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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434137/cholesterol-hydroperoxide-generation-translocation-and-reductive-turnover-in-biological-systems
#1
Albert W Girotti, Witold Korytowski
Cholesterol is like other unsaturated lipids in being susceptible to peroxidative degradation upon exposure to strong oxidants like hydroxyl radical or peroxynitrite generated under conditions of oxidative stress. In the eukaryotic cell plasma membrane, where most of the cellular cholesterol resides, peroxidation leads to membrane structural and functional damage from which pathological states may arise. In low density lipoprotein, cholesterol and phospholipid peroxidation have long been associated with atherogenesis...
April 22, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420324/evaluation-of-a-technology-enhanced-integrated-care-model-for-frail-older-persons-protocol-of-the-spec-study-a-stepped-wedge-cluster-randomized-trial-in-nursing-homes
#2
Hongsoo Kim, Yeon-Hwan Park, Young-Il Jung, Hyoungshim Choi, Seyune Lee, Gi-Soo Kim, Dong-Wook Yang, Myunghee Cho Paik, Tae-Jin Lee
BACKGROUND: Limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of the chronic care model for people with multimorbidity. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of an information and communication technology- (ICT-)enhanced integrated care model, called Systems for Person-centered Elder Care (SPEC), for frail older adults at nursing homes. METHODS/DESIGN: SPEC is a prospective stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial conducted at 10 nursing homes in South Korea. Residents aged 65 or older meeting the inclusion/exclusion criteria in all the homes are eligible to participate...
April 18, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418449/association-of-a-communication-training-program-with-use-of-antipsychotics-in-nursing-homes
#3
Jennifer Tjia, Jacob N Hunnicutt, Laurie Herndon, Carolyn R Blanks, Kate L Lapane, Susan Wehry
Importance: Off-label antipsychotic prescribing in nursing homes (NHs) is common and is associated with increased risk of mortality in older adults. Prior large-scale, controlled trials in the NH setting failed to show meaningful reductions in antipsychotic use. Objective: To quantify the influence of a large-scale communication training program on NH antipsychotic use called OASIS. Design, Setting, and Participants: This investigation was a quasi-experimental longitudinal study of NHs in Massachusetts enrolled in the OASIS intervention...
April 17, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409861/neocolonialism-and-health-care-access-among-marshall-islanders-in-the-united-states
#4
Michael R Duke
In the Marshall Islands, a history of extensive nuclear weapons testing and covert biomedical research, coupled with the U.S.'s ongoing military presence in the country, has severely compromised the health of the local population. Despite the U.S.'s culpability in producing ill health along with high rates of emigration from the islands to the mainland United States, the large portion of Marshallese who reside in the United States face substantial barriers to accessing health care. Drawing from ongoing field research with a Marshallese community in Arkansas, this article explores the multifaceted impediments that U...
April 13, 2017: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407084/comparative-analysis-of-de-novo-assemblers-for-variation-discovery-in-personal-genomes
#5
Shulan Tian, Huihuang Yan, Eric W Klee, Michael Kalmbach, Susan L Slager
Current variant discovery approaches often rely on an initial read mapping to the reference sequence. Their effectiveness is limited by the presence of gaps, potential misassemblies, regions of duplicates with a high-sequence similarity and regions of high-sequence divergence in the reference. Also, mapping-based approaches are less sensitive to large INDELs and complex variations and provide little phase information in personal genomes. A few de novo assemblers have been developed to identify variants through direct variant calling from the assembly graph, micro-assembly and whole-genome assembly, but mainly for whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data...
April 11, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401622/predicting-mortality-in-the-emergency-department-external-validation-and-derivation-of-a-clinical-prediction-tool
#6
Rajat N Moman, Caitlin Loprinzi Brauer, Katherine M Kelsey, Rachel D Havyer, Christine M Lohse, M Fernanda Bellolio
BACKGROUND: he Choosing Wisely campaign has called for better engagement of palliative and hospice care services for patients in the emergency department (ED). PREDICT is a clinical prediction tool that was derived in an Australian ED cohort. It assesses a patient's risk of mortality at one year to select those who would benefit from advanced care planning. Such goals of care discussion can improve patients' ability to communicate what they want out of their healthcare and, in cases of end-of-life, potentially reduce the number of futile interventions...
April 12, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400956/fukushima-after-the-great-east-japan-earthquake-lessons-for-developing-responsive-and-resilient-health-systems
#7
Shingo Fukuma, Shahira Ahmed, Rei Goto, Thomas S Inui, Rifat Atun, Shunichi Fukuhara
BACKGROUND: On 11 March 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake, followed by a tsunami and nuclear-reactor meltdowns, produced one of the most severe disasters in the history of Japan. The adverse impact of this 'triple disaster' on the health of local populations and the health system was substantial. In this study we examine population-level health indicator changes that accompanied the disaster, and discuss options for re-designing Fukushima's health system, and by extension that of Japan, to enhance its responsiveness and resilience to current and future shocks...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399867/the-protracted-waste-crisis-and-physical-health-of-workers-in-beirut-a-comparative-cross-sectional-study
#8
Rami Z Morsi, Rawan Safa, Serge F Baroud, Cherine N Fawaz, Jad I Farha, Fadi El-Jardali, Monique Chaaya
BACKGROUND: Since July 2015, Lebanon has been experiencing a waste management crisis. Dumpsites in inhabited areas and waste burning have emerged due to the waste accumulation, further adding to the gravity of the situation. However, the association between the crisis and health of the population has not been scientifically reported. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted to assess whether exposure to open dumpsites and waste burning is associated with acute health symptoms...
April 11, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397649/support-and-assessment-for-fall-emergency-referrals-safer-2-a-cluster-randomised-trial-and-systematic-review-of-clinical-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-new-protocols-for-emergency-ambulance-paramedics-to-assess-older-people-following-a-fall-with-referral
#9
Helen A Snooks, Rebecca Anthony, Robin Chatters, Jeremy Dale, Rachael Fothergill, Sarah Gaze, Mary Halter, Ioan Humphreys, Marina Koniotou, Phillipa Logan, Ronan Lyons, Suzanne Mason, Jon Nicholl, Julie Peconi, Ceri Phillips, Judith Phillips, Alison Porter, A Niroshan Siriwardena, Graham Smith, Alun Toghill, Mushtaq Wani, Alan Watkins, Richard Whitfield, Lynsey Wilson, Ian T Russell
BACKGROUND: Emergency calls are frequently made to ambulance services for older people who have fallen, but ambulance crews often leave patients at the scene without any ongoing care. We evaluated a new clinical protocol which allowed paramedics to assess older people who had fallen and, if appropriate, refer them to community-based falls services. OBJECTIVES: To compare outcomes, processes and costs of care between intervention and control groups; and to understand factors which facilitate or hinder use...
March 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391362/stem-cell-derived-organoids-and-their-application-for-medical-research-and-patient-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Sina Bartfeld, Hans Clevers
3D culture has allowed the initiation and expansion of organ-like structures, called organoids, from either tissue-resident adult stem cells or pluripotent stem cells. Today, organoids can be grown to resemble a wide variety of organs, exhibiting remarkable similarity to their in vivo counterparts. As successful organoid generation is possible from virtually every patient, organoids hold a great promise for medical research and the development of new treatments. They have already found their way into the clinic, enabling personalized medicine in small patient trials...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388458/subtyping-social-anxiety-in-youth
#11
A Kodal, I Bjelland, R Gjestad, G J Wergeland, O E Havik, E R Heiervang, K Fjermestad
Few empirical studies have examined subtypes of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in youth, and limited consensus resides on the nature of potential subtypes. Identifying subtypes, based on both fear and avoidance patterns, can help improve assessment and treatment of SAD. Subtypes of fear and avoidance were examined in a sample comprising 131 youth (age 8-15 years) diagnosed with SAD using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for children and parents (ADIS-C/P). Exploratory factor analysis of fear responses revealed three factors, defining fear subtypes linked to: (1) performance, (2) observation, and (3) interaction situations, respectively...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387170/incidence-and-cost-of-non-fatal-burns-in-iran-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#12
Abolfazl Abouie, Payman Salamati, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Soheil Saadat, Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili, Vandad Sharifi, Ahmad Hajebi, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
To determine the incidence and cost of non-fatal burns in Iran; this cross-sectional household survey of a nationally representative sample of 15-64 years old was conducted. Through face-to-face interviews and telephone calls, the data on the demographics, history and cost of burns were collected. The annual incidence rate of burns was estimated 129.85 per 1000 population. Burns occurred higher in younger age, female gender and urban residency. The most common burn description was as follows: unpaid work (activity during burn), home (place of burn), heat and hot substances (mechanism of burn) and upper limb (site of burn)...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387158/neighborhood-socioeconomic-status-at-the-age-of-40-years-and-ischemic-stroke-before-the-age-of-50-years-a-nationwide-cohort-study-from-sweden
#13
Axel C Carlsson, Xinjun Li, Martin J Holzmann, Johan Ärnlöv, Per Wändell, Danijela Gasevic, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
Objective We aimed to study the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status at the age of 40 years and risk of ischemic stroke before the age of 50 years. Methods All individuals in Sweden were included if their 40th birthday occurred between 1998 and 2010. National registers were used to categorize neighborhood socioeconomic status into high, middle, and low and to retrieve information on incident ischemic strokes. Hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated. Results A total of 1,153,451 adults (women 48...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376091/participant-referral-rate-in-the-national-eye-health-survey-nehs
#14
Stuart Keel, Pei Ying Lee, Joshua Foreman, Peter van Wijngaarden, Hugh R Taylor, Mohamed Dirani
PURPOSE: To present the rates of referral of participants in the National Eye Health Survey (NEHS) for further eye care. MATERIALS & METHODS: A national sample of 3098 non-Indigenous Australians aged 50-98 and 1738 Indigenous Australians aged 40-92 years living in 30 randomly selected sites was recruited using a door-to-door approach. Participants completed a general questionnaire and a series of eye tests, including vision and anterior segment assessment, intra-ocular pressure measurement, visual field testing and fundus photography...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369740/do-not-hospitalize-orders-in-nursing-homes-call-the-family-instead-of-calling-the-ambulance
#15
Andrew B Cohen, M Tish Knobf, Terri R Fried
OBJECTIVES: To determine how do-not-hospitalize (DNH) orders are interpreted and used in nursing homes (NHs) once they are in place. DESIGN: Qualitative study using in-depth semi-structured interviews performed from December 2013 to April 2014. SETTING: Eight skilled nursing facilities in Connecticut that ranked in the top 10% or bottom 10% in hospitalization rates from 2008 to 2010. PARTICIPANTS: Nursing facility staff members (N = 31)...
March 30, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366456/in%C3%A2-vitro-generation-of-vascular-wall-resident-multipotent-stem-cells-of%C3%A2-mesenchymal-nature-from-murine-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#16
Jennifer Steens, Melanie Zuk, Mohamed Benchellal, Lea Bornemann, Nadine Teichweyde, Julia Hess, Kristian Unger, André Görgens, Hannes Klump, Diana Klein
The vascular wall (VW) serves as a niche for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In general, tissue-specific stem cells differentiate mainly to the tissue type from which they derive, indicating that there is a certain code or priming within the cells as determined by the tissue of origin. Here we report the in vitro generation of VW-typical MSCs from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), based on a VW-MSC-specific gene code. Using a lentiviral vector expressing the so-called Yamanaka factors, we reprogrammed tail dermal fibroblasts from transgenic mice containing the GFP gene integrated into the Nestin-locus (NEST-iPSCs) to facilitate lineage tracing after subsequent MSC differentiation...
April 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363675/effect-of-ongoing-assessment-of-resident-operative-autonomy-on-the-operating-room-environment
#17
Jonathan P Fryer, Ezra N Teitelbaum, Brian C George, Mary C Schuller, Shari L Meyerson, Christina M Theodorou, Joseph Kang, Amy Yang, Lihui Zhao, Debra A DaRosa
OBJECTIVE: We have previously demonstrated the feasibility and validity of a smartphone-based system called Procedural Autonomy and Supervision System (PASS), which uses the Zwisch autonomy scale to facilitate assessment of the operative performances of surgical residents and promote progressive autonomy. To determine whether the use of PASS in a general surgery residency program is associated with any negative consequences, we tested the null hypothesis that PASS implementation at our institution would not negatively affect resident or faculty satisfaction in the operating room (OR) nor increase mean OR times for cases performed together by residents and faculty...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352612/a-co-infection-model-system-and-the-use-of-chimeric-proteins-to-study-chlamydia-inclusion-proteins-interaction
#18
Ying Han, Isabelle Derré
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium associated with trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases. During its intracellular developmental cycle, Chlamydia resides in a membrane bound compartment called the inclusion. A subset of Type III secreted effectors, the inclusion membrane proteins (Inc), are inserted into the inclusion membrane. Inc proteins are strategically positioned to promote inclusion interaction with host factors and organelles, a process required for bacterial replication, but little is known about Inc proteins function or host interacting partners...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348895/in-flight-hypoxemia-in-a-tracheostomy-dependent-infant
#19
Jason Quevreaux, Christopher Cropsey
Millions of passengers board commercial flights every year. Healthcare providers are often called upon to treat other passengers during in-flight emergencies. The case presented involves an anesthesia resident treating a tracheostomy-dependent infant who developed hypoxemia on a domestic flight. The patient had an underlying congenital muscular disorder and was mechanically ventilated while at altitude. Although pressurized, cabin barometric pressure while at altitude is less than at sea level. Due to this environment patients with underlying pulmonary or cardiac pathology might not be able to tolerate commercial flight...
2017: Case Reports in Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345808/molecular-genetic-analysis-of-the-melanoma-regulatory-locus-in-xiphophorus-interspecies-hybrids
#20
Yuan Lu, Mikki Boswell, William Boswell, Susanne Kneitz, Michael Hausmann, Barbara Klotz, Janine Regneri, Markita Savage, Angel Amores, John Postlethwait, Wesley Warren, Manfred Schartl, Ronald Walter
Development of spontaneous melanoma in Xiphophorus interspecies backcross hybrid progeny, (X. hellerii × [X. maculatus Jp 163 A × X. hellerii]) is due to Mendelian segregation of a oncogene (xmrk) and a molecularly uncharacterized locus, called R(Diff), on LG5. R(Diff) is thought to suppresses the activity of xmrk in healthy X. maculatus Jp 163 A parental species that rarely develop melanoma. To better understand the molecular genetics of R(Diff), we utilized RNA-Seq to study allele-specific gene expression of spontaneous melanoma tumors and corresponding normal skin samples derived from 15 first generation backcross (BC1 ) hybrids and 13 fifth generation (BC5 ) hybrids...
March 27, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
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