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Aneta M Białkowska
2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a promising bulk chemical with a potentially wide range of applications e.g., in the manufacture of printing inks, perfumes, synthetic rubber, fumigants, antifreeze agents, fuel additives, foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals. Its high heating value and ability to increase the octane number of fuels make 2,3-BD a promising drop-in fuel. It can also be converted to methyl-ethyl ketone (MEK), which is considered an effective liquid fuel additive. After combination with MEK and hydrogenation reaction, 2,3-BD can be converted to octane, which is used to produce high-quality aviation fuel...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Rolandas Selvestravičius, Elena Sučilienė, Kęstutis Saniukas, Odeta Bobelytė, Vytautas Usonis
Presented here is the case of a nine-month-old boy with the osteomyelitis of the upper area sternum caused by bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), the Danish 1331 strain vaccine against tuberculosis. Upon examination, a swelling of approximately 2×3 cm diameter was observed in the upper sternal area. The mass was hard, fixed and sensitive to palpation with no local skin hyperaemia. Chest X-rays revealed a round mass anterior to the sternum, suggesting a diagnosis of osteomyelitis. A consequent sternal biopsy was performed and Mycobacterium bovis BCG was identified by a positive growth culture...
September 19, 2016: Pediatric Reports
Yingfang Ma, Wei Shen, Xianzhong Chen, Long Liu, Zhemin Zhou, Fei Xu, Haiquan Yang
BACKGROUND: Alkaline amylase has significant potential for applications in the textile, paper and detergent industries, however, low yield of which cannot meet the requirement of industrial application. In this work, a novel ARTP mutagenesis-screening method and fermentation optimization strategies were used to significantly improve the expression level of recombinant alkaline amylase in B. subtilis 168. RESULTS: The activity of alkaline amylase in mutant B. subtilis 168 mut-16# strain was 1...
2016: Journal of Biological Engineering
Bin Cheng, Yiwei Meng, Yanbing Cui, Chunfang Li, Fei Tao, Huijia Yin, Chunyu Yang, Ping Xu
Halomonas sp. Y2 is a halotolerant alkaliphilic strain from Na+-rich pulp mill wastewater with high alkalinity (pH >11.0). Transcriptome analysis of this isolate revealed this strain may use various transport systems for pH homeostasis. Especially, the genes encoding four putative Na+/H+ antiporters were differentially expressed upon acidic or alkaline conditions. Further evidence, from heterologous expression and mutant studies, suggested that Halomonas sp. Y2 employs its Na+/H+ antiporters in a labor division way to deal with saline and alkaline environments...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Parminder Singh, Peter Black
OBJECTIVE: Checkpoint inhibitors have rapidly become a standard treatment option for metastatic urothelial carcinoma. A wave of enthusiasm for these drugs has pushed them also into the setting of localized bladder cancer, including both non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and muscle-invasive disease bladder cancer (MIBC). Here, we aimed to review the emerging role of checkpoint inhibition in localized bladder cancer. METHODS: We reviewed the current treatment landscape for both NMIBC and MIBC and established a significant unmet clinical need for novel therapies...
October 21, 2016: Urologic Oncology
K Anand, C Tiloke, A Phulukdaree, B Ranjan, A Chuturgoon, S Singh, R M Gengan
The biosynthesis of nanostructured biopalladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) from an aqueous solution of crystalline palladium acetate is reported. For the synthesised PdNPs in solution, an agroforest biomass waste petal of Moringa oleifera derived bis-phthalate was used as natural reducing and biocapping agents. Continuous absorption in the UV region and subsequent brown colour change confirmed the formation of PdNPs. A strong surface plasmon peak for PdNPs occurred at 460nm. PdNPs were characterized by SEM with EDX, FTIR, TEM and DLS...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
S K Jesudoss, J Judith Vijaya, L John Kennedy, P Iyyappa Rajan, Hamad A Al-Lohedan, R Jothi Ramalingam, K Kaviyarasu, M Bououdina
The present work describes the successful synthesize of spinel magnetic ferrite Mn1-xNixFe2O4 (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 & 0.5) nanoparticles via a simple microwave combustion method which was then evaluated for its photocatalytic activity in the degradation of indigo carmine (IC) synthetic dye, a major water pollutant. Our results reveal that the synthesized of Ni(2+) doped MnFe2O4 nanoparticles possess well-crystalline pure cubic spinel phase, exhibit excellent optical and magnetic properties. Further, the photocatalytic performance of the synthesized nanoparticles at different concentration ratios of Ni(2+) ions was monitored by photocatalytic degradation of indigo carmine synthetic dye under UV (λ=365nm) light irradiation...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
K E Starkov, Svetlana Bunimovich-Mendrazitsky
Understanding the global interaction dynamics between tumor and the immune system plays a key role in the advancement of cancer therapy. Bunimovich-Mendrazitsky et al. (2015) developed a mathematical model for the study of the immune system response to combined therapy for bladder cancer with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) . We utilized a mathematical approach for bladder cancer treatment model for derivation of ultimate upper and lower bounds and proving dissipativity property in the sense of Levinson...
October 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Petra Břehová, Markéta Šmídková, Jan Skácel, Martin Dračínský, Helena Mertlíková-Kaiserová, Monica P Soto Velasquez, Val J Watts, Zlatko Janeba
Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) and Bacillus anthracis edema factor (EF) are key virulence factors with adenylate cyclase (AC) activity that substantially contribute to the pathogenesis of whooping cough and anthrax, respectively. There is an urgent need to develop potent and selective inhibitors of bacterial ACs with prospects for the development of potential antibacterial therapeutics and to study their molecular interactions with the target enzymes. Novel fluorescent 5-chloroanthraniloyl-substituted acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (Cl-ANT-ANPs) were designed and synthesized in the form of their diphosphates (Cl-ANT-ANPpp) as competitive ACT and EF inhibitors with sub-micromolar potency (IC50 values: 11-622 nm)...
October 24, 2016: ChemMedChem
Liis Andresen, Vallo Varik, Yuzuru Tozawa, Steffi Jimmy, Stina Lindberg, Tanel Tenson, Vasili Hauryliuk
The stringent response is a central adaptation mechanism that allows bacteria to adjust their growth and metabolism according to environmental conditions. The functionality of the stringent response is crucial for bacterial virulence, survival during host invasion as well as antibiotic resistance and tolerance. Therefore, specific inhibitors of the stringent response hold great promise as molecular tools for disarming and pacifying bacterial pathogens. By taking advantage of the valine amino acid auxotrophy of the Bacillus subtilis stringent response-deficient strain, we have set up a High Throughput Screening assay for the identification of stringent response inhibitors...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zhigang Li, Chao Zu, Can Wang, Jianfeng Yang, Huan Yu, Huasong Wu
Soil microorganisms have important influences on plant growth and health. In this study, four black pepper fields consecutively monocultured for 12, 18, 28 and 38 years were selected for investigating the effect of planting age on rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil microbial communities and soil physicochemical properties. The results revealed that the relative abundance of the dominant bacterial phyla in rhizosphere soil increased considerably with long-term consecutive monoculture but decreased in non-rhizosphere soil with a significant decline in Firmicutes...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Maryam Bello-Akinosho, Rosina Makofane, Rasheed Adeleke, Mapitsi Thantsha, Michael Pillay, George Johannes Chirima
Restoration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- (PAH-) polluted sites is presently a major challenge in agroforestry. Consequently, microorganisms with PAH-degradation ability and soil fertility improvement attributes are sought after in order to achieve sustainable remediation of polluted sites. This study isolated PAH-degrading bacteria from enriched cultures of spent automobile engine-oil polluted soil. Isolates' partial 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and taxonomically classified. Isolates were further screened for their soil fertility attributes such as phosphate solubilization, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, and indoleacetic acid (IAA) production...
2016: BioMed Research International
Pierre Santucci, Feriel Bouzid, Nabil Smichi, Isabelle Poncin, Laurent Kremer, Chantal De Chastellier, Michel Drancourt, Stéphane Canaan
Despite a slight decline since 2014, tuberculosis (TB) remains the major deadly infectious disease worldwide with about 1.5 million deaths each year and with about one-third of the population being latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiologic agent of TB. During primo-infection, the recruitment of immune cells leads to the formation of highly organized granulomas. Among the different cells, one outstanding subpopulation is the foamy macrophage (FM), characterized by the abundance of triacylglycerol-rich lipid bodies (LB)...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Abd Elaziz Suliemn Ishag, Azhari Omer Abdelbagi, Ahmed Mohammed Ali Hammad, Elsiddg Ahmed Elmustafa Elsheikh, Osama Elgialani Elsaid, Jang-Hyun Hur, Mark Delmege Laing
This study was done to identify promising pesticide biodegrading microorganisms and characterize degradation rates. Bacillus safensis strain FO-36bT, Bacillus subtilis sub sp. inaquosorum strain KCTC13429T and Bacillus cereus strain ATCC14579T were isolated from pesticides polluted soil in Sudan, incubated with tested pesticides with samples drawn for GC-FID and GC-MS. Biodegradation of pesticides followed biphasic model. Alpha and beta half-lives (days) of chlorpyrifos, malathion and dimethoate in B. safensis culture were; 2...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Sandeep Kumar, Kavish Kr Jain, Shikha Rani, Kailash N Bhardwaj, Manisha Goel, Ramesh Chander Kuhad
Among lignocellulolytic enzymes, laccases are the most versatile, broadly specific, and largely studied enzyme with a wide range of biotechnological potential. Putative laccase (CotA) from Bacillus pumilus MK001 was cloned and expressed in E. coli. In addition to soluble bioactive fraction, inactive inclusion body fraction was also harvested and refolded under optimized conditions resulting in 64 % of refolding efficiency. The enzyme was found to be thermostable exhibiting a half-life of 60 min at 80 °C...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Biotechnology
Masahiro Ito, Yuka Takahashi
Prior to 2008, all previously studied conventional bacterial flagellar motors appeared to utilize either H(+) or Na(+) as coupling ions. Membrane-embedded stator complexes support conversion of energy using transmembrane electrochemical ion gradients. The main H(+)-coupled stators, known as MotAB, differ from Na(+)-coupled stators, PomAB of marine bacteria, and MotPS of alkaliphilic Bacillus. However, in 2008, a MotAB-type flagellar motor of alkaliphilic Bacillus clausii KSM-K16 was revealed as an exception with the first dual-function motor...
October 22, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Mohamed Amine Djebbi, Alae Elabed, Zaineb Bouaziz, Moulay Sadiki, Soumya Elabed, Philippe Namour, Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault, Abdesslem Ben Haj Amara
Layered double hydroxide (LDH) has attracted major interest as one of the most versatile drug delivery systems especially for adsorption capacity and/or controlled delivery property of bioactive agents owing to their combining features of biohybrid. ZnAl synthesized layered double hydroxide can offer a platform to immobilize various types of bioactive compounds, particularly berberine chloride (BBC). However, the immobilization reaction of berberine chloride into ZnAl-LDH was performed by direct co-precipitation method at different ratios of BBC/LDH...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Zeba Nasir, Mohammad Shakir, Rizwan Wahab, Mohd Shoeb, Parvez Alam, Rizwan Hasan Khan, Mohammad Mobin, Lutfullah
Sn1-xCoxO2 (x=0.00, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05) nanoparticles (NPs) of average size ∼30-40nm were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The interaction of Co doped SnO2 NPs with human serum albumin (HSA) and their photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties were studied. The structural analysis and morphology of Co doped SnO2 NPs were analysed via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR)...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Diana S Raie, Eisha Mhatre, Matthias Thiele, A Labena, Gamal El-Ghannam, Laila A Farahat, Tareq Youssef, Wolfgang Fritzsche, Ákos T Kovács
The aim of this study was directed to reveal the repulsive effect of coated glass slides by quercetin and its bio-inspired titanium oxide and tungsten oxide nanoparticles on physical surface attachment of Bacillus subtilis as an ab-initio step of biofilm formation. Nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using sol-gel and acid precipitation methods for titanium oxide and tungsten oxide, respectively (in the absence or presence of quercetin). The anti-adhesive impact of the coated-slides was tested through the physical attachment of B...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
S Navarro-Torre, J M Barcia-Piedras, E Mateos-Naranjo, S Redondo-Gómez, M Camacho, M A Caviedes, E Pajuelo, I D Rodríguez-Llorente
There is an increasing interest to use halophytes for revegetation of salt affected ecosystems, as well as in understanding their mechanisms of salt tolerance. We hypothesized that bacteria from the phyllosphere of these plants might play a key role in its high tolerance to excessive salinity. 8 endophytic bacteria belonging to Bacillus and closely related genera were isolated from phyllosphere of the halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum growing in salty agricultural soils. The presence of plant-growth promoting (PGP) properties, enzymatic activities and tolerance towards NaCl was determined...
October 22, 2016: Plant Biology
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