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Journal of Biochemistry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420800/yesterday-and-today-the-impact-of-research-conducted-at-camp-detrick-on-botulinum-toxin
#1
Frank J Lebeda, Michael Adler, Zygmunt F Dembek
Introduction: This review summarizes the research conducted on botulinum toxin (BoTx) from 1943 to 1956 by a small group of Camp Detrick investigators and their staff. A systematic, cross-disciplinary approach was used to develop effective vaccines against this biological warfare threat agent. In response to the potential need for medical countermeasures against BoTx during World War II, the refinement of isolation and purification techniques for BoTx successfully led to the large-scale production of botulinum toxoid vaccines...
February 6, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401000/principles-of-protein-stability-and-their-application-in-computational-design
#2
Adi Goldenzweig, Sarel Fleishman
Proteins are increasingly used in basic and applied biomedical research.Many proteins, however, are only marginally stable and can be expressed in limited amounts, thus hampering research and applications. Research has revealed the thermodynamic, cellular, and evolutionary principles and mechanisms that underlie marginal stability. With this growing understanding, computational stability design methods have advanced over the past two decades starting from methods that selectively addressed only some aspects of marginal stability...
January 26, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394096/protein-quality-control-of-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-ubiquitin-proteasome-triggered-degradation-of-aberrant-proteins-yeast-pioneers-the-path
#3
Nicole Berner, Karl-Richard Reutter, Dieter H Wolf
Cells must constantly monitor the integrity of their macromolecular constituents. Proteins are the most versatile class of macromolecules but are sensitive to structural alterations. Misfolded or otherwise aberrant protein structures lead to dysfunction and finally aggregation. Their presence is linked to aging and a plethora of severe human diseases. Thus, misfolded proteins have to be rapidly eliminated. Secretory proteins constitute more than one-third of the eukaryotic proteome. They are imported into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they are folded and modified...
February 2, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328784/dna-encoded-chemical-libraries-a-selection-system-based-on-endowing-organic-compounds-with-amplifiable-information
#4
Dario Neri, Richard A Lerner
The discovery of organic ligands that bind specifically to proteins is a central problem in chemistry, biology, and the biomedical sciences. The encoding of individual organic molecules with distinctive DNA tags, serving as amplifiable identification bar codes, allows the construction and screening of combinatorial libraries of unprecedented size, thus facilitating the discovery of ligands to many different protein targets. Fundamentally, one links powers of genetics and chemical synthesis. After the initial description of DNA-encoded chemical libraries in 1992, several experimental embodiments of the technology have been reduced to practice...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328783/signaling-to-and-from-the-rna-polymerase-iii-transcription-and-processing-machinery
#5
Ian M Willis, Robyn D Moir
RNA polymerase (Pol) III has a specialized role in transcribing the most abundant RNAs in eukaryotic cells, transfer RNAs (tRNAs), along with other ubiquitous small noncoding RNAs, many of which have functions related to the ribosome and protein synthesis. The high energetic cost of producing these RNAs and their central role in protein synthesis underlie the robust regulation of Pol III transcription in response to nutrients and stress by growth regulatory pathways. Downstream of Pol III, signaling impacts posttranscriptional processes affecting tRNA function in translation and tRNA cleavage into smaller fragments that are increasingly attributed with novel cellular activities...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298091/lesion-bypass-and-the-reactivation-of-stalled-replication-forks
#6
Kenneth J Marians
Accurate transmission of the genetic information requires complete duplication of the chromosomal DNA each cell division cycle. However, the idea that replication forks would form at origins of DNA replication and proceed without impairment to copy the chromosomes has proven naive. It is now clear that replication forks stall frequently as a result of encounters between the replication machinery and template damage, slow-moving or paused transcription complexes, unrelieved positive superhelical tension, covalent protein-DNA complexes, and as a result of cellular stress responses...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195049/a-solid-state-conceptualization-of-information-transfer-from-gene-to-message-to-protein
#7
Masato Kato, Steven L McKnight
In this review, we describe speculative ideas and early stage research concerning the flow of genetic information from the nuclear residence of genes to the disparate, cytoplasmic sites of protein synthesis. We propose that this process of information transfer is meticulously guided by transient structures formed from protein segments of low sequence complexity/intrinsic disorder. These low complexity domains are ubiquitously associated with regulatory proteins that control gene expression and RNA biogenesis, but they are also found in the central channel of nuclear pores, the nexus points of intermediate filament assembly, and the locations of action of other well-studied cellular proteins and pathways...
December 1, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166128/the-oxylipin-pathways-biochemistry-and-function
#8
Claus Wasternack, Ivo Feussner
Plant oxylipins form a constantly growing group of signaling molecules that comprise oxygenated fatty acids and metabolites derived therefrom. In the last decade, the understanding of biosynthesis, metabolism, and action of oxylipins, especially jasmonates, has dramatically improved. Additional mechanistic insights into the action of enzymes and insights into signaling pathways have been deepened for jasmonates. For other oxylipins, such as the hydroxy fatty acids, individual signaling properties and cross talk between different oxylipins or even with additional phytohormones have recently been described...
November 20, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142244/body-size-phenotypes-comprehensively-assess-cardiometabolic-risk-and-refine-the-association-between-obesity-and-gut-microbiota
#9
J de la Cuesta-Zuluaga, V Corrales-Agudelo, J A Carmona, J M Abad, J S Escobar
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota associates with obesity and related disorders, but recent meta-analyses have found that this association is, at best, of small effect. We argue that such analyses are flawed by the use of BMI as sole proxy for disease, and explore a classification method that distinguishes the cardiometabolic health status of individuals to look for more comprehensive associations between gut microbes and health. METHODS: We analyzed a 441 community-dwelling cohort on which we obtained demographic and health information, anthropometry and blood biochemistry data that served to categorize participants according to BMI, cardiometabolic health status and body size phenotypes...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076390/novel-rna-polymerase-inhibitor-found-in-soil-extracts-provides-hope-for-future-antibacterial-drugs
#10
Richard H Ebright
Richard H Ebright talks to Rachel Coleby, Commissioning Editor: Ebright is at Rutgers University (New Brunswick, NJ, USA), where he performs research on the structure, mechanism, and regulation of bacterial transcription and on antibacterial drug discovery targeting bacterial transcription. He has received research awards, including the Searle Scholar Award, the Walter J Johnson Prize, the Schering-Plough Award of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, the Waksman Award of the Theobold Smith Society, the MERIT Award of the National Institutes of Health, and membership in the American Academy of Arts and Science...
October 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983875/erratum-to-volume-73-issue-3-of-journal-of-physiology-and-biochemistry
#11
(no author information available yet)
Volume 73 issue 3 was published with an incorrect cover date. Correct is August 2017. The Publisher apologizes for this mistake and all related inconveniences caused by this.
October 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928474/using-experimental-evolution-to-identify-druggable-targets-that-could-inhibit-the-evolution-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#12
Heer H Mehta, Amy G Prater, Yousif Shamoo
With multi-drug and pan-drug-resistant bacteria becoming increasingly common in hospitals, antibiotic resistance has threatened to return us to a pre-antibiotic era that would completely undermine modern medicine. There is an urgent need to develop new antibiotics and strategies to combat resistance that are substantially different from earlier drug discovery efforts. One such strategy that would complement current and future antibiotics would be a class of co-drugs that target the evolution of resistance and thereby extend the efficacy of specific classes of antibiotics...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876980/the-genetics-of-plant-metabolism
#13
Alisdair R Fernie, Takayuki Tohge
Plant metabolic studies have traditionally focused on the role and regulation of the enzymes catalyzing key reactions within specific pathways. Within the past 20 years, reverse genetic approaches have allowed direct determination of the effects of the deficiency, or surplus, of a given protein on the biochemistry of a plant. In parallel, top-down approaches have also been taken, which rely on screening broad, natural genetic diversity for metabolic diversity. Here, we compare and contrast the various strategies that have been adopted to enhance our understanding of the natural diversity of metabolism...
September 6, 2017: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858410/intentionally-flawed-manuscripts-as-means-for-teaching-students-to-critically-evaluate-scientific-papers
#14
Jaroslav Ferenc, Filip Červenák, Erik Birčák, Katarína Juríková, Ivana Goffová, Peter Gorilák, Barbora Huraiová, Jana Plavá, Loriana Demecsová, Nikola Ďuríková, Veronika Galisová, Matej Gazdarica, Marek Puškár, Tibor Nagy, Soňa Nagyová, Lucia Mentelová, Miroslava Slaninová, Andrea Ševčovicová, Ľubomír Tomáška
As future scientists, university students need to learn how to avoid making errors in their own manuscripts, as well as how to identify flaws in papers published by their peers. Here we describe a novel approach on how to promote students' ability to critically evaluate scientific articles. The exercise is based on instructing teams of students to write intentionally flawed manuscripts describing the results of simple experiments. The teams are supervised by instructors advising the students during manuscript writing, choosing the 'appropriate' errors, monitoring the identification of errors made by the other team and evaluating the strength of their arguments in support of the identified errors...
August 31, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841344/retrospective-on-cholesterol-homeostasis-the-central-role-of-scap
#15
Michael S Brown, Arun Radhakrishnan, Joseph L Goldstein
Scap is a polytopic membrane protein that functions as a molecular machine to control the cholesterol content of membranes in mammalian cells. In the 21 years since our laboratory discovered Scap, we have learned how it binds sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) and transports them from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi for proteolytic processing. Proteolysis releases the SREBP transcription factor domains, which enter the nucleus to promote cholesterol synthesis and uptake. When cholesterol in ER membranes exceeds a threshold, the sterol binds to Scap, triggering several conformational changes that prevent the Scap-SREBP complex from leaving the ER...
August 25, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832575/using-judgement-analysis-to-identify-dietitians-referral-prioritisation-for-assessment-in-adult-acute-services
#16
M Hickson, M Davies, H Gokalp, P Harries
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Dietitians need to prioritise referrals in order to manage their work load. Novice dietitians may not receive training on prioritisation and could be helped with an evidence-based, effective decision-making training tool. To develop such a tool, it is necessary to understand how experts make prioritisation decisions. This study aimed to model expert decision-making policy for prioritising dietetic referrals in adult acute-care services. METHODS/SUBJECTS: Social judgement theory was used to model expert decision-making policy...
August 23, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710884/lothar-jaenicke-1923-2015-zum-ged%C3%A3-chtnis
#17
Hans E Hummel, Simone S Langner
Among the post-war European biochemists, L. Jaenicke (1923-2015) stands out as a distinctive character with bright ideas and professional elegance, yet with personal modesty. His contributions to diverse fields such as C1 metabolic pathways, signal compounds (aquatic sex attractants) of brown algae and chemotaxis appear as distinctive features not covered by his peers. His rich scientific œuvre is documented in 291 journal articles, nine books, and a huge number of almost 570 book reviews, recensions, biographies and commentaries on the politics of science and the history of biochemistry...
July 26, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697668/syntrophy-goes-electric-direct-interspecies-electron-transfer
#18
Derek R Lovley
Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) has biogeochemical significance and practical applications that rely on DIET or DIET-based aspects of microbial physiology are growing. Mechanisms for DIET have primarily been studied in defined cocultures in which Geobacter species are one of the DIET partners. Electrically conductive pili (e-pili) can be an important electrical conduit for DIET. However, there may be instances in which electrical contacts are made between electron transport proteins associated with the outer membranes of the partners...
July 11, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693388/sending-and-receiving-hedgehog-signals
#19
Kostadin Petrov, Bradley M Wierbowski, Adrian Salic
Communication between cells pervades the development and physiology of metazoans. In animals, this process is carried out by a relatively small number of signaling pathways, each consisting of a chain of biochemical events through which extracellular stimuli control the behavior of target cells. One such signaling system is the Hedgehog pathway, which is crucial in embryogenesis and is implicated in many birth defects and cancers. Although Hedgehog pathway components were identified by genetic analysis more than a decade ago, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of signaling is far from complete...
October 6, 2017: Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560354/citation-analysis-of-scientific-categories
#20
Gregory S Patience, Christian A Patience, Bruno Blais, Francois Bertrand
Databases catalogue the corpus of research literature into scientific categories and report classes of bibliometric data such as the number of citations to articles, the number of authors, journals, funding agencies, institutes, references, etc. The number of articles and citations in a category are gauges of productivity and scientific impact but a quantitative basis to compare researchers between categories is limited. Here, we compile a list of bibliometric indicators for 236 science categories and citation rates of the 500 most cited articles of each category...
May 2017: Heliyon
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