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Jinlei Xi, Shijing He, Cizhao Wei, Wanyao Shen, Juan Liu, Ke Li, Yufeng Zhang, Jiang Yue, Zheqiong Yang
The continuous growth of mouse incisors depends on epithelial stem cells (SCs) residing in the SC niche, called labial cervical loop (LaCL). The homeostasis of the SCs is subtly regulated by complex signaling networks. In this study, we focus on retinoic acid (RA), a derivative of Vitamin A and a known pivotal signaling molecule in controlling the functions of stem cells (SCs). We analyzed the expression profiles of several key molecules of the RA signaling pathway in cultured incisor explants upon exogenous RA treatment...
September 29, 2016: Stem Cell Research
Charles Antaki, Rebecca J Crompton, Chris Walton, W M L Finlay
Using video records of everyday life in a residential home, we report on what interactional practices are used by people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities to initiate encounters. There were very few initiations, and all presented difficulties to the interlocutor (support staff; the recording researcher); one (which we call 'blank recipiency') gave the interlocutor virtually no information at all on which to base a response. Only when the initiation was of a new phase in an interaction already under way (for example, the initiation of an alternative trajectory of a proposed physical move) was it likely to be successfully sustained...
October 20, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
Sarah Schott, Johannes Lermann, Sabine Eismann, Johannes Neimann, Julia Knabl
BACKGROUND: Combining family and career is increasingly taken for granted in many fields. However, the medical profession in Germany has inadequately developed structures. Little is known regarding the satisfaction of physicians working part-time (PT). METHODS: This Germany-wide on-line survey collected information on the working situation of PT employees (PTE) in gynecology. An anonymous questionnaire with 95 items, nine of which concerned PT work, was sent to 2770 residents and physicians undergoing further specialist training...
October 19, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Chi-Chi N Udeagu, Sharmila Shah, Magalieta M Toussaint, Leonard Pickett
The New York City Department of Health Disease Intervention Specialists (DIS) routinely contact newly HIV-diagnosed persons via telephone calls and in-person meetings to conduct partner services (PS) interviews in order to elicit the names and contact information of the HIV-exposed partners for notification and HIV-testing, and to assist clients with linkage to care. From October 2013 to December 2015, we offered PS interviews conducted via video-call alongside voice-call and in-person modes in a selected geographic area of NYC...
October 17, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Jae Hyun Kwon, Chang Hwan Sohn, Jae Ho Lee, Bum Jin Oh
OBJECTIVE: The supply of emergency medicine (EM) specialists has not been able to meet demand in the past decade. This study comparatively analyzed clinical findings to provide fundamental data to inform efficient utilization of a limited number of EM specialists. METHODS: This retrospective study included 54,204 patients who visited the emergency department of a tertiary care medical center from March 1 to December 31, 2012. The experimental specialist-supervised (SS) group included patients supervised by an EM specialist, while the control specialist-on-call (SOC) group included patients attended by a senior resident of EM with an EM specialist on call...
March 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Antonino Carbone, Annunziata Gloghini, Arnaldo Caruso, Paolo De Paoli, Riccardo Dolcetti
The pathogenesis of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is still enigmatic, largely because its tumor cells, the so-called Hodgkin and Reed-Stenberg (HRS) cells, invariably reside in a prominent reactive microenvironment, are rare and therefore difficult to analyze. On the other hand, the broadly investigated cHL-derived cell lines are not unequivocally considered as suitable and representative models for this puzzling disease. Based on current knowledge, it appears that the cross talk between the tumour cells and the reactive infiltrate of the microenvironment is complex and that multiple mechanisms occur, making cHL a very heterogeneous disease...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Fiorenza Fumagalli, Julia Noack, Timothy J Bergmann, Eduardo Cebollero Presmanes, Giorgia Brambilla Pisoni, Elisa Fasana, Ilaria Fregno, Carmela Galli, Marisa Loi, Tatiana Soldà, Rocco D'Antuono, Andrea Raimondi, Martin Jung, Armin Melnyk, Stefan Schorr, Anne Schreiber, Luca Simonelli, Luca Varani, Caroline Wilson-Zbinden, Oliver Zerbe, Kay Hofmann, Matthias Peter, Manfredo Quadroni, Richard Zimmermann, Maurizio Molinari
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a site of protein biogenesis in eukaryotic cells. Perturbing ER homeostasis activates stress programs collectively called the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR enhances production of ER-resident chaperones and enzymes to reduce the burden of misfolded proteins. On resolution of ER stress, ill-defined, selective autophagic programs remove excess ER components. Here we identify Sec62, a constituent of the translocon complex regulating protein import in the mammalian ER, as an ER-resident autophagy receptor...
October 17, 2016: Nature Cell Biology
Gianfranco Frojo, Kashyap Komarraju Tadisina, Zachary Pressman, John T Chibnall, Alexander Y Lin, Bruce A Kraemer
BACKGROUND: The integrated plastic surgery match is a competitive process not only for applicants but also for programs vying for highly qualified candidates. Interactions between applicants and program constituents are limited to a single interview visit. The authors aimed to identify components of the interview visit that influence applicant decision making when determining a final program rank list. METHODS: Thirty-six applicants who were interviewed (100% response) completed the survey...
October 6, 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Yohei Kawano, Georg Petkau, Ingrid Wolf, Julia Tornack, Fritz Melchers
Long-term proliferating, DH JH -rearranged mouse precursor B-cell lines have previously been established in serum- and IL-7-containing media from fetal liver, but not from bone marrow. Serum and stromal cells expose these pre-B cells to undefined factors, hampering accurate analyses of ligand-dependent signalling, which controls pre-B cell proliferation, survival, residence and migration. Here, we describe a novel serum-free, stromal cell-free culture system, which allows to establish and maintain pre-B cells not only from fetal liver, but also from bone marrow with practically identical efficiencies in proliferation, cloning and differentiation...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Lisa Caulley, Alexandra E Quimby, Nick Barrowman, Katherine Moreau, Jean-Philippe Vaccani
OBJECTIVE: To inform institutional policies regarding call encounters through an evaluation of the effect of home-call on academic experience and fatigue among surgical residents. This study conducted an assessment of the nature of resident call encounters premidnight and postmidnight and a comparative analysis of sleep deprivation and efficiency in residents during home-call and off call. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: All Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery residents (n = 9) at single Canadian institution were asked to establish the time and nature of call encounters during home-call...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
Gazi Huri, Yusuf Sertan Cabuk, Safa Gursoy, Mustafa Akkaya, Secil Ozkan, Volkan Oztuna, Onder Aydingoz, Alparslan Senkoylu
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to describe the current situation regarding the training, working conditions, future plans, fields of interest and satisfaction of orthopaedics and traumatology residents in Turkey. METHODS: A descriptive survey questionnaire consisting of 24 questions was designed to identify the problems and solution suggestions concerning training of orthopaedic residents. All orthopaedics and traumatology residents who took the 2013 Progress Testing for Speciality in Medicine (UEGS) held by Turkish Orthopaedics and Traumatology Education Council (TOTEK) were surveyed in the class at the end thereof as well as the young orthopaedic surgeons who were reached through the email groups of Turkish Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology - Residents and Young Attendings Council (TOTBID-AGUH)...
October 3, 2016: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
Hayley Danielle Quinn, Heidi Zeeman, Elizabeth Kendall
It is important to consider the nature of home in more detail when thinking about living environments for vulnerable groups of people, especially as it has been found that the nature of home can impact on the quality of life. The aim of this study was to understand the "lived experience" of home for a group of young people with complex disabilities who had recently relocated to a specially designed residential apartment building. Multiple domains of home, as they were experienced over time, were examined through a series of semi-structured interviews conducted with seven residents at their apartments...
October 2016: Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community
Jullet A Davis
Purpose Globally, in 1980, approximately 5.8 per cent of the world population was 65 years old and older. By 2050, this number will more than triple to 16 per cent. From a leadership perspective, there is at least one challenge (among many others challenges) to consider. This paper (viewpoint) aims to provide support for the growing need for academically prepared managers. Design/methodology/approach This paper is a viewpoint which presents several characteristics of the long-term care (LTC) field that support the need for academically trained leaders...
October 3, 2016: Leadership in Health Services
Robert E Johnson, Pasquale P Eckert, William Gilmore, Archana Viswanath, Matthew Finkelman, Morton B Rosenberg
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons members have integrated the current American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) nil per os (NPO) guidelines into their preoperative instructions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed and implemented a cross-sectional study and enrolled a random sample of private-practice American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons members who practice in the United States...
April 20, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Hamed Azarnoush, Samaneh Siar, Robin Sawaya, Gmaan Al Zhrani, Alexander Winkler-Schwartz, Fahad Eid Alotaibi, Abdulgadir Bugdadi, Khalid Bajunaid, Ibrahim Marwa, Abdulrahman Jafar Sabbagh, Rolando F Del Maestro
OBJECTIVE Virtual reality simulators allow development of novel methods to analyze neurosurgical performance. The concept of a force pyramid is introduced as a Tier 3 metric with the ability to provide visual and spatial analysis of 3D force application by any instrument used during simulated tumor resection. This study was designed to answer 3 questions: 1) Do study groups have distinct force pyramids? 2) Do handedness and ergonomics influence force pyramid structure? 3) Are force pyramids dependent on the visual and haptic characteristics of simulated tumors? METHODS Using a virtual reality simulator, NeuroVR (formerly NeuroTouch), ultrasonic aspirator force application was continually assessed during resection of simulated brain tumors by neurosurgeons, residents, and medical students...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Thomas E Schulte, Ellen K Roberts, Kristina Birch, Steven J Lisco
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the workflow interruptions on an anesthesiology clinical director (CD). By assessing the interruptions on the CD, we hypothesize that these frequent interruptions would prohibit the CD from medical direction of residents or certified nurse anesthetists in operating rooms. DESIGN: Cellular phone data were obtained from Verizon Wireless statements over 10 months, August 2012 through May 2013. These data were from a single cellular phone carried by the anesthesia CD and subsequent overnight anesthesiologist 24 hours a day...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
W C Jiang, S Y Wu, Y B Ke
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the association between exposure to environmental chemicals and the risk of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia(cALL). Methods: A case-controlled study was conducted in Shenzhen Children's Hospital, China from January 2015 to January 2016. The cases were selected from the section of Hematology and Oncology, and the controls were selected from Orthopedics by 1∶2 matching of cases according to sex and age. A questionnaire including population data and chemical exposure characteristics was conducted on the children's parents, and urine and EDTA-blood were collected from the children...
October 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
Robert E Johnson, Pasquale P Eckert, William Gilmore, Archana Viswanath, Matthew Finkelman, Morton B Rosenberg
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons members have integrated the current American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) nil per os (NPO) guidelines into their preoperative instructions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed and implemented a cross-sectional study and enrolled a random sample of private-practice American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons members who practice in the United States...
October 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Hoehun Ha, Peter A Rogerson, James R Olson, Daikwon Han, Ling Bian, Wanyun Shao
Heavy industrialization has resulted in the contamination of soil by metals from anthropogenic sources in Anniston, Alabama. This situation calls for increased public awareness of the soil contamination issue and better knowledge of the main factors contributing to the potential sources contaminating residential soil. The purpose of this spatial epidemiology research is to describe the effects of physical factors on the concentration of lead (Pb) in soil in Anniston AL, and to determine the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of those residing in areas with higher soil contamination...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Holger W Unger, Per Ashorn, Jordan E Cates, Kathryn G Dewey, Stephen J Rogerson
BACKGROUND: In low-resource settings, malaria and macronutrient undernutrition are major health problems in pregnancy, contributing significantly to adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth and fetal growth restriction. Affected pregnancies may result in stillbirth and neonatal death, and surviving children are at risk of poor growth and infection in infancy, and of non-communicable diseases in adulthood. Populations exposed to macronutrient undernutrition frequently reside in malaria-endemic areas, and seasonal peaks of low food supply and malaria transmission tend to coincide...
2016: BMC Medicine
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