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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805588/weight-in-parkinson-s-disease-phenotypical-significance
#1
Jagdish C Sharma, Anna Lewis
Body weight in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a significant nonmotor feature. Weight homeostasis is a complex physiological process and gets deranged in PD patients leading to changes in weight. While both the low and high body weight have been reported as risk factors for PD, the majority of PD patients have a lower weight and a subset of patients lose weight during the course of the disease, while a small proportion gain weight. A number of clinical parameters such as older age, impaired cognition, severity of disease, and an imbalance of food intake determined by satiety and hunger hormones have been reported to be associated with but not the cause of weight change...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799261/serum-osmolarity-in-male-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-manic-episode
#2
Tevfik Kalelioglu, Nesrin Karamustafalioglu, Abdullah Genc, Murat Kocabiyik
Imbalance of water and electrolyte homeostasis has been suggested to be associated with the acute episodes of bipolar disorder. In this study we aimed to investigate, for the first time, the serum osmolarity in bipolar disorder manic episode. A total of 68 bipolar inpatients in manic episode and 60 age-gender matched healthy controls were included in the study. Serum osmolarity was calculated from Sodium (Na(+) ), glucose and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) according to formula of (2 × Na(+) ) + (BUN/2.8) + (Glucose/18)...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799235/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-serum-activity-and-concentration-are-increased-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#3
Sindy Blauschmidt, Thomas Greither, Katharina Lampe, Solveig Köller, Petra Kaltwaßer, Hermann M Behre
OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex disease, the etiology of which is not well understood. Alterations in potential candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of androgens, folliculogenesis, and insulin and glucose metabolism have been suggested as possible etiologies. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) plays a key role in glucose homeostasis and, thus, in the regulation of insulin secretion. The aim of our study was to analyze the DPP4 activity and concentrations in the serum of PCOS and non-PCOS patients and, additionally, study the activation of the DPP4 promoter by androgens in vitro...
August 11, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780668/new-anabolic-therapies-for-osteoporosis
#4
REVIEW
Salvatore Minisola, Cristiana Cipriani, Marco Occhiuto, Jessica Pepe
Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and qualitative structural abnormalities of bone tissue, leading to increased bone fragility that results in fractures. Pharmacological therapy is aimed at decreasing the risk of fracture, mainly correcting the imbalance between bone resorption and formation at the level of bone remodeling units. Anabolic therapy has the capability to increase bone mass to a greater extent than traditional antiresorptive agents. The only currently available drug licensed is parathyroid hormone 1-34 (teriparatide); new drugs are on the horizon, targeting the stimulation of bone formation, and therefore improving bone mass, structure and ultimately skeletal strength...
August 5, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772209/renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-raas-the-ubiquitous-system-for-homeostasis-and-pathologies
#5
Seema Patel, Abdur Rauf, Haroon Khan, Tareq Abu-Izneid
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a vital system of human body, as it maintains plasma sodium concentration, arterial blood pressure and extracellular volume. Kidney-secreted renin enzyme acts on its substrate to form angiotensin II, a versatile effector peptide hormone. Every organ is affected by RAAS activation and the resultant hypertension, cell proliferation, inflammation, and fibrosis. The imbalance of renin and angiotensin II can result in an overwhelming number of chronic and acute diseases...
July 31, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771762/cognitive-impairment-in-adolescents-and-adults-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#6
Leif Karlsson, Anton Gezelius, Anna Nordenström, Tatja Hirvikoski, Svetlana Lajic
OBJECTIVE: Impaired cognition has been reported in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), although the findings have been conflicting. It has been hypothesized that the major causes of the deficits are prenatal hormonal imbalances and/or excessive glucocorticoid treatment. DESIGN, PATIENTS AND SETTING: This was an observational study comparing cognition in CAH patients (n=55) to control subjects from the general population (n=58), aged 16-33 years. Nine CAH subjects had been treated prenatally with dexamethasone...
August 3, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771210/coral-derived-natural-marine-compound-gb9-impairs-vascular-development-in-zebrafish
#7
Yi-Chun Song, Bao-Jueng Wu, Chien-Chih Chiu, Chun-Lin Chen, Jun-Qing Zhou, Shuo-Rong Liang, Chang-Yih Duh, Ping-Jyun Sung, Zhi-Hong Wen, Chang-Yi Wu
Blood vessels in vertebrates are established and genetically controlled in an evolutionarily-conserved manner during embryogenesis. Disruption of vascular growth by chemical compounds or environmental hormones may cause developmental defects. This study analyzed the vascular impacts of marine compound GB9 in zebrafish. GB9 was isolated from the marine soft coral Capnella imbricata and had shown anti-neuroinflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities. However, the role of GB9 on vascular development has not been reported...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751268/the-stem-cell-factor-scf-c-kit-system-in-carcinogenesis-of-reproductive-tissues-what-does-the-hormonal-regulation-tell-us
#8
Marília I Figueira, Henrique J Cardoso, Sara Correia, Cláudio J Maia, Sílvia Socorro
The tyrosine kinase receptor c-KIT and its ligand, the stem cell factor (SCF) are expressed in several tissues of male and female reproductive tract, playing an important role in the regulation of basic biological processes. The activation of c-KIT by SCF controls, cell survival and death, cell differentiation and migration. Also, the SCF/c-KIT system has been implicated in carcinogenesis of reproductive tissues due to its altered expression pattern or overactivation in consequence of gain-of-functions mutations...
July 24, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747541/obesity-a-serious-etiologic-factor-for-male-subfertility-in-modern-society
#9
Yue Liu, Zhide Ding
Obesity, defined as excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue, is a metabolic disorder resulting from behavioral, environmental and heritable causes. Such malfunction increases the risk of developing hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory problems, osteoarthritis and cancer. Meanwhile, the negative impact of obesity on male reproduction is gradually being recognized. According to clinical investigations and animal experiments, obesity is correlated with reductions in sperm concentration and motility, increases in sperm DNA damage and changes in reproductive hormonal levels...
July 26, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737969/high-hydrostatic-pressure-extract-of-ginger-exerts-antistress-effects-in-immobilization-stressed-rats
#10
Sohee Moon, Mak-Soon Lee, Sunyoon Jung, Bori Kang, Seog-Young Kim, Seonyoung Park, Hye-Yeon Son, Chong-Tai Kim, Young-Hee Jo, In-Hwan Kim, Young Soon Kim, Yangha Kim
Stress contributes to physiological changes such as weight loss and hormonal imbalances. The aim of the present study was to investigate antistress effects of high hydrostatic pressure extract of ginger (HPG) in immobilization-stressed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 24) were divided into three groups as follows: control (C), immobilization stress (2 h daily, for 2 weeks) (S), and immobilization stress (2 h daily, for 2 weeks) plus oral administration of HPG (150 mg/kg body weight/day) (S+G). Immobilization stress reduced the body weight gain and thymus weight by 50...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720522/patients-with-non-ambulatory-cerebral-palsy-have-higher-sclerostin-levels-and-lower-bone-mineral-density-than-patients-with-ambulatory-cerebral-palsy
#11
Yoon-Kyum Shin, Young Kwon Yoon, Kyung Bae Chung, Yumie Rhee, Sung-Rae Cho
Bone loss is a serious clinical issue in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). Sclerostin has garnered interest as a key mechanosensor in osteocytes, leading to considerations of the therapeutic utilization of anti-sclerostin medications. This study was undertaken to determine associations among mechanical unloading, sclerostin levels, and bone imbalance in patients with CP. A total of 28 patients with CP participated in this cross-sectional study. The following measurements were taken: anthropometrics, clinical diagnosis of CP subtype and ambulatory status, bone mineral density (BMD) z-scores at the lumbar spine and hip, and blood biochemical markers, including sclerostin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, creatinine, calcium, and phosphorus...
July 15, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720298/steroids-steroid-precursors-and-neuroactive-steroids-in-critically-ill-equine-neonates
#12
K A Dembek, K J Timko, L M Johnson, K A Hart, B S Barr, B David, T A Burns, R E Toribio
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) dysfunction has been associated with sepsis and mortality in foals. Most studies have focused on cortisol, while other steroids have not been investigated. The objectives of this study were to characterise the adrenal steroid and steroid precursor response to disease and to determine their association with the HPAA response to illness, disease severity, and mortality in hospitalised foals. All foals (n=326) were classified by two scoring systems into three categories: based on the sepsis score (septic, sick non-septic [SNS] and healthy) and the foal survival score (Group 1: 3-18%; Group 2: 38-62%; Group 3: 82-97% likelihood of survival)...
July 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713287/vitamin-a-affects-flatfish-development-in-a-thyroid-hormone-signaling-and-metamorphic-stage-dependent-manner
#13
Ignacio Fernández, Juan B Ortiz-Delgado, Maria J Darias, Francisco Hontoria, Karl B Andree, Manuel Manchado, Carmen Sarasquete, Enric Gisbert
Vitamin A (VA) and retinoid derivatives are known morphogens controlling vertebrate development. Despite the research effort conducted during the last decade, the precise mechanism of how VA induces post-natal bone changes, and particularly those operating through crosstalk with the thyroid hormones (THs) remain to be fully understood. Since effects and mechanisms seem to be dose and time-dependent, flatfish are an interesting study model as they undergo a characteristic process of metamorphosis driven by THs that can be followed by external appearance...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707894/vitamin-d-receptor-regulates-amyloid-beta-1-42-production-with-protein-disulfide-isomerase-a3
#14
Duygu Gezen-Ak, Irem L Atasoy, Esin Candas, Merve Alaylioglu, Selma Yilmazer, Erdinc Dursun
The challenge of understanding the biology of neuronal amyloid processing could provide a basis for understanding the amyloid pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Based on our previous studies we have suggested that AD might be the consequence of a hormonal imbalance in which the critical hormone is vitamin D. The present study primarily focused on the creation of a condition that prevents the genomic or non-genomic action of vitamin D by disrupting vitamin D receptors (VDR or PDIA3/1,25MARRS); the effects of these disruptions on the series of proteins involved in secretases that play a crucial role in amyloid pathology and on amyloid beta (Aβ) production in primary cortical neurons were observed...
July 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697429/bisphenol-a-disrupts-steroidogenesis-and-induces-a-sex-hormone-imbalance-through-c-jun-phosphorylation-in-leydig-cells
#15
Hsin-Chieh Lan, Kai-Yu Wu, I-Wen Lin, Zhi-Jie Yang, Ai-An Chang, Meng-Chun Hu
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that is used to manufacture plastic consumer products. It is well known that exposure to BPA can induce defects in gonad development and negatively influences reproductive function in both males and females. In this study, we assessed the effects of BPA on hormone production in Leydig cells, which secrete hormones in the testes and support male fertility. We examined two steroidogenic enzymes, CYP11A1 and CYP19 that involved in sex hormone synthesis in mouse MA-10 Leydig cells...
July 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690949/role-of-sex-hormone-levels-and-psychological-stress-in-the-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Salman Assad, Hamza H Khan, Haider Ghazanfar, Zarak H Khan, Salman Mansoor, Muhammad A Rahman, Ghulam H Khan, Bilal Zafar, Usman Tariq, Shuja A Malik
The aim of this review article is to assess the connection between psychological stress and sex hormones and their effect on the development of autoimmune diseases. Psychological stress describes what people feel when they are under mental, physical, or emotional pressure. We searched for online articles using MEDLINE®, Embase, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. Our research yielded a total of 165 articles out of which 30 articles were considered for further perusal. The articles were reviewed from February 2016 to February 2017...
June 5, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677244/endocrine-disruption-in-silico-interactions-between-phthalate-plasticizers-and-corticosteroid-binding-globulin
#17
Ishfaq A Sheikh, Mohd A Beg
Endocrine disruption is a phenomenon when a man-made or natural compound interferes with normal hormone function in human or animal body systems. Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) have assumed considerable importance as a result of industrial activity, mass production of synthetic chemicals and environmental pollution. Phthalate plasticizers are a group of chemicals used widely and diversely in industry especially in the plastic industry, and many of the phthalate compounds have endocrine-disrupting properties...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673586/potential-therapeutic-effect-of-alkaline-reduced-water-in-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#18
Jesmin Ara, Selikem Abla Nuwormegbe, Ma Easter Joy Sajo, Soo-Ki Kim, Kwang-Yong Shim, Kyu-Jae Lee
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine-metabolic disorder characterized by hormonal disturbances including hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinemia culminating into obesity, multiple ovarian cysts and anovulatory infertility in women. There has been no effective medication against PCOS and its complication. However, weight loss can reduce insulin resistance, which in turn helps to restore hormonal balance and ovulation resulting to improved fertility. Previously, we reported that alkaline reduced water (ARW) could significantly reduce obesity by alleviating adiposity, regulating the levels of adipokines/pro-inflammatory cytokines and by inducing cholesterol homeostasis...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673339/human-limbal-fibroblast-like-stem-cells-induce-immune-tolerance-in-autoreactive-t-lymphocytes-from-female-patients-with-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis
#19
Antonina Coppola, Laura Tomasello, Maria Pitrone, Salvatore Cillino, Pierina Richiusa, Giuseppe Pizzolanti, Carla Giordano
BACKGROUND: Due to their "natural immune privilege" and immunoregulatory properties human fibroblast-like limbal stem cells (f-LSCs) have acquired great interest as a potential tool for achieving immunotolerance. Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is the most common thyroid autoimmune disease and cause of hypothyroidism. To date, conventional hormone replacement therapy and unspecific immunosuppressive regimens cannot provide a definitive cure for HT subjects. We explored the immunosuppressant potential of human f-LSCs on circulating lymphomonocytes (PBMCs) collected from healthy donors and female HT patients...
July 3, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672794/tear-film-steroid-profiling-in-dry-eye-disease-by-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#20
Damiana Pieragostino, Luca Agnifili, Ilaria Cicalini, Roberta Calienno, Mirco Zucchelli, Leonardo Mastropasqua, Paolo Sacchetta, Piero Del Boccio, Claudia Rossi
Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disorder of the ocular surface unit resulting in eye discomfort, visual disturbance, and ocular surface damage; the risk of DED increases with age in both sexes, while its incidence is higher among females caused by an overall hormonal imbalance. The role of androgens has recently investigated and these hormones were considered to have a protective function on the ocular surface. In order to correlate DED to tear steroid levels, a robust, specific, and selective method for the simultaneous quantification of cortisol (CORT), corticosterone (CCONE), 11-deoxycortisol (11-DECOL), 4-androstene-3,17-dione (ADIONE), testosterone (TESTO), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), and progesterone (PROG) was developed and applied for the analysis of tear samples...
June 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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