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advancement in parasitology

Dante Zarlenga, Zhengyuan Wang, Makedonka Mitreva
Publication of the genome from the clade I organism, Trichinella spiralis, has provided us an avenue to address more holistic problems in parasitology; namely the processes of adaptation and the evolution of parasitism. Parasitism among nematodes has evolved in multiple, independent events. Deciphering processes that drive species diversity and adaptation are keys to understanding parasitism and advancing control strategies. Studies have been put forth on morphological and physiological aspects of parasitism and adaptation in nematodes; however, data is now coming available to investigate adaptation, host switching and parasitism at the genomic level...
July 2, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
Victor A Alegana, Peter M Atkinson, Christopher Lourenço, Nick W Ruktanonchai, Claudio Bosco, Elisabeth Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Bradley Didier, Deepa Pindolia, Arnaud Le Menach, Stark Katokele, Petrina Uusiku, Andrew J Tatem
The long-term goal of the global effort to tackle malaria is national and regional elimination and eventually eradication. Fine scale multi-temporal mapping in low malaria transmission settings remains a challenge and the World Health Organisation propose use of surveillance in elimination settings. Here, we show how malaria incidence can be modelled at a fine spatial and temporal resolution from health facility data to help focus surveillance and control to population not attending health facilities. Using Namibia as a case study, we predicted the incidence of malaria, via a Bayesian spatio-temporal model, at a fine spatial resolution from parasitologically confirmed malaria cases and incorporated metrics on healthcare use as well as measures of uncertainty associated with incidence predictions...
2016: Scientific Reports
Hany M Elsheikha, Manuela Schnyder, Donato Traversa, Angela Di Cesare, Ian Wright, David W Lacher
Feline aelurostrongylosis, caused by the metastrongyloid nematode Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, is an important gastropod-borne parasitic lung disease in cats. Infection with A. abstrusus is widespread globally, but the increasing awareness of this parasite and the advent of more sensitive diagnostics have contributed to the apparent increase in its prevalence and geographic expansion. Clinical features may range in severity from subclinical to life-threatening respiratory disease. Parasitological standard techniques, such as visualization of the nematode first larval stage in faecal and respiratory (bronchial mucus or pleural fluid) samples, remain the mainstays of diagnosis...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
C Sommerville, R Endris, T A Bell, K Ogawa, K Buchmann, D Sweeney
This guideline is intended to assist in the planning and execution of studies designed to assess the efficacy of ectoparasiticides for fish. It is the first ectoparasite-specific guideline to deal with studies set in the aquatic environment and therefore provides details for the maintenance of environmental standards for finfish. Information is included on a range of pre-clinical study designs as well as clinical studies in commercial/production sites, set within a regulatory framework. It provides information on the study animals, their welfare, husbandry and environmental requirements during the study...
March 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
J B Wang, R J St Leger, C Wang
Fungi are the commonest pathogens of insects and crucial regulators of insect populations. The rapid advance of genome technologies has revolutionized our understanding of entomopathogenic fungi with multiple Metarhizium spp. sequenced, as well as Beauveria bassiana, Cordyceps militaris, and Ophiocordyceps sinensis among others. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that the ancestors of many of these fungi were plant endophytes or pathogens, with entomopathogenicity being an acquired characteristic. These fungi now occupy a wide range of habitats and hosts, and their genomes have provided a wealth of information on the evolution of virulence-related characteristics, as well as the protein families and genomic structure associated with ecological and econutritional heterogeneity, genome evolution, and host range diversification...
2016: Advances in Genetics
Petr Heneberg
Bibliometric indicators increasingly affect careers, funding, and reputation of individuals, their institutions and journals themselves. In contrast to author self-citations, little is known about kinetics of journal self-citations. Here we hypothesized that they may show a generalizable pattern within particular research fields or across multiple fields. We thus analyzed self-cites to 60 journals from three research fields (multidisciplinary sciences, parasitology, and information science). We also hypothesized that the kinetics of journal self-citations and citations received from other journals of the same publisher may differ from foreign citations...
2016: PloS One
Ambalathaduvar Meenakshisundaram, Tirunelveli Jayagopal Harikrishnan, Thavasi Anna
AIM: Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are considered as a major constraint for successful sheep production. Control of these parasites heavily relies on the use of chemical anthelmintics. Over the past decades, the development of anthelmintic resistance to various groups of anthelmintics and problem of drug residues in animal products has awakened interest in medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of Indigofera tinctoria by scientifically validated in vitro and in vivo tests approved by the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology...
January 2016: Veterinary World
Cáris Maroni Nunes, Valéria Marçal Félix de Lima, Guilherme Dias de Melo, Henrique Borges de Paula, Maria Esther Gonçalves Pereira, Cristiana de Melo Trinconi Tronco, Roberto Mitsuyoshi Hiramoto, Marcia Dalastra Laurenti, Marcelo Nascimento Burattini
One of the measures to control visceral leishmaniosis (VL) in Brazil is the identification and culling of the canine reservoir. There is much controversy concerning this strategy, including the proper identification of positive dogs and the fact that the host-parasite relationship changes over time make it more challenging. A dynamic cohort of 62 dogs was followed every three months using serological and parasitological examinations and PCR. Positivity by PCR was higher than by serology and by parasitological examinations and showed a tendency to decrease over time, while serology tended to increase after six months...
October 2015: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Marta de Lana, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho
One of the most relevant issues beyond the effectiveness of etiological treatment of Chagas disease is the lack of consensual/feasible tools to identify and certify the definitive parasitological cure. Several methods of distinct natures (parasitological, serological, and molecular) have been continuously proposed and novel perspectives are currently under investigation. Although the simultaneous use of distinct tests may offer better contributions and advances, it also leads to controversies of interpretation, with lack of mutual consent of cure criterion amongst researchers and physicians...
2015: BioMed Research International
Juliane K Fischer, Barbara Hinney, Matthew J Denwood, Donato Traversa, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Peter-Henning Clausen
Cyathostomins are currently the most common internal parasites of horses. With the intensive use of anthelmintic drugs over the past decades, resistance of cyathostomins to anthelmintics is becoming a growing problem in many countries. The aim of this study was to assess the current situation on horse farms in the German federal state of Brandenburg. A pre-selected population of horses from 24 premises that had shown a prevalence of cyathostomins higher than the average in a previous study was examined for anthelmintic efficacy...
December 2015: Parasitology Research
Willian Marinho Dourado Coelho, Jancarlo Ferreira Gomes, Alexandre Xavier Falcão, Bianca Martins dos Santos, Felipe Augusto Soares, Celso Tetsuo Nagase Suzuki, Alessandro Francisco Talamini do Amarante, Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani
Differences in the efficacy of diagnostic techniques employed in the parasitological examination of feces are a limiting factor of this laboratory procedure in the field of Veterinary Parasitology. To verify advances in this type of examination in dogs, we conducted a study using a new technique (TFGII/Dog). Fifty naturally infected dogs were housed in individual stalls, and their feces were evaluated comparatively using this technique and four other conventional techniques. The TFGII/Dog showed high levels of sensitivity and efficiency, surpassing the diagnostic accuracy of the other techniques with a kappa concordance index of 0...
April 2015: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Domenico Otranto
Is it still possible to discover new parasites of dogs and cats? Do we really know enough about them? To what extent do limitations in the diagnosis of dog and cat parasites represent an obstacle for a deeper understanding of their biology? Diagnosis in parasitology has a profound impact on animal health and welfare and, in some cases, public health. Although, over the last few years, advances in the diagnosis of parasitic diseases have largely paralleled knowledge of their biology, gaps in the diagnosis of cat and dog parasites still exist...
August 15, 2015: Veterinary Parasitology
Milena de Paiva-Cavalcanti, Rayana Carla Silva de Morais, Rômulo Pessoa-E-Silva, Lays Adrianne Mendonça Trajano-Silva, Suênia da Cunha Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Diego de Hollanda Cavalcanti Tavares, Maria Carolina Accioly Brelaz-de-Castro, Rafael de Freitas E Silva, Valéria Rêgo Alves Pereira
Leishmaniases are caused by obligate intracellular protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. They cause a spectrum of diseases, most notably visceral (VL), cutaneous (CL), and mucosal (ML) leishmaniasis, which affect millions of people around the world, each year. Despite scientific advances, leishmaniases cases are expanding, constituting an important public health problem. Immunological and molecular diagnostic tools have been increasingly applied for the early detection of these parasitic infections, since the existence of limitations in clinical and parasitological examinations may provide false results, thus interfering in epidemiological research and diseases control...
2015: Cell & Bioscience
Yehenew A Ebstie, Ahmed Zeynudin, Tefera Belachew, Zelalem Desalegn, Sultan Suleman
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a complex disease, which varies in its epidemiology and clinical manifestation. Although artemether-lumefantrine has been used as first-line drug for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Bahir Dar district since 2004, its efficacy has not yet been assessed. The main objective of this study was to quantify the proportion of patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria who were prescribed artemether-lumefantrine and who failed treatment after a 28-day follow-up...
2015: Malaria Journal
Brianne A Couturier, Ryan Jensen, Nora Arias, Michael Heffron, Elyse Gubler, Kristin Case, Jason Gowans, Marc Roger Couturier
Microscopic examination of feces is a standard laboratory method for diagnosing gastrointestinal parasite infections. In North America, the ovum and parasite (O&P) examination is typically performed using stool that is chemically fixed in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and formalin, after which the stool is concentrated by filtration to enhance sensitivity. Mini Parasep solvent-free (SF) tubes allow collection and concentration within a single collection vial. The goal of the study was to determine whether consolidated processing and concentration with the Parasep tubes using an alcohol-based fixative (Alcorfix) provide O&P examinations equivalent to or better than those done by processing of PVA-formalin-fixed stool using a SpinCon concentration device...
August 2015: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Amanda Fortes Francisco, Michael D Lewis, Shiromani Jayawardhana, Martin C Taylor, Eric Chatelain, John M Kelly
The antifungal drug posaconazole has shown significant activity against Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro and in experimental murine models. Despite this, in a recent clinical trial it displayed limited curative potential. Drug testing is problematic in experimental Chagas disease because of difficulties in demonstrating sterile cure, particularly during the chronic stage of infection when parasite burden is extremely low and tissue distribution is ill defined. To better assess posaconazole efficacy against acute and chronic Chagas disease, we have exploited a highly sensitive bioluminescence imaging system which generates data with greater accuracy than other methods, including PCR-based approaches...
August 2015: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Isihaka Juma Haji, Chihiro Sugimoto, Kiichi Kajino, Imna Malele, Humphrey Simukoko, Harrison Chitambo, Boniface Namangala
Bovine African trypanosomosis (BAT) remains one of the major vector-borne diseases with serious impediment to cattle production and economic advancement in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study evaluated the performance of the trypanosome-species-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), using parasite DNA obtained from 295 indigenous Tanzanian short horn Zebu (TSHZ) and Boran crosses in Monduli district within northern Tanzania, against routine microscopy on Giemsa-stained blood films. Compared to parasitological data in which the prevalence of BAT was estimated at 2...
August 2015: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Wim G J Hol
Parasitic protozoa cause a range of diseases which threaten billions of human beings. They are responsible for tremendous mortality and morbidity in the least-developed areas of the world. Presented here is an overview of the evolution over the last three to four decades of structure-guided design of inhibitors, leads and drug candidates aiming at targets from parasitic protozoa. Target selection is a crucial and multi-faceted aspect of structure-guided drug design. The major impact of advances in molecular biology, genome sequencing and high-throughput screening is touched upon...
May 2015: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
R Van den Brom, L Moll, C Kappert, P Vellema
In a sheep farm in the Netherlands with a suspected Haemonchus contortus resistance to monepantel (Zolvix®, Novartis Animal Health), a fecal egg count reduction test was carried out in two groups of lambs, according to the method of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology. Group 1 was the untreated control group, and group 2 was treated with monepantel at the manufacturer's recommended dose rate. Efficacy of treatment with monepantel was 0%. Larval identification of pre- and post-treatment coprocultures revealed 100% H...
April 30, 2015: Veterinary Parasitology
Marianne Curet Bobey
Ectoparasites of major clinical significance in companion animals include fleas, ticks, lice, mange, mite, mosquitoes and sandflies, as well as biting flies. Obtaining a marketing authorization (or licence) for an ectoparasiticide relies on the assessment by regulatory agencies of a comprehensive data package to confirm the quality, safety and efficacy of the product when used in the target animal species for the proposed claims. Such approval is done under a highly regulated system. However, the global regulatory framework for pet ectoparasiticides is complex, since these products may be classified either as pesticides or as pharmaceuticals depending on the country or even within a given country, based on the presentation or mode of action...
February 28, 2015: Veterinary Parasitology
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