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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546591/the-healthcare-system-and-the-provision-of-oral-healthcare-in-european-union-member-states-part-8-italy
#1
M Bindi, C Paganelli, K A Eaton, E Widström
In Italy healthcare is provided for all Italian citizens and residents and it is delivered mainly by public providers, with some private or private-public entities. Italy's public healthcare system - the Servizio Sanitario Nazionale (SSN) - is organised by the Ministry of Health and administered on a devolved regional basis. It is financed by general taxation that provides universal coverage, largely free of charge at the point of service. The central government establishes the basic national health benefits package, which must be uniformly provided throughout the country, through services guaranteed under the NHS provision called LEA - (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza [Essential Level of Assistance]) and allocates national funds to the regions...
May 26, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544333/image-based-modeling-and-scoring-of-howell-jolly-bodies-in-human-erythrocytes
#2
Oguzhan Angay, Mike Friedrich, Jürgen Pinnecker, Henning Hintzsche, Helga Stopper, Klaus Hempel, Katrin G Heinze
The spleen selectively removes cells with intracellular inclusions, for example, detached nuclear fragments in circulating erythrocytes, called Howell-Jolly Bodies (HJBs). With absent or deficient splenic function HJBs appear in the peripheral blood and can be used as a simple and non-invasive risk-indicator for fulminant potentially life-threatening infection after spleenectomy. However, it is still under debate whether counting of the rare HJBs is a reliable measure of splenic function. Investigating HJBs in premature erythrocytes from patients during radioiodine therapy gives about 10 thousand times higher HJB counts than in blood smears...
May 24, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542123/malaria-surveillance-united-states-2014
#3
Kimberly E Mace, Paul M Arguin
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission...
May 26, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534115/complexity-of-bone-marrow-hematopoietic-stem-cell-niche
#4
REVIEW
Noboru Asada, Shoichiro Takeishi, Paul S Frenette
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that produce a variety of hematopoietic lineage cells throughout the life reside in specialized microenvironment called "niche" in the bone marrow (BM) where they are tightly regulated. With the recent advances in experimental technologies enabling the selective deletion of molecules, various types of cells in the BM have been proposed to contribute to HSC niche activity. Among these are stromal cells closely associated with the vasculature. In this review, we provide an overview of recent advances in HSC niche research, and focus on the studies describing the functional roles of perivascular cells for HSC maintenance and mobilization...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528560/design-and-implementation-of-a-community-health-worker-hiv-treatment-and-prevention-intervention-in-an-hiv-hot-spot-fishing-community-in-rakai-uganda
#5
Amanda Long, Ismail Mbabali, Heidi E Hutton, Alvin G Thomas, Eva Bugos, Jeremiah Mulamba, Kathy Rivet Amico, Fred Nalugoda, Ronald H Gray, Maria J Wawer, Gertrude Nakigozi, Larry W Chang
Innovative approaches are needed to increase engagement in HIV treatment and prevention services, particularly in HIV hot spots. Here, we detail our design, training approach, and early implementation experiences of a community-based HIV intervention called "health scouts." The intervention, utilizing a novel, theory-based approach, trained 10 community residents in an HIV hot spot fishing community to use motivational interviewing strategies and a mobile phone-based counseling application. During the first 3 months, 771 residents (median 82/health scout, range 27-160) were counseled...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507341/increased-leukotoxin-production-characterization-of-100-base-pairs-within-the-530-base-pair-leukotoxin-promoter-region-of-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans
#6
Vandana Sampathkumar, Senthil Kumar Velusamy, Dipti Godboley, Daniel H Fine
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin (LtxA) is a major virulence factor that kills leukocytes permitting it's escape from host immune surveillance. A. actinomycetemcomitans strains can produce high or low levels of toxin. Genetic differences reside in the "so called JP2" ltxA promoter region. These hyper-leukotoxin producing strains with the 530 bp deletion have been studied in detail. However, regions contained within the 530 bp deletion that could be responsible for modulation of leukotoxin production have not been defined...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506976/implementation-of-postdischarge-follow-up-telephone-calls-at-a-comprehensive-cancer-center
#7
Shrina D Patel, Phuoc Anh Anne Nguyen, Melissa Bachler, Bradley Atkinson
PURPOSE: The development and implementation of a pharmacy-driven, postdischarge follow-up telephone call program to assess medication adherence, provide education, and address medication-related concerns are discussed. SUMMARY: Many readmissions are avoidable through effective discharge planning and patient follow-up after hospitalization. However, there is limited information on how to effectuate this process. To address this barrier, a team consisting of a clinical pharmacy specialist, a clinical pharmacy manager, a postgraduate year 1 pharmacy resident, and an education specialist at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center collaborated to create a postdischarge telephone call program within a transitions-of-care (TOC) pilot program...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505701/-compatibility-of-work-and-family-life-survey-of-physicians-in-the-munich-metropolitan-area
#8
Meike Lauchart, Philipp Ascher, Karin Kesel, Sabine Weber, Beatrice Grabein, Bertram Schneeweiss, Cordula Fischer-Truestedt, Michael Schoenberg, Gudrun Rogler, Claudia Borelli
Aim Investigation of the compatibility of work and family life for physicians in the Munich metropolitan area. Methods Survey of a representative sample of 1,800 physicians using a questionnaire. Results Men were less satisfied (7% very satisfied vs. 21%) with compatibility between work and family life than women. The group least satisfied overall was hospital-based physicians (p=0.000, chi-square=122.75). Women rather than men cut back their career due to children, perceived their professional advancement as impaired, desisted from establishing private practice or quit hospital employment altogether...
May 15, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505157/structurally-optimized-analogs-of-the-retrograde-trafficking-inhibitor-retro-2cycl-limit-leishmania-infections
#9
Evan Craig, Charles-Eugene Huyghues-Despointes, Chun Yu, Emma L Handy, Jason K Sello, Peter E Kima
In infected mammalian cells, Leishmania parasites reside within specialized compartments called parasitophorous vacuoles (LPVs). We have previously shown that Retro-2, a member of a novel class of small retrograde pathway inhibitors caused reduced LPV sizes and lower parasite numbers during experimental L. mexicana sp. infections. The purpose of this study was to determine if structural analogs of Retro-2cycl reported to have superior potency in the inhibition of retrograde pathway-dependent phenomena (i.e...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502597/determining-resident-sleep-during-and-after-call-with-commercial-sleep-monitoring-devices
#10
Duncan R Morhardt, Amy Luckenbaugh, Cathy Goldstein, Gary J Faerber
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that CAMDs are practical for monitoring resident sleep while on call. Studies that have directly monitored resident sleep are limited, likely due to both cost and difficulty in study interpretation. The advent of wearable commercial activity monitoring devices (CAMDs) that estimate sleep presents the opportunity to more readily evaluate resident sleep in physically active settings and "home call," an coverage arrangement familiar to urology programs. METHODS: Twelve urology residents were outfitted with Fitbit® Flex devices during "home call" for a total of 57 (of 64, or 89%) call/post-call night pairs...
May 10, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500447/-certification-guidelines-and-qualification-courses
#11
REVIEW
R Loose, M Wucherer
German regulations require a license for using ionizing radiation in medicine. This license-called "Fachkunde"-varies for different medical procedures such as CT, fluoroscopy, radiography, or mammography. The required frequencies and training times also vary for different medical disciplines such as radiology, cardiology, vascular surgery, traumatology, nuclear medicine, and radiotherapy, among others. The quality criteria for a specific license require a minimum training time under supervision and a minimum frequency of a wide range of procedures...
May 12, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494100/paracrine-regulation-of-melanogenesis
#12
REVIEW
X H Yuan, Z H Jin
Melanocytes are generally characterized by the basic ability of melanin synthesis and transfer to adjacent keratinocytes to constitute individual skin phenotype and provide epidermal protection from various stimuli, such as ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, through a complex process called melanogenesis, which can be regulated by autocrine or paracrine factors. Recent evidences have revealed the paracrine effects of keratinocytes on melanogenesis by secreting cytokines, including alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and endothelin-1...
May 11, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486492/mortality-and-kidnapping-estimates-for-the-yazidi-population-in-the-area-of-mount-sinjar-iraq-in-august-2014-a-retrospective-household-survey
#13
Valeria Cetorelli, Isaac Sasson, Nazar Shabila, Gilbert Burnham
BACKGROUND: In August 2014, the so-called Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) attacked the Yazidi religious minority living in the area of Mount Sinjar in Nineveh governorate, Iraq. We conducted a retrospective household survey to estimate the number and demographic profile of Yazidis killed and kidnapped. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The survey covered the displaced Yazidi population from Sinjar residing in camps in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Fieldwork took place between 4 November and 25 December, 2015...
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482741/sexual-assault-in-the-ivory-tower-public-opinion-on-university-accountability-and-mandatory-reporting
#14
Christina Mancini, Justin T Pickett, Corey Call, Robyn Diehl McDougle, Sarah Jane Brubaker, Henry H Brownstein
Highly publicized college sex crimes have recently captured public and policy attention. In response, greater discussion has turned to institutional accountability and controversial reforms such as mandatory reporting (MR). No study to date has measured public perceptions of campus sex assault procedures, however. This omission is notable because public opinion can directly and indirectly shape crime policy and because the topic has become increasingly politicized. Drawing on a 2015 poll of Virginia residents, this study evaluates views about campus sexual assault policy...
May 1, 2017: Sexual Abuse: a Journal of Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479438/computational-fluid-dynamic-analysis-after-carotid-endarterectomy-patch-graft-versus-direct-suture-closure
#15
Maurizio Domanin, Adelaide Buora, Francesco Scardulla, Bruno Guerciotti, Laura Forzenigo, Pietro Biondetti, Christian Vergara
BACKGROUND: Closure tecnique after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) still remains an issue of debate. Routinely use of patch graft (PG) has been advocated to reduce restenosis, stroke, and death but its protective effect, particularly from late restenosis, is less evident and recent studies call into question this thesis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare PG and direct suture (DS) by means of computational fluid-dynamic (CFD). To identify carotid regions with flow recirculation more prone to restenosis development, we analyzed time averaged oscillatory shear index (OSI) and relative residence time (RRT), that are well known indices correlated with plaque formation...
May 4, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474253/prevalence-and-burden-of-headache-disorders-in-lithuania-and-their-public-health-and-policy-implications-a-population-based-study-within-the-eurolight-project
#16
Daiva Rastenytė, Dalia Mickevičienė, Lars Jacob Stovner, Hallie Thomas, Colette Andrée, Timothy J Steiner
BACKGROUND: The Eurolight project assessed the impact of headache disorders in ten EU countries, using the same structured questionnaire but varying sampling methods. In Lithuania, sample selection employed methods in line with consensus recommendations for population-based burden-of-headache studies. METHODS: The survey was cross-sectional. We identified, from the Residents' Register Service, a sample of inhabitants of Kaunas city and surrounding Kaunas region reflecting age (in the range 18-65 years), gender and rural/urban distributions of Lithuania...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473880/new-approaches-to-combat-porphyromonas-gingivalis-biofilms
#17
REVIEW
Evelien Gerits, Natalie Verstraeten, Jan Michiels
In nature, bacteria predominantly reside in structured, surface-attached communities embedded in a self-produced, extracellular matrix. These so-called biofilms play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of many infections, as they are difficult to eradicate due to their resistance to antimicrobials and host defense mechanisms. This review focusses on the biofilm-forming periodontal bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. Current knowledge on the virulence mechanisms underlying P. gingivalis biofilm formation is presented...
2017: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471930/development-of-a-multidisciplinary-pediatric-surgery-fellowship
#18
Ryan Krasnosky, Jesse D Meaike, Jordan L McAndrews, Charles H Hyman, Larry H Hollier
With the rapidly changing landscape of medicine, physician assistants (PAs) have solidified their role as integral members of nearly every medical field. As PAs become leaders in smaller, more specialized fields, their duties encompass skills that they had not been exposed to in the broad, comprehensive, standard PA education. Consequently, participation in postgraduate PA education has rapidly expanded to keep up with the demand for additional training. Postgraduate PA education, frequently called "residencies" or "fellowships," offers additional specialized, hands-on, supervised clinical training along with continued didactic teaching on advanced topics...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Physician Assistant Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471780/well-being-in-graduate-medical-education-a-call-for-action
#19
Jonathan A Ripp, Michael R Privitera, Colin West, Richard Leiter, Lia Logio, Jo Shapiro, Hasan Bazari
Job burnout is highly prevalent in graduate medical trainees. Numerous demands and stressors drive the development of burnout in this population, leading to significant and potentially tragic consequences, not only for trainees but also for the patients and communities they serve. The literature on interventions to reduce resident burnout is limited but suggests that both individual- and system-level approaches are effective. Work hours limitations and mindfulness training are each likely to have modest benefit...
May 2, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468268/an-instrumented-glove-to-assess-manual-dexterity-in-simulation-based-neurosurgical-education
#20
Juan Diego Lemos, Alher Mauricio Hernandez, Georges Soto-Romero
The traditional neurosurgical apprenticeship scheme includes the assessment of trainee's manual skills carried out by experienced surgeons. However, the introduction of surgical simulation technology presents a new paradigm where residents can refine surgical techniques on a simulator before putting them into practice in real patients. Unfortunately, in this new scheme, an experienced surgeon will not always be available to evaluate trainee's performance. For this reason, it is necessary to develop automatic mechanisms to estimate metrics for assessing manual dexterity in a quantitative way...
April 29, 2017: Sensors
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