a variety of geographic scales, most research tracks diversity one scale at a time. Our study bridges scales, asking how the diversity and segregation patterns of metropolitan areas are influenced by shifts in the racial/ethnic composition of their constituent places. Drawing on 1980-2010 decennial census data, we use a new visual tool to compare the distributions of place diversity for 50 U.S. metro areas over three decades...
October 25, 2016: Demography
Michael P Platt, Christopher D Brook, Jacob Kuperstock, John H Krouse
IgE-mediated allergy plays a well-established role in both nasal and pulmonary diseases due to the common epithelium and shared mediator responses of the upper and lower airways. This "unified airway" concept has also been described in other sites within the head and neck that contain similar respiratory mucosa: the middle ear and the larynx. This review will highlight the data suggesting a role for IgE-mediated allergic disease in chronic laryngopharyngeal and middle ear disease and the role for allergy testing to aid in diagnosis and treatment of these disorders...
October 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Emilie Boissier, Olivier Mir, Antoine Hollebecque, Hassan Izzedine, Stéphane Ederhy, Anas Gazzah, Rastislav Bahleda, Christophe Massard, Isabelle Macquin-Mavier, Christophe Tournigand, Jean-Philippe Spano, Jean-Charles Soria, Benoît Rousseau
Purpose Renal toxicities are common with angiogenesis multikinase inhibitors (AMKI), and can be limiting in phase I trials. Factors associated with such toxicities are poorly known. The aims of this exploratory study were to describe renovascular toxicities associated with AMKI, impact on drug development and to identify baseline parameters associated with the occurrence of renal toxicities in phase I trials. Methods Consecutive patients treated with AMKI in Gustave Roussy phase I unit between October 2005 and August 2013 were included...
October 25, 2016: Investigational New Drugs
Christophe Walgraeve, Patrick De Wispelaere, Fé Van der Elst, Herman Van Langenhove
An analytical method was developed and optimized for the quantification of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 12 oxygenated PAHs in Taxus baccata leaves. Emphasis was given to the development of an in-cell cleanup step using pressurized solvent extraction, a cleanup step using solid-phase extraction, and the instrumental analysis by GC-HRMS. Different extraction temperatures (between 50 and 200 °C) and Florisil quantities were evaluated for the extraction process. Based on the evaluation of both recoveries and matrix effect factors, a temperature of 200 °C and 1 g Florisil was selected as the optimum...
October 25, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Sarah Kado, W L William Chang, Aimy Nguyen Chi, Monika Wolny, David M Shepherd, Christoph F A Vogel
Currently, it is not well understood how ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) modify inflammatory responses triggered by Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in human dendritic cells (DCs). Here, we show that AhR ligands 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the tryptophan derivatives 6-formylindolo[3,2-b] carbazole (FICZ), kynurenine (kyn), and the natural dietary compound indole-3-carbinol (I3C) differentially modify cytokine expression in human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs). The results show that TLR-activated MoDCs express higher levels of AhR and are more sensitive toward the effects of AhR ligands...
October 25, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Daqiang Pan, Michel Kather, Lucas Willmann, Manuel Schlimpert, Christoph Bauer, Simon Lagies, Karin Schmidtkunz, Steffen U Eisenhardt, Manfred Jung, Stefan Günther, Bernd Kammerer
XD14 is a 4-acyl pyrrole derivative, which was discovered by a high-throughput virtual screening experiment. XD14 inhibits bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) proteins (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and BRDT) and consequently suppresses cell proliferation. In this study, metabolic profiling reveals the molecular effects in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7) treated by XD14. A three-day time series experiment with two concentrations of XD14 was performed. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied for untargeted profiling of treated and non-treated MCF-7 cells...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Christine Jungk, Andreas Mock, Janina Exner, Christoph Geisenberger, Rolf Warta, David Capper, Amir Abdollahi, Sara Friauf, Bernd Lahrmann, Niels Grabe, Philipp Beckhove, Andreas von Deimling, Andreas Unterberg, Christel Herold-Mende
BACKGROUND: The spatial relationship of glioblastoma (GBM) to the subventricular zone (SVZ) is associated with inferior patient survival. However, the underlying molecular phenotype is largely unknown. We interrogated an SVZ-dependent transcriptome and potential location-specific prognostic markers. METHODS: mRNA microarray data of a discovery set (n = 36 GBMs) were analyzed for SVZ-dependent gene expression and process networks using the MetaCore™ workflow...
October 26, 2016: BMC Medicine
Christelle d'Engremont, Dewi Vernerey, Anne-Laure Pointet, Gaël Simone, Francine Fein, Bruno Heyd, Stéphane Koch, Lucine Vuitton, Stefano Kim, Marine Jary, Najib Lamfichek, Celia Turco, Zaher Lakkis, Anne Berger, Franck Bonnetain, Julien Taieb, Philippe Bachellier, Christophe Borg
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) incidence is increasing worldwide. Several studies have shown that lymphopenia was correlated with a poor prognosis but the potential interest to measure lymphopenia in the pre and post-operative setting as well as its added value among conventional prognostic factors was never investigated. METHODS: Data from two independent cohorts in whom patients underwent resection for pancreatic carcinoma were retrospectively recorded...
October 26, 2016: BMC Cancer
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