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Neurodegenerative diseases

Lourdes Mateos-Hernández, Margarita Villar, Ernesto Doncel-Pérez, Marco Trevisan-Herraz, Ángel García-Forcada, Francisco Romero Ganuza, Jesús Vázquez, José de la Fuente
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune-mediated peripheral neuropathy of unknown cause. However, about a quarter of GBS patients have suffered a recent bacterial or viral infection, and axonal forms of the disease are especially common in these patients. Proteomics is a good methodological approach for the discovery of disease biomarkers. Until recently, most proteomics studies of GBS and other neurodegenerative diseases have focused on the analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, serum represents an attractive alternative to CSF because it is easier to sample and has potential for biomarker discovery...
October 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Jinbin Yuan, Yang Chen, Jian Liang, Chong-Zhi Wang, Xiaofei Liu, Zhihong Yan, Yi Tang, Jiankang Li, Chun-Su Yuan
Ginseng is one of the most widely used natural medicines in the world. Recent studies have suggested Panax ginseng has a wide range of beneficial effects on aging, central nervous system disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, knowledge about the specific bioactive components of ginseng is still limited. This work aimed to screen for the bioactive components in Panax ginseng that act against neurodegenerative diseases, using the target cell-based bioactivity screening method. Firstly, component analysis of Panax ginseng extracts was performed by UPLC-QTOF-MS, and a total of 54 compounds in white ginseng were characterized and identified according to the retention behaviors, accurate MW, MS characteristics, parent nucleus, aglycones, side chains, and literature data...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Ranjit Singh, Ranju Bansal
Neuroinflammatory mechanisms mediated by activated glial and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) might contribute neuronal degeneration leading to Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an inflammogen derived from the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, which promotes neuroinflammation and subsequent neurodegeneration. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone have been reported as neuroprotective steroids useful for the treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, several 16-arylidene steroidal derivatives have been evaluated as neuroprotective agents in LPS-treated animal models...
October 24, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Antonietta Franco, Richard N Kitsis, Julie A Fleischer, Evripidis Gavathiotis, Opher S Kornfeld, Guohua Gong, Nikolaos Biris, Ann Benz, Nir Qvit, Sara K Donnelly, Yun Chen, Steven Mennerick, Louis Hodgson, Daria Mochly-Rosen, Gerald W Dorn
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles, remodeling and exchanging contents during cyclic fusion and fission. Genetic mutations of mitofusin (Mfn) 2 interrupt mitochondrial fusion and cause the untreatable neurodegenerative condition, Charcot Marie Tooth disease type 2A (CMT2A). It has not been possible to directly modulate mitochondrial fusion, in part because the structural basis of mitofusin function is incompletely understood. Here we show that mitofusins adopt either a fusion-constrained or fusion-permissive molecular conformation directed by specific intramolecular binding interactions, and demonstrate that mitofusin-dependent mitochondrial fusion can be regulated by targeting these conformational transitions...
October 24, 2016: Nature
Jie Li, Yonghong Gao, Xiaomeng Ren, Yanda Li, Lijun Wu, Xinyu Yang, Jie Wang, Hongcai Shang, Xingjiang Xiong, Yanwei Xing
Autophagy, a highly conserved starvation response mechanism with both defensive and protective effects in eukaryotic cells, is a lysosome-mediated degradation process for non-essential or damaged cellular constituents. It plays an important role in the cell survival, differentiation and development to maintain homeostasis. Autophagy is involved in cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disease, as well as tumours. Thus, modulating autophagy may provide potential therapeutic strategies...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Susanna Nuvoli, Angela Spanu, Giuseppe Madeddu
As well known, the increase in life expectancy and the better physical condition of people in western countries will lead in the next 20 years to a dramatic development of neurodegenerative diseases, especially of dementia that could be considered one of the most important problems in clinical, social and economic fields for the future. Therefore, the differential diagnosis of the various types of dementia is a critical step for patients, clinicians and researchers since an accurate "in vivo" diagnosis can lead to a better patients management...
October 19, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Alberto Cacciola, Demetrio Milardi, Alessandro Calamuneri, Lilla Bonanno, Silvia Marino, Pietro Ciolli, Margherita Russo, Daniele Bruschetta, Antonio Duca, Fabio Trimarchi, Angelo Quartarone, Giuseppe Anastasi
According to the classical view, the cerebellum has long been confined to motor control physiology; however, it has now become evident that it exerts several non-somatic features other than the coordination of movement and is engaged also in the regulation of cognition and emotion. In a previous diffusion-weighted imaging-constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) tractography study, we demonstrated the existence of a direct cerebellum-hippocampal pathway, thus reinforcing the hypothesis of the cerebellar role in non-motor domains...
October 24, 2016: Cerebellum
Apurva Kulkarni, Priya Ganesan, Lauren A O'Donnell
Interferon-gamma (IFNγ), a pleiotropic cytokine, is expressed in diverse neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory conditions. Its protective mechanisms are well documented during viral infections in the brain, where IFNγ mediates non-cytolytic viral control in infected neurons. However, IFNγ also plays both protective and pathological roles in other central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Of the many neural cells that respond to IFNγ, neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs), the only pluripotent cells in the developing and adult brain, are often altered during CNS insults...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pathology
Dan Wang, Yi-Ming Chen, Miao-Hua Ruan, Ai-Hua Zhou, Yan Qian, Chao Chen
Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine have been implicated in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders in human studies. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of homocysteine (Hcy) cytotoxicity on the nervous system are not yet fully unknown, induction of DNA interstrand cross-links and inhibition of neural stem cells (NSCs) survival may be involved. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of Hcy on DNA interstrand cross-links in NSCs, and to explore its possible mechanisms...
October 20, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Jyotiska Chaudhuri, Neelanjan Bose, Jianke Gong, David Hall, Alexander Rifkind, Dipa Bhaumik, T Harshani Peiris, Manish Chamoli, Catherine H Le, Jianfeng Liu, Gordon J Lithgow, Arvind Ramanathan, X Z Shawn Xu, Pankaj Kapahi
Reactive α-dicarbonyls (α-DCs), like methylglyoxal (MGO), accumulate with age and have been implicated in aging and various age-associated pathologies, such as diabetic complications and neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Evolutionarily conserved glyoxalases are responsible for α-DC detoxification; however, their core biochemical regulation has remained unclear. We have established a Caenorhabditis elegans model, based on an impaired glyoxalase (glod-4/GLO1), to broadly study α-DC-related stress...
October 12, 2016: Current Biology: CB
K R Sabitha, D Sanjay, B Savita, T R Raju, T R Laxmi
Neurons communicate with each other through intricate network to evolve higher brain functions. The electrical activity of the neurons plays a crucial role in shaping the connectivity. With motor neurons being vulnerable to neurodegenerative diseases, understanding the electrophysiological properties of motor neurons is the need of the hour, in order to comprehend the impairment of connectivity in these diseases. NSC-34 cell line serves as an excellent model to study the properties of motor neurons as they express Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Geun Hee Seol, Ka Young Kim
Patients with chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and neurological diseases have been shown to benefit from treatments such as aromatherapy in addition to medication. Most chronic diseases are caused by chronic inflammation and oxidative stress as well as harmful factors. Eucalyptol (1,8-cineole), a terpenoid oxide isolated from Eucalyptus species, is a promising compound for treating such conditions as it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in various diseases, including respiratory disease, pancreatitis, colon damage, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ganiyu Oboh, Ayokunle O Ademosun, Opeyemi B Ogunsuyi
Quercetin, a member of the flavonoid class of polyphenol, is one of the most abundantly distributed flavonoids found in various food sources such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, wine and seeds. Quercetin and quercetin-rich foods have been reported to have wide range of health promoting effects, especially in the prevention and management of several diseases; however, the subject of its solubility and bioavailability has limited its use. This section will therefore, consider quercetin as a food-rich flavonoid, the various food sources, the limitations in its use and new approaches at improving its solubility and bioavailability...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jonathan Boyd, Alice Han
Deguelin is one of four major naturally occurring rotenoids isolated from root extracts and is best recognized as a NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) inhibitor, resulting in significant alterations in mitochondrial function. Deguelin has also been implicated as a regulator of apoptosis through signaling pathways, such as the (PI3K)/Akt pathway, as well as an initiator of cell cycle arrest. Consequently, this compound has accrued great interest as a potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic. Additionally, deguelin exposure has been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD)...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yohei Shirakami, Hiroyasu Sakai, Takahiro Kochi, Mitsuru Seishima, Masahito Shimizu
The mechanisms of action of polyphenols have attracted much attention. Catechins are generally known as tea polyphenols. Researchers have extensively investigated the molecular mechanisms of these substances, especially (-)-epigallocatechin gallate of green tea catechin, and have provided new insights in the prevention and therapy for chronic diseases. This chapter summarizes catechins and their effects on chronic diseases, including metabolic syndromes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer, focusing on the effects of green tea catechins...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Alice Kunzler, Fares Zeidán-Chuliá, Juciano Gasparotto, Carolina Saibro Girardi, Karina Klafke, Lyvia Lintzmaier Petiz, Rafael Calixto Bortolin, Diana Carolina Rostirolla, Alfeu Zanotto-Filho, Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt Pasquali, Phillip Dickson, Peter Dunkley, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira, Daniel Pens Gelain
Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been used as an in vitro model for neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease and can be induced to a mature neuronal phenotype through retinoic acid (RA) differentiation. However, mechanisms of RA-induced differentiation remain unclear. Here, we investigate the role of reactive species (RS) on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells under RA differentiation, using the antioxidant Trolox® as co-treatment. We found that RA treatment for 7 days reduced the cell number and proliferative capacity and induced the expression of adult catecholaminergic/neuronal markers such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), β-III tubulin, and enolase-2...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
M I Alvarez-Mora, L Rodriguez-Revenga, I Madrigal, M Guitart-Mampel, G Garrabou, M Milà
Mitochondrial involvement plays an important role in neurodegenerative diseases. At least one-third of adult carriers of a FMR1 premutation (55-200 CGG repeats) are at risk of presenting an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder known as fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). In an attempt to provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of FXTAS, we characterized mitochondrial function and dynamics by the assessment of oxidative respiratory chain function, mitochondrial content, oxidative stress levels, and mitochondrial network complexity...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Ye Li, Yinan Luo, Tianfei Luo, Bin Lu, Chen Wang, Yanhong Zhang, Meihua Piao, Chunsheng Feng, Pengfei Ge
Protein aggregation has been proved to be a pathological basis accounting for neuronal death caused by either transient global ischemia or oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD), and inhibition of protein aggregation is emerging as a potential strategy of preventing brain damage. Trehalose was found to inhibit protein aggregation caused by neurodegenerative diseases via induction of autophagy, whereas its effect is still elusive on ischemia-induced protein aggregation. In this study, we investigated this issue by using rat model of transient global ischemia and SH-SY5Y model of OGD...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Yeomoon Sim, Gunhyuk Park, Hyeyoon Eo, Eugene Huh, Pil Sung Gu, Seon-Pyo Hong, Youngmi Kim Pak, Myung Sook Oh
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the progressive neurodegenerative diseases of whose condition is characterized by dopaminergic neuronal cell loss and dysfunction in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the striatum (ST). Recent studies have demonstrated that the nuclear receptor related-1 protein (Nurr1) is critical of dopaminergic phenotype induction in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Further, Nurr1 engages in synthesizing and storing dopamine through regulating levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2)...
October 19, 2016: Neuroscience
Matthias Groh, Laura Oana Albulescu, Agnese Cristini, Natalia Gromak
R-loops comprise an RNA/DNA hybrid and displaced single-stranded DNA. They play crucial biological functions and are implicated in neurological diseases, including ataxias, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, nucleotide expansion disorders (Friedreich ataxia, Fragile X syndrome) and cancer. Currently it is unclear which mechanisms cause R-loops structures to become pathogenic. The RNA/DNA helicase Senataxin (SETX) is one of the best characterised R-loop-binding factors in vivo. Mutations in SETX are linked to two neurodegenerative disorders: ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 4 (ALS4)...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
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