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Carla Pereira, Catarina Moreirinha, Magdalena Lewicka, Paulo Almeida, Carla Clemente, Jesús L Romalde, Maria L Nunes, Adelaide Almeida
In the present study two new phages (phT4A and ECA2) were characterized and their efficacy was evaluated separately and in cocktail (phT4A/ECA2) to control Escherichia coli. The isolated phages, phT4A and ECA2, belonged to the Myoviridae and Podoviridae family, respectively and both are safe (no integrase and toxin codifying genes) to be used in bacterial control. In general, the increase of multiplicity of infection (MOI) from 1 to 100 promoted a significant increase in the efficiency of phage phT4A and phage cocktail phT4A/ECA2...
October 15, 2016: Virus Research
Juli Carrillo, Evan Siemann
Plant competition may mediate the impacts of herbivory on invasive plant species through effects on plant growth and defense. This may predictably depend on whether herbivory occurs above or below ground and on relative plant competitive ability. We simulated the potential impact of above- or belowground damage by biocontrol agents on the growth of a woody invader (Chinese tallow tree, Triadica sebifera) through artificial herbivory, with or without competition with a native grass, little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium)...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Andrea Kunova, Cristina Pizzatti, Matteo Cerea, Andrea Gazzaniga, Paolo Cortesi
AIMS: This study aimed to develop a new formulation of Cryphonectria parasitica hypovirulent mycelium suitable for inoculations of tall trees from the ground. C. parasitica hypovirulent strains are widely used for biological control of chestnut blight. However, it is often inconsistent and ineffective not only for biological reasons, but also because the current manual application of hypovirulent strains on adult plants is difficult, time-consuming and expensive. Here, we propose an improved formulation and more effective mode of application of hypovirulent strains, which could boost chestnut blight biocontrol...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Jin-Lian Chen, Shi-Zhong Sun, Cui-Ping Miao, Kai Wu, You-Wei Chen, Li-Hua Xu, Hui-Lin Guan, Li-Xing Zhao
BACKGROUND: Biocontrol agents are regarded as promising and environmental friendly approaches as agrochemicals for phytodiseases that cause serious environmental and health problems. Trichoderma species have been widely used in suppression of soil-borne pathogens. In this study, an endophytic fungus, Trichoderma gamsii YIM PH30019, from healthy Panax notoginseng root was investigated for its biocontrol potential. METHODS: In vitro detached healthy roots, and pot and field experiments were used to investigate the pathogenicity and biocontrol efficacy of T...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Stephen T Abedon
The concept of bacteriophage multiplicity of infection (MOI) - ratios of phages to bacteria - historically has been less easily applied than many phage workers would prefer or, perhaps, may be aware. Here, toward clarification of the concept, I discuss multiplicity of infection in terms of semantics, history, mathematics, pharmacology, and actual practice. For phage therapy and other biocontrol purposes it is desirable, especially, not to solely employ MOI to describe what phage quantities have been applied during dosing...
July 2016: Bacteriophage
Tushar Suvra Bhowmick, Mayukh Das, Kevin M Heinz, Peter C Krauter, Carlos F Gonzalez
Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (Xff) is the causal agent of Pierce's Disease (PD) of grapevines and is vectored by the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS, Homalodisca vitripennis). Previously we have reported the development of a bacteriophage (phage) based biocontrol system for PD, but no information on insect transmission of phages has been reported. Here we communicate that laboratory reared GWSSs fed on cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata) harboring the virulent phage Paz were able to uptake of phage efficiently when the phage was present in high concentration, but were inefficient in transfer to plants...
July 2016: Bacteriophage
Bin-Yan Wu, Jian-Ren Ye, Lin Huang, Ling-Min He, De-Wei Li
Burkholderia pyrrocinia strain JK-SH007 isolated from poplar stems plays a highly significant role in the growth promotion and the biocontrol of poplar canker during colonization in poplar. In this research, the ideal reference gene was filtered and determined for the transcript normalization. Additionally, the expression of pyrG under all four conditions was relatively stable in B. pyrrocinia JK-SH007.
October 7, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Zifei Xu, Yonghong Chen, Tianyang Song, Zhijun Zeng, Ni Yan, Keqin Zhang, Xuemei Niu
Arthrobotrys oligospora is the first recognized nematode-trapping fungus and by far the most abundant in the environment. Our recent study revealed the polyketide synthase (PKS) gene AOL_s00215g283 in A. oligospora involved in the production of many secondary metabolites and the trap formation of the fungus. Here we report that the disruption of two genes in the upstream flanking region of the gene AOL_s00215g283, AOL_s00215g281 and AOL_s00215g282, which putatively encoded one amidohydrolase and one cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, respectively, both resulted in significant nematicidal activity of the cultural broths of the mutants and loss of morphological regulatory arthrosporols...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Judith Zimmermann, Mary K Musyoki, Georg Cadisch, Frank Rasche
We studied the effects of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. strigae (Fos), a soil-borne biocontrol agent (BCA) against Striga hermonthica, on total fungal and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) taxa in rhizospheres of maize in both clayey and sandy soil. Effects of Fos-BCA 'Foxy-2' were evaluated against (1) S. hermonthica presence, and (2) organic fertilization with Tithonia diversifolia residues at 14, 28 and 42 d after 'Foxy-2' inoculation, via DNA-based quantitative PCR and TRFLP fingerprinting. In both soils, 'Foxy-2' occasionally promoted total fungal abundance, while the community composition was mainly altered by T...
October 2016: Fungal Ecology
H P Gajera, Darshna G Hirpara, Zinkal A Katakpara, S V Patel, B A Golakiya
The biocontrol agent Trichoderma (T. harzianum, T. viride, T. virens, T. hamantum, T. koningii, T. pseudokoningii and Trichoderma species) inhibited variably (15.32 - 88.12%) the in vitro growth of Rhizoctonia solani causing root rot in cotton. The T. koningii MTCC 796 evidenced highest (88.12%) growth inhibition of test pathogen followed by T. viride NBAII Tv23 (85.34%). Scanning electron microscopic study confirmed mycoparasitism for MTCC 796 and Tv23 which were capable of completely overgrowing on R. solani by degrading mycelia, coiling around the hyphae with hook-like structures...
October 5, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Nicolas Bajeux, Frédéric Grognard, Ludovic Mailleret
Intraspecific interactions such as Allee effects are key properties that can guide population management. This contribution considers component Allee effects that are elementary mechanisms leading to declines of fitness at the population scale, i.e. demographic Allee effects. It especially focuses on the consequences of such properties in predator populations, and investigates their repercussions in a biological control context. A modelling framework able to account for reproductive and/or foraging component Allee effects is proposed...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Nidhi Shah, Natasha Klaponski, Carrie Selin, Rachel Rudney, W G Dilantha Fernando, Mark F Belmonte, Teresa R de Kievit
In vitro inhibition of the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23 is reliant upon a LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) called PtrA. In the current study, we show that Sclerotinia stem rot and leaf infection are significantly increased in canola plants inoculated with the ptrA-mutant compared to the wild type, establishing PtrA as an essential regulator of PA23 biocontrol. LTTRs typically regulate targets that are upstream of and divergently transcribed from the LTTR locus...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shaileja Chopra, Andrés Palencia, Cornelia Virus, Sarah Schulwitz, Brenda R Temple, Stephen Cusack, John Reader
Antibiotic-producing microbes evolved self-resistance mechanisms to avoid suicide. The biocontrol Agrobacterium radiobacter K84 secretes the Trojan Horse antibiotic agrocin 84 that is selectively transported into the plant pathogen A. tumefaciens and processed into the toxin TM84. We previously showed that TM84 employs a unique tRNA-dependent mechanism to inhibit leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS), while the TM84-producer prevents self-poisoning by expressing a resistant LeuRS AgnB2. We now identify a mechanism by which the antibiotic-producing microbe resists its own toxin...
October 7, 2016: Nature Communications
Siddhartha N Borah, Debahuti Goswami, Hridip K Sarma, Swaranjit S Cameotra, Suresh Deka
Antifungal activity of rhamnolipids (RLs) has been widely studied against many plant pathogenic fungi, but not against Fusarium verticillioides, a major pathogen of maize (Zea mays L.). F. verticillioides causes stalk and ear rot of maize or asymptomatically colonizes the plant and ears resulting in moderate to heavy crop loss throughout the world. F. verticillioides produces fumonisin mycotoxins, reported carcinogens, which makes the contaminated ears unsuitable for consumption. In this study, the RL produced using glucose as sole carbon source was characterized by FTIR and LCMS analyses and its antifungal activity against F...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Giovanni Benelli, Claire L Jeffries, Thomas Walker
Mosquitoes represent the major arthropod vectors of human disease worldwide transmitting malaria, lymphatic filariasis, and arboviruses such as dengue virus and Zika virus. Unfortunately, no treatment (in the form of vaccines or drugs) is available for most of these diseases andvectorcontrolisstillthemainformofprevention. Thelimitationsoftraditionalinsecticide-based strategies, particularly the development of insecticide resistance, have resulted in significant efforts to develop alternative eco-friendly methods...
October 3, 2016: Insects
Yeisson Gutiérrez, Hudson V V Tomé, Raul N C Guedes, Eugênio E Oliveira
Backswimmers (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Notonectidae) are insect predators in a wide variety of freshwater habitats. These insects are well known due to their role as mosquito biocontrol agents, their capability of preying on immature fishes and frogs, and because they are often the first to colonize aquatic habitats. As a consequence, these predators may face intended or unintended insecticide (e.g., insecticides) exposures that may lead to death or to impairment of essential behaviors (e.g., swimming and position in the water column)...
October 5, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Rousel A Orozco, István Molnár, Helge Bode, S Patricia Stock
Crude extracts of in vitro and in vivo cultures of two strains of Photorhabdus l. sonorensis (Enterobacteriaceae) were analyzed by TLC, HPLC-UV and LC-MS. Nine unique compounds with mass/charge ratios (m/z) ranging from 331.3 to 713.5 were found in MS analyses. Bioactivity of extracts was assessed on a selection of plant pathogens/pests and non-target species. Caborca strain extracts showed the highest activity against Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) neonates at all concentrations tested. Mortality ranged from 11% (at 10μg/ml) to 37% (at 40 μg/ml)...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Seraina Klopfstein
The Australian insect fauna is among the least-well studied in the world, and conservative estimates state that 75% of the species still await description. In the more species-rich groups, this percentage might be even larger, which is certainly the case in parasitoid wasps which have received very little attention by taxonomists. The genus Pristomerus of the family Ichneumonidae is distributed worldwide, with most species found in the tropics. Its members attack concealed larvae of small Lepidoptera, and several species are used in biocontrol...
September 15, 2016: Zootaxa
Wilson José Fernandes Lemos Junior, Barbara Bovo, Chiara Nadai, Giulia Crosato, Milena Carlot, Francesco Favaron, Alessio Giacomini, Viviana Corich
[This corrects the article on p. 1249 in vol. 7, PMID: 27574517.].
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Nattan Stalin, Pappu Srinivasan
Phage therapy is an alternative and eco-friendly biocontrol agent to prevent and control multidrug resistant bacteria in the aquatic system. The aim of this study is to isolate and characterize the Vibrio parahaemolyticus and its potential lytic phage from Penaeus monodon growing-out by rearing in shrimp ponds in Palk Strait, South East coast of India. The conventional phenotypic characteristics and molecular identification was confirmed using 16S rRNA sequence and to determine the antibiotic resistant profiles...
September 30, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
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