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Intrinsically disordered

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785268/impact-of-fullerene-derivative-isomeric-purity-on-the-performance-of-inverted-planar-perovskite-solar-cells
#1
Edison Castro, Gerardo Zavala, Sairaman Seetharaman, Francis D'Souza, Luis Echegoyen
The effect of utilizing a pure cis -α-dimethoxy carbonyl fulleropyrrolidine C70 (DMEC70 ) isomer as the electron transporting material (ETM) in inverted perovskite solar cells (PSCs) was evaluated. The as-prepared C70 mono-adduct products are mixtures of regioisomers and the interest was to evaluate them independently as ETMs. Three different cis -DMEC70 isomers (α, β- endo and β- exo ) (mix-DMEC70 ) were synthesized and purified by HPLC. It was found that PSCs based on the pure α-DMEC70 exhibit a substantially enhanced maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784771/prion-replication-in-the-mammalian-cytosol-functional-regions-within-a-prion-domain-driving-induction-propagation-and-inheritance
#2
Yvonne Duernberger, Shu Liu, Katrin Riemschoss, Lydia Paulsen, Romina Bester, Peer-Hendrik Kuhn, Manuel Schölling, Stefan F Lichtenthaler, Ina Vorberg
Prions of lower eukaryotes are transmissible protein particles that propagate by converting homotypic soluble proteins into growing protein assemblies. Prion activity is conferred by so-called prion domains, regions of low complexity that are often enriched in glutamines and asparagines (Q/N). The compositional similarity of fungal prion domains with intrinsically disordered domains found in many mammalian proteins raises the question if similar sequence elements can drive prion-like phenomena in mammals. Here we define sequence features of the prototype S...
May 21, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782883/a-new-outlook-on-cholinergic-interneurons-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia
#3
REVIEW
Melissa M Conti, Nicole Chambers, Christopher Bishop
Traditionally, dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh) striatal systems were considered antagonistic and imbalances or aberrant signaling between these neurotransmitter systems could be detrimental to basal ganglia activity and pursuant motor function, such as in Parkinson's disease (PD) and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Herein, we discuss the involvement of cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) in striatally-mediated movement in a healthy, parkinsonian, and dyskinetic state. ChIs integrate numerous neurotransmitter signals using intrinsic glutamate, serotonin, and DA receptors and convey the appropriate transmission onto nearby muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors to produce movement...
May 18, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782836/dancing-with-the-diva-hsp90-client-interactions
#4
REVIEW
Martina Radli, Stefan G D Rüdiger
The molecular chaperone Hsp90 is involved in the folding, maturation and degradation of a large number structurally and sequentially unrelated clients, often connected to serious diseases. Elucidating the principles of how Hsp90 recognises this large variety of substrates is essential for comprehending the mechanism of this chaperone machinery, as well as it is a prerequisite for the design of client specific drugs targeting Hsp90. Here, we discuss the recent progress in understanding the substrate recognition principles of Hsp90 and its implications for the role of Hsp90 in the lifecycle of (signalling) molecules...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782835/multi-pronged-interactions-underlie-inhibition-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregation-by-%C3%AE-synuclein
#5
Jonathan K Williams, Xue Yang, Tamr B Atieh, Michael P Olson, Sagar D Khare, Jean Baum
The intrinsically disordered protein β-synuclein is known to inhibit the aggregation of its intrinsically disordered homolog, α-synuclein, which is implicated in Parkinson's disease. While β-synuclein itself does not form fibrils at the cytoplasmic pH7.4, alteration of pH and other environmental perturbations are known to induce its fibrilization. However, the sequence and structural determinants of β-synuclein inhibition and self-aggregation are not well understood. We have utilized a series of domain-swapped chimeras of α-synuclein and β-synuclein to probe the relative contributions of the N-terminal, C-terminal and the central Non-Amyloid-β Component (NAC) domains to the inhibition of α-synuclein aggregation...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780502/the-impact-of-o-glycan-chemistry-on-the-stability-of-intrinsically-disordered-proteins
#6
Erica T Prates, Xiaoyang Guan, Yaohao Li, Xinfeng Wang, Patrick K Chaffey, Munir S Skaf, Michael F Crowley, Zhongping Tan, Gregg T Beckham
Protein glycosylation is a diverse post-translational modification that serves myriad biological functions. O -linked glycans in particular vary widely in extent and chemistry in eukaryotes, with secreted proteins from fungi and yeast commonly exhibiting O -mannosylation in intrinsically disordered regions of proteins, likely for proteolysis protection, among other functions. However, it is not well understood why mannose is often the preferred glycan, and more generally, if the neighboring protein sequence and glycan have coevolved to protect against proteolysis in glycosylated intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs)...
April 21, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780404/intrinsic-disorder-and-posttranslational-modifications-the-darker-side-of-the-biological-dark-matter
#7
REVIEW
April L Darling, Vladimir N Uversky
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs) are functional proteins and domains that devoid stable secondary and/or tertiary structure. IDPs/IDPRs are abundantly present in various proteomes, where they are involved in regulation, signaling, and control, thereby serving as crucial regulators of various cellular processes. Various mechanisms are utilized to tightly regulate and modulate biological functions, structural properties, cellular levels, and localization of these important controllers...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780303/closed-loop-deep-brain-stimulation-for-ptsd-addiction-and-disorders-of-affective-facial-interpretation-review-and-discussion-of-potential-biomarkers-and-stimulation-paradigms
#8
REVIEW
Robert W Bina, Jean-Phillipe Langevin
The treatment of psychiatric diseases with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is becoming more of a reality as studies proliferate the indications and targets for therapies. Opinions on the initial failures of DBS trials for some psychiatric diseases point to a certain lack of finesse in using an Open Loop DBS (OLDBS) system in these dynamic, cyclical pathologies. OLDBS delivers monomorphic input into dysfunctional brain circuits with modulation of that input via human interface at discrete time points with no interim modulation or adaptation to the changing circuit dynamics...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780301/when-the-ostrich-algorithm-fails-blanking-method-affects-spike-train-statistics
#9
Kevin Joseph, Soheil Mottaghi, Olaf Christ, Thomas J Feuerstein, Ulrich G Hofmann
Modern electroceuticals are bound to employ the usage of electrical high frequency (130-180 Hz) stimulation carried out under closed loop control, most prominent in the case of movement disorders. However, particular challenges are faced when electrical recordings of neuronal tissue are carried out during high frequency electrical stimulation, both in-vivo and in-vitro . This stimulation produces undesired artifacts and can render the recorded signal only partially useful. The extent of these artifacts is often reduced by temporarily grounding the recording input during stimulation pulses...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779670/a-connectome-wide-functional-signature-of-transdiagnostic-risk-for-mental-illness
#10
Maxwell L Elliott, Adrienne Romer, Annchen R Knodt, Ahmad R Hariri
BACKGROUND: High rates of comorbidity, shared risk, and overlapping therapeutic mechanisms have led psychopathology research toward transdiagnostic dimensional investigations of clustered symptoms. One influential framework accounts for these transdiagnostic phenomena through a single general factor, sometimes referred to as the "p" factor, associated with risk for all common forms of mental illness. METHODS: We build on previous research identifying unique structural neural correlates of the p factor by conducting a data-driven analysis of connectome-wide intrinsic functional connectivity (n = 605)...
April 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777298/aortic-elasticity-deterioration-proves-intrinsic-abnormality-of-the-ascending-aorta-in-pediatric-turner-syndrome-unrelated-to-the-aortic-valve-morphology
#11
Christiane Pees, Julian A Heno, Gabriele Häusler, Diana-Alexandra Ertl, Talin Gulesserian, Ina Michel-Behnke
Turner syndrome (TS) is a common genetic disorder in females with high incidence of ascending aortic dilatation and even dissection occurring as early as in the second decade. Known risk factors (RF) are bicuspid aortic valves (BAV), coarctation of the aorta (CoA), and arterial hypertension. Since 10% of dissections occur in patients without RF, an intrinsic aortic wall abnormality has been postulated. This study aimed to investigate the elasticity of the ascending aorta as a surrogate marker of aortic wall texture...
May 18, 2018: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777197/the-transition-state-structure-for-binding-between-taz1-of-cbp-and-the-disordered-hif-1%C3%AE-cad
#12
Ida Lindström, Eva Andersson, Jakob Dogan
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are common in eukaryotes. However, relatively few experimental studies have addressed the nature of the rate-limiting transition state for the coupled binding and folding reactions involving IDPs. By using site-directed mutagenesis in combination with kinetics measurements we have here characterized the transition state for binding between the globular TAZ1 domain of CREB binding protein and the intrinsically disordered C-terminal activation domain of Hif-1α (Hif-1α CAD)...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773518/developmental-trajectories-of-brain-maturation-and-behavior-relevance-to-major-mental-illnesses
#13
REVIEW
Sedona Lockhart, Akira Sawa, Minae Niwa
Adverse events in childhood and adolescence, such as social neglect or drug abuse, are known to lead to behavioral changes in young adulthood. This is particularly true for the subset of people who are intrinsically more vulnerable to stressful conditions. Yet the underlying mechanisms for such developmental trajectory from early life insult to aberrant adult behavior remains elusive. Adolescence is a period of dynamic physiological, psychological, and behavioral changes, encompassing a distinct neurodevelopmental stage called the 'critical period'...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772527/a-novel-role-for-cd26-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-as-a-therapeutic-target
#14
Kei Ohnuma, Ryo Hatano, Eriko Komiya, Haruna Otsuka, Takumi Itoh, Noriaki Iwao, Yutaro Kaneko, Taketo Yamada, Nam H Dang, Chikao Morimoto
CD26 is a 110 kDa surface glycoprotein with intrinsic dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity that is expressed on numerous cell types and has a multitude of biological functions. The role of CD26 in immune regulation has been extensively characterized, with recent findings elucidating its linkage with signaling pathways and structures involved in T-lymphocyte activation as well as antigen presenting cell-T-cell interaction. In this paper, we will review emerging data on CD26-mediated immune regulation suggesting that CD26 may be an appropriate therapeutic target for the treatment of selected immune disorders as well as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772202/rnp-granule-assembly-via-ataxin-2-disordered-domains-is-required-for-long-term-memory-and-neurodegeneration
#15
Baskar Bakthavachalu, Joern Huelsmeier, Indulekha P Sudhakaran, Jens Hillebrand, Amanjot Singh, Arnas Petrauskas, Devasena Thiagarajan, M Sankaranarayanan, Laura Mizoue, Eric N Anderson, Udai Bhan Pandey, Eric Ross, K VijayRaghavan, Roy Parker, Mani Ramaswami
Human Ataxin-2 is implicated in the cause and progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and type 2 spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA-2). In Drosophila, a conserved atx2 gene is essential for animal survival as well as for normal RNP-granule assembly, translational control, and long-term habituation. Like its human homolog, Drosophila Ataxin-2 (Atx2) contains polyQ repeats and additional intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). We demonstrate that Atx2 IDRs, which are capable of mediating liquid-liquid phase transitions in vitro, are essential for efficient formation of neuronal mRNP assemblies in vivo...
May 16, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771183/association-of-inattention-hyperactivity-and-hypersomnolence-in-two-clinic-based-adult-cohorts
#16
Régis Lopez, Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Laura Camodeca, Marie Gachet, Isabelle Jaussent, Yves Dauvilliers
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity in adults with ADHD and central hypersomnia. METHOD: Drug-free adult patients with ADHD ( n = 100) or hypersomnia ( n = 100) were evaluated using a structured clinical interview and self-report questionnaires on ADHD symptoms and EDS. RESULTS: In all, 61% of patients with hypersomnia had clinically significant ADHD symptoms with 25% having an ADHD diagnosis (with both childhood and adulthood ADHD symptoms) and 36% ADHD-like symptoms, without history of childhood ADHD...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770251/review-of-the-neurological-benefits-of-phytocannabinoids
#17
REVIEW
Joseph Maroon, Jeff Bost
Background: Numerous physical, psychological, and emotional benefits have been attributed to marijuana since its first reported use in 2,600 BC in a Chinese pharmacopoeia. The phytocannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD), and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) are the most studied extracts from cannabis sativa subspecies hemp and marijuana. CBD and Δ9-THC interact uniquely with the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Through direct and indirect actions, intrinsic endocannabinoids and plant-based phytocannabinoids modulate and influence a variety of physiological systems influenced by the ECS...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767441/hydrogen-sulfide-pathway-and-skeletal-muscle-an-introductory-review
#18
REVIEW
Valentina Vellecco, Chiara Armogida, Mariarosaria Bucci
The presence of H2 S pathway in skeletal muscle (SKM) has been recently established. SKM expresses the three constitutive H2 S generating enzymes in animals and humans and it actively produces H2 S. The main recognized molecular targets of H2 S, i.e. potassium channels and phosphodiesterases, have been evaluated in SKM physiology in order to hypothesize a role for H2 S signaling. SKM dysfunctions, including muscular dystrophy and malignant hyperthermia, have been also evaluated as conditions in which H2 S-pathway and the trans-sulfuration pathway have been suggested to be involved...
May 16, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763584/equation-chapter-1-section-1sequence-to-conformation-relationships-of-disordered-regions-tethered-to-folded-domains-of-proteins
#19
Anuradha Mittal, Alex S Holehouse, Megan C Cohan, Rohit V Pappu
Intrinsically disordered proteins and regions (IDPs / IDRs) are characterized by well-defined sequence-to-conformation relationships (SCRs). These relationships refer to the sequence-specific preferences for average sizes, shapes, residue-specific secondary structure propensities, and amplitudes of multiscale conformational fluctuations. SCRs are discerned from the sequence-specific conformational ensembles of IDPs. A vast majority of IDPs are actually tethered to folded domains (FDs). This raises the question of whether or not SCRs inferred for IDPs are applicable to IDRs tethered to folded domains...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761107/intramolecular-fuzzy-interactions-involving-intrinsically-disordered-domains
#20
REVIEW
Miguel Arbesú, Guillermo Iruela, Héctor Fuentes, João M C Teixeira, Miquel Pons
Structural disorder is an essential ingredient for function in many proteins and protein complexes. Fuzzy complexes describe the many instances where disorder is maintained as a critical element of protein interactions. In this minireview we discuss how intramolecular fuzzy interactions function in signaling complexes. Focussing on the Src family of kinases, we argue that the intrinsically disordered domains that are unique for each of the family members and display a clear fingerprint of long range interactions in Src, might have critical roles as functional sensor or effectors and mediate allosteric communication via fuzzy interactions...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
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