keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Journal of Biochemistry

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668306/dosage-compensation-of-the-x-chromosome-a-complex-epigenetic-assignment-involving-chromatin-regulators-and-long-noncoding-rnas
#1
Maria Samata, Asifa Akhtar
X chromosome regulation represents a prime example of an epigenetic phenomenon where coordinated regulation of a whole chromosome is required. In flies, this is achieved by transcriptional upregulation of X chromosomal genes in males to equalize the gene dosage differences in females. Chromatin-bound proteins and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) constituting a ribonucleoprotein complex known as the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex or the dosage compensation complex mediate this process. MSL complex members decorate the male X chromosome, and their absence leads to male lethality...
April 18, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668305/chalkophores
#2
Grace E Kenney, Amy C Rosenzweig
Copper-binding metallophores, or chalkophores, play a role in microbial copper homeostasis that is analogous to that of siderophores in iron homeostasis. The best-studied chalkophores are members of the methanobactin (Mbn) family-ribosomally produced, posttranslationally modified natural products first identified as copper chelators responsible for copper uptake in methane-oxidizing bacteria. To date, Mbns have been characterized exclusively in those species, but there is genomic evidence for their production in a much wider range of bacteria...
April 18, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661000/regulation-of-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis
#3
Marcel Mettlen, Ping-Hung Chen, Saipraveen Srinivasan, Gaudenz Danuser, Sandra L Schmid
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the major endocytic pathway in mammalian cells. It is responsible for the uptake of transmembrane receptors and transporters, for remodeling plasma membrane composition in response to environmental changes, and for regulating cell surface signaling. CME occurs via the assembly and maturation of clathrin-coated pits that concentrate cargo as they invaginate and pinch off to form clathrin-coated vesicles. In addition to the major coat proteins, clathrin triskelia and adaptor protein complexes, CME requires a myriad of endocytic accessory proteins and phosphatidylinositol lipids...
April 16, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652515/structure-and-function-of-the-26s-proteasome
#4
Jared A M Bard, Ellen A Goodall, Eric R Greene, Erik Jonsson, Ken C Dong, Andreas Martin
As the endpoint for the ubiquitin-proteasome system, the 26S proteasome is the principal proteolytic machine responsible for regulated protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. The proteasome's cellular functions range from general protein homeostasis and stress response to the control of vital processes such as cell division and signal transduction. To reliably process all the proteins presented to it in the complex cellular environment, the proteasome must combine high promiscuity with exceptional substrate selectivity...
April 13, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648875/regulated-proteolysis-in-bacteria
#5
Samar A Mahmoud, Peter Chien
Regulated proteolysis is a vital process that affects all living things. Bacteria use energy-dependent AAA+ proteases to power degradation of misfolded and native regulatory proteins. Given that proteolysis is an irreversible event, specificity and selectivity in degrading substrates are key. Specificity is often augmented through the use of adaptors that modify the inherent specificity of the proteolytic machinery. Regulated protein degradation is intricately linked to quality control, cell-cycle progression, and physiological transitions...
April 12, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643156/indecho-study-cohort-study-investigating-birth-size-childhood-growth-and-young-adult-cardiovascular-risk-factors-as-predictors-of-midlife-myocardial-structure-and-function-in-south-asians
#6
Senthil K Vasan, Ambuj Roy, Viji Thomson Samuel, Belavendra Antonisamy, Santosh K Bhargava, Anoop George Alex, Bhaskar Singh, Clive Osmond, Finney S Geethanjali, Fredrik Karpe, Harshpal Sachdev, Kanhaiya Agrawal, Lakshmy Ramakrishnan, Nikhil Tandon, Nihal Thomas, Prasanna S Premkumar, Prrathepa Asaithambi, Sneha F X Princy, Sikha Sinha, Thomas Vizhalil Paul, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Caroline H D Fall
INTRODUCTION: South Asians have high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and central obesity). Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dysfunction are features of these disorders and important predictors of CVD mortality. Lower birth and infant weight and greater childhood weight gain are associated with increased adult CVD mortality, but there are few data on their relationship to LV function. The IndEcho study will examine associations of birth size, growth during infancy, childhood and adolescence and CVD risk factors in young adulthood with midlife cardiac structure and function in South Asian Indians...
April 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596003/the-oxysterol-binding-protein-cycle-burning-off-pi-4-p-to-transport-cholesterol
#7
Bruno Antonny, Joëlle Bigay, Bruno Mesmin
To maintain an asymmetric distribution of ions across membranes, protein pumps displace ions against their concentration gradient by using chemical energy. Here, we describe a functionally analogous but topologically opposite process that applies to the lipid transfer protein (LTP) oxysterolbinding protein (OSBP). This multidomain protein exchanges cholesterol for the phosphoinositide phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P] between two apposed membranes. Because of the subsequent hydrolysis of PI(4)P, this counterexchange is irreversible and contributes to the establishment of a cholesterol gradient along organelles of the secretory pathway...
March 29, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596002/imaging-bacterial-cell-wall-biosynthesis
#8
Atanas D Radkov, Yen-Pang Hsu, Garrett Booher, Michael S VanNieuwenhze
Peptidoglycan is an essential component of the cell wall that protects bacteria from environmental stress. A carefully coordinated biosynthesis of peptidoglycan during cell elongation and division is required for cell viability. This biosynthesis involves sophisticated enzyme machineries that dynamically synthesize, remodel, and degrade peptidoglycan. However, when and where bacteria build peptidoglycan, and how this is coordinated with cell growth, have been long-standing questions in the field. The improvement of microscopy techniques has provided powerful approaches to study peptidoglycan biosynthesis with high spatiotemporal resolution...
March 29, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589959/understanding-and-improving-the-activity-of-flavin-dependent-halogenases-via-random-and-targeted-mutagenesis
#9
Mary C Andorfer, Jared C Lewis
Flavin-dependent halogenases (FDHs) catalyze the halogenation of organic substrates by coordinating reactions of reduced flavin, molecular oxygen, and chloride. Targeted and random mutagenesis of these enzymes have been used to both understand and alter their reactivity. These studies have led to insights into residues essential for catalysis and FDH variants with improved stability, expanded substrate scope, and altered site selectivity. Mutations throughout FDH structures have contributed to all of these advances...
March 28, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589958/regulation-of-rna-polymerase-i-transcription-in-development-disease-and-aging
#10
Samim Sharifi, Holger Bierhoff
Ribosome biogenesis is a complex and highly energy-demanding process that requires the concerted action of all three nuclear RNA polymerases (Pol I-III) in eukaryotes. The three largest ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) originate from a precursor transcript (pre-rRNA) that is encoded by multicopy genes located in the nucleolus. Transcription of these rRNA genes (rDNA) by Pol I is the key regulation step in ribosome production and is tightly controlled by an intricate network of signaling pathways and epigenetic mechanisms...
March 28, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570352/ribosome-targeting-antibiotics-modes-of-action-mechanisms-of-resistance-and-implications-for-drug-design
#11
Jinzhong Lin, Dejian Zhou, Thomas A Steitz, Yury S Polikanov, Matthieu G Gagnon
Genetic information is translated into proteins by the ribosome. Structural studies of the ribosome and of its complexes with factors and inhibitors have provided invaluable information on the mechanism of protein synthesis. Ribosome inhibitors are among the most successful antimicrobial drugs and constitute more than half of all medicines used to treat infections. However, bacterial infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat because the microbes have developed resistance to the most effective antibiotics, creating a major public health care threat...
March 23, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547341/understanding-biological-regulation-through-synthetic-biology
#12
Caleb J Bashor, James J Collins
Engineering synthetic gene regulatory circuits proceeds through iterative cycles of design, building, and testing. Initial circuit designs must rely on often-incomplete models of regulation established by fields of reductive inquiry-biochemistry and molecular and systems biology. As differences in designed and experimentally observed circuit behavior are inevitably encountered, investigated, and resolved, each turn of the engineering cycle can force a resynthesis in understanding of natural network function...
March 16, 2018: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512269/from-gene-to-structure-lactobacillus-bulgaricus-d-lactate-dehydrogenase-from-yogurt-as-an-integrated-curriculum-model-for-undergraduate-molecular-biology-and-biochemistry-laboratory-courses
#13
Jeffrey A Lawton, Noelle A Prescott, Ping X Lawton
We have developed an integrated, project-oriented curriculum for undergraduate molecular biology and biochemistry laboratory courses spanning two semesters that is organized around the ldhA gene from the yogurt-fermenting bacterium Lactobacillus bulgaricus, which encodes the enzyme d-lactate dehydrogenase. The molecular biology module, which consists of nine experiments carried out over eleven sessions, begins with the isolation of genomic DNA from L. bulgaricus in yogurt and guides students through the process of cloning the ldhA gene into a prokaryotic expression vector, followed by mRNA isolation and characterization of recombinant gene expression levels using RT-PCR...
March 7, 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494241/directed-evolution-of-protein-catalysts
#14
Cathleen Zeymer, Donald Hilvert
Directed evolution is a powerful technique for generating tailor-made enzymes for a wide range of biocatalytic applications. Following the principles of natural evolution, iterative cycles of mutagenesis and screening or selection are applied to modify protein properties, enhance catalytic activities, or develop completely new protein catalysts for non-natural chemical transformations. This review briefly surveys the experimental methods used to generate genetic diversity and screen or select for improved enzyme variants...
March 1, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494240/defining-adult-stem-cells-by-function-not-by-phenotype
#15
Hans Clevers, Fiona M Watt
Central to the classical hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) paradigm is the concept that the maintenance of blood cell numbers is exclusively executed by a discrete physical entity: the transplantable HSC. The HSC paradigm has served as a stereotypic template in stem cell biology, yet the search for rare, hardwired professional stem cells has remained futile in most other tissues. In a more open approach, the focus on the search for stem cells as a physical entity may need to be replaced by the search for stem cell function, operationally defined as the ability of an organ to replace lost cells...
March 1, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494239/2-oxoglutarate-dependent-oxygenases
#16
Md Saiful Islam, Thomas M Leissing, Rasheduzzaman Chowdhury, Richard J Hopkinson, Christopher J Schofield
2-Oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases (2OGXs) catalyze a remarkably diverse range of oxidative reactions. In animals, these comprise hydroxylations and N-demethylations proceeding via hydroxylation; in plants and microbes, they catalyze a wider range including ring formations, rearrangements, desaturations, and halogenations. The catalytic flexibility of 2OGXs is reflected in their biological functions. After pioneering work identified the roles of 2OGXs in collagen biosynthesis, research indicated they also function in plant and animal development, transcriptional regulation, nucleic acid modification/repair, fatty acid metabolism, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis, including of medicinally important antibiotics...
March 1, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494238/translesion-and-repair-dna-polymerases-diverse-structure-and-mechanism
#17
Wei Yang, Yang Gao
The number of DNA polymerases identified in each organism has mushroomed in last two decades. Most newly found DNA polymerases specialize in translesion synthesis and DNA repair instead of replication. Although intrinsic error rates are higher for translesion and repair polymerases than for replicative polymerases, the specialized polymerases increase genome stability and reduce tumorigenesis. Reflecting the numerous types ofDNAlesions and variations of broken DNA ends, translesion and repair polymerases differ in structure, mechanism, and function...
March 1, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494237/lipid-cell-biology-a-focus-on-lipids-in-cell-division
#18
Elisabeth M Storck, Cagakan Özbalci, Ulrike S Eggert
Cells depend on hugely diverse lipidomes for many functions. The actions and structural integrity of the plasma membrane and most organelles also critically depend on membranes and their lipid components. Despite the biological importance of lipids, our understanding of lipid engagement, especially the roles of lipid hydrophobic alkyl side chains, in key cellular processes is still developing. Emerging research has begun to dissect the importance of lipids in intricate events such as cell division. This review discusses how these structurally diverse biomolecules are spatially and temporally regulated during cell division, with a focus on cytokinesis...
March 1, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420800/yesterday-and-today-the-impact-of-research-conducted-at-camp-detrick-on-botulinum-toxin
#19
Frank J Lebeda, Michael Adler, Zygmunt F Dembek
Introduction: This review summarizes the research conducted on botulinum toxin (BoTx) from 1943 to 1956 by a small group of Camp Detrick investigators and their staff. A systematic, cross-disciplinary approach was used to develop effective vaccines against this biological warfare threat agent. In response to the potential need for medical countermeasures against BoTx during World War II, the refinement of isolation and purification techniques for BoTx successfully led to the large-scale production of botulinum toxoid vaccines...
February 6, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401000/principles-of-protein-stability-and-their-application-in-computational-design
#20
Adi Goldenzweig, Sarel Fleishman
Proteins are increasingly used in basic and applied biomedical research.Many proteins, however, are only marginally stable and can be expressed in limited amounts, thus hampering research and applications. Research has revealed the thermodynamic, cellular, and evolutionary principles and mechanisms that underlie marginal stability. With this growing understanding, computational stability design methods have advanced over the past two decades starting from methods that selectively addressed only some aspects of marginal stability...
January 26, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
keyword
keyword
35319
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"