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Cancer infection

Jihyun An, Jong Woo Kim, Ju Hyun Shim, Seungbong Han, Chang Sik Yu, Jaewon Choe, Danbi Lee, Kang Mo Kim, Young-Suk Lim, Young-Hwa Chung, Yung Sang Lee, Dong Jin Suh, Jin Hyoung Kim, Han Chu Lee
BACKGROUND: Prior epidemiological evidences suggest that hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is linked to cancers other than hepatocellular carcinoma. This prospective hospital registry-based case-control study aimed to investigate the sero-epidemiological association between chronic HBV infection and various types of cancer. METHODS: 95,034 patients with first-diagnosed non-hepatocellular malignancy in a tertiary hospital between 2007 and 2014; and 118,891 non-cancer individuals as controls from a health promotion center were included...
2018: PloS One
Leslee Sprague, Joel M Lee, Brian J Hutzen, Pin-Yi Wang, Chun-Yu Chen, Joe Conner, Lynne Braidwood, Kevin A Cassady, Timothy P Cripe
High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) is a multifunctional protein that plays various roles in the processes of inflammation, cancer, and other diseases. Many reports document abundant HMGB1 release following infection with oncolytic viruses (OVs). Further, other groups including previous reports from our laboratory highlight the synergistic effects of OVs with chemotherapy drugs. Here, we show that virus-free supernatants have varying cytotoxic potential, and HMGB1 is actively secreted by two established fibroblast cell lines (NIH 3T3 and 3T6-Swiss albino) following HSV1716 infection in vitro...
March 15, 2018: Viruses
Kelly Aubertin, Vincent Quoc Trinh, Michael Jermyn, Paul Baksic, Andrée-Anne Grosset, Joannie Desroches, Karl St-Arnaud, Mirela Birlea, Maria Claudia Vladoiu, Mathieu Latour, Roula Albadine, Fred Saad, Frédéric Leblond, Dominique Trudel
OBJECTIVE: To test if Raman spectroscopy is an appropriate tool for the diagnosis and possibly the grading of prostate cancer. PATIENTS & METHODS: Between 20 and 50 Raman spectra were acquired on 32 fresh and non-processed post-prostatectomy specimens using a macroscopic hand-held Raman spectroscopy probe. Each measured area was characterized and categorized following histopathological criterions like tissue type (extra-prostatic or prostatic), tissue malignancy (benign or malignant), cancer grade (Grade Groups (GG) 1-5), and tissue glandular level...
March 15, 2018: BJU International
Nancy Innocentia Ebu
Background: The burden of HIV and cervical cancer is concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa. Women with HIV are more likely to have persistent HPV infection leading to cervical abnormalities and cancer. Cervical cancer screening seems to be the single most critical intervention in any efforts to prevent cervical cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the socio-demographic factors influencing intention to seek cervical cancer screening by HIV-positive women in the Central Region of Ghana...
2018: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
Chia-Yen Dai, Yi-Shan Tsai, Wen-Wen Chou, Tawei Liu, Chung-Feng Huang, Shu-Chi Wang, Pei-Chien Tsai, Ming-Lun Yeh, Ming-Yen Hsieh, Ching-I Huang, Shang-Yin Vanson Liu, Jee-Fu Huang, Wan-Long Chuang, Ming-Lung Yu
Background/Aims: MicroRNA-125b (miR-125b) has been found to regulate inflammation and acts as an oncogene in many cancers. The mechanisms of miR-125b expression during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remain to be clarified. The present study aims to identify the factors that might regulate miR-125b expression in HCV infection. Results: High expression of miR-125b was found to correlate with HCV infection in replicon cells and in sera from HCV-infected patients, whereas the miR-125b inhibitor reduced HCV gene expression...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Arnolfo Petruzziello
Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent primary malignant tumors and accounts for about 90% of all primary liver cancers. Its distribution varies greatly according to geographic location and it is more common in middle and low- income countries than in developed ones especially in Eastern Asia and Sub Saharan Africa (70% of all new HCCs worldwide), with incidence rates of over 20 per 100,000 individuals. Explanation: The most important risk factors for HCC are Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection, excessive consumption of alcohol and exposition to aflatoxin B1...
2018: Open Virology Journal
Steffi De Pelsmaeker, Nicolas Romero, Massimo Vitale, Herman W Favoreel
Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the host response against viral infections and cancer development. They are able to kill virus-infected and tumor cells, and produce different important cytokines that stimulate the antiviral and antitumor adaptive immune response, particularly interferon gamma. NK cells are of particular importance in herpesvirus infections, which is illustrated by systemic and life-threatening herpesvirus disease symptoms in patients with deficiencies in NK cell activity, and by the myriad of reports describing herpesvirus NK cell evasion strategies...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Yohei Hisada, Charlotte Thålin, Staffan Lundström, Håkan Wallén, Nigel Mackman
INTRODUCTION: Increased levels of circulating tissue factor (TF)-positive microvesicles (MVs) may increase the risk of thrombosis. Indeed, TF-positive MVs are detected in plasma of patients with various types of diseases. In this study, we measured levels of MV TF activity in non-cancer severely ill patients and cancer patients. METHODS: We used an in-house MV TF activity assay to measure MV TF activity. RESULTS: MV TF activity was significantly increased in a population of cancer patients but not in a population of non-cancer severely ill patients compared with healthy controls...
March 7, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Jill Jin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Xuejiao Li, Zhongxiu Jiang, Xiangmin Li, Xiaoye Zhang
Osteopontin (OPN) is a promoter for tumor progression. It has been reported to promote non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progression via the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling. As the increased acetylation of NF-κB p65 is linked to NF-κB activation, the regulation of NF-κB p65 acetylation could be a potential treatment target for OPN-induced NSCLC progression. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a deacetylase, and the role of SIRT1 in tumor progression is still controversial. The effect and mechanism of SIRT1 on OPN-induced tumor progression remains unknown...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Kristine M Thompson, Brian T Kruse, Mary Ann S Hedges
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing fasciitis is usually associated with a surgical or traumatic wound. Clostridial myonecrosis is an uncommon but deadly infection that can develop in the absence of a wound and is often associated with occult gastrointestinal cancer or immunocompromise, or both. CASE REPORT: We report a case of catastrophic atraumatic Clostridium septicum infection in an immunocompromised host. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Emergency physicians most commonly associate necrotizing fasciitis with superinfection of an open wound...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
M Salakova, E Koslabova, M Grega, J Smahelova, J Klozar, O Vencalek, R Tachezy
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with tonsillar cancer (TC) whose incidence in humans is increasing. Tonsillar tumours are not ordinarily preceded by clinically apparent precancerous lesions, and no markers of the early stage disease are available. Therefore, we evaluated the presence of an active HPV infection also in tumour-free tonsillar tissue. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tonsillar specimens from 114 patients with TC and 114 age and gender matched controls were screened for the presence of HPV DNA, expression of HR-HPV E6 mRNA, and p16 overexpression...
2018: Neoplasma
Gwendolyn N Y van Gorkom, Roel G J Klein Wolterink, Catharina H M J Van Elssen, Lotte Wieten, Wilfred T V Germeraad, Gerard M J Bos
Vitamin C or ascorbic acid (AA) is implicated in many biological processes and has been proposed as a supplement for various conditions, including cancer. In this review, we discuss the effects of AA on the development and function of lymphocytes. This is important in the light of cancer treatment, as the immune system needs to regenerate following chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation, while cancer patients are often AA-deficient. We focus on lymphocytes, as these white blood cells are the slowest to restore, rendering patients susceptible to often lethal infections...
March 10, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Marina A Pereira, Marcus F K P Ramos, Sheila F Faraj, Andre R Dias, Osmar K Yagi, Bruno Zilberstein, Ivan Cecconello, Venancio A F Alves, Evandro S de Mello, Ulysses Ribeiro
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Gastric cancer (GC) has recently been categorized in molecular subtypes, which include Epstein-Barr (EBV)-positive and microsatellite instability (MSI) tumors. This distinction may provide prognostic information and identifies therapeutic targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate EBV, MSI, and PD-L1 immunoexpression in GC and its relationship with clinicopathological characteristics and patient's prognosis. METHODS: We evaluated 287 GC patients who underwent D2-gastrectomy through immunohistochemistry for DNA mismatch repair proteins and PD-L1, and in situ hybridization for EBV detection utilizing tissue microarray...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Katherine Murphy, Tim Cooksley, Phil Haji-Michael
Background: There has been a significant increase in the number of patients presenting with cancer related emergencies and potentially requiring critical care admission. Aim: To analyse the short and long term outcomes of patients with solid tumours requiring unplanned medical admission to a specialist cancer intensive care unit (ICU). Design: An unplanned cohort study. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients admitted to a United Kingdom specialist tertiary oncology CCU between September 2009 and September 2015...
March 9, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Hisashi Kanemaru, Fumihiro Yamane, Hiroki Tanaka, Kazuhiko Maeda, Takashi Satoh, Shizuo Akira
Growing evidence has revealed that the transcription factor basic leucine zipper transcription factor ATF-like 2 (BATF2) has unique transcriptional activities, including regulating cytokines via TLR signals in macrophages, which affect mortality due to infection and cancer. Based on genome-wide analyses using the chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing technique, we found that dual-specificity phosphatase 2 (Dusp2) had a significantly lower acetyl-histone status in Batf2-/- bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) compared with wild-type (WT) BMDMs...
March 9, 2018: International Immunology
Sarah Gray, Bertil Axelsson
INTRODUCTION: Amongst patients with incurable cancer approaching death, cachexia is common and associated with adverse outcomes. The term cachexia lacks a universally accepted definition and there is no consensus regarding which variables are to be measured. Furthermore, an elevated C-reactive protein is a common clinical challenge in this patient group. This study aims to add to the ongoing discussion regarding the definition of cancer cachexia and to study the role of C-reactive protein and s-albumin in this context...
2018: PloS One
Paweł Borowiecki, Patrycja Wińska, Maria Bretner, Małgorzata Gizińska, Mirosława Koronkiewicz, Monika Staniszewska
Three out of 16 newly synthesized 1,3-dimethylxanthine derivatives (proxyphylline analogues) exhibited consistencies between antifungal and anticancer properties. Proxyphylline possessing 1-(10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)propan-2-yl (6) and polybrominated benzimidazole (41) or benzotriazole moiety (42) remained selectively cidal against Candida albicans (lg R ≥ 3 at conc. of 31, 36 and 20 μM, respectively) however not against normal mammalian Vero cell line in vitro (IC50  ≥ 280 μM) and Galleria mellonella in vivo...
February 27, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Juha Knaapila, Heini Kallio, Antti J Hakanen, Kari Syvänen, Otto Ettala, Esa Kähkönen, Tarja Lamminen, Marjo Seppänen, Ivan Jambor, Antti Rannikko, Jarno Riikonen, Eveliina Munukka, Erkki Eerola, Marianne Gunell, Peter J Boström
OBJECTIVES: To determine, in a prospective, multicenter setting, the prevalence of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistant and extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli strains in men undergoing transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (TRUS-Bx) in Finland and to survey the associated risk factors for having the previously mentioned strains. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a substudy of the trial investigating the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in prostate cancer diagnosis (multi-IMPROD, NCT02241122)...
March 13, 2018: BJU International
Joseph J Knapik, Sheryl A Bedno
Surveys indicated that 24% of military personnel are current cigarette smokers. Smoking is well known to increase the risk of cancers, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, reproductive problems, and other medical maladies, but one of the little known effects of smoking is that on injuries. There is considerable evidence from a variety of sources that (1) smoking increases overall injury risk, (2) the greater the amount of smoking, the higher is the injury risk, and (3) smoking is an independent injury risk factor...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
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