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Journal of Biochemistry

John J Beck, Hans Alborn, Anna Block, Shawn A Christensen, Charles T Hunter, Caitlin C Rering, Irmgard Seidl-Adams, Charles Stuhl, Baldwyn Torto, James H Tumlinson
The last two decades have witnessed a sustained increase in the study of plant-emitted volatiles and their role in plant-insect, plant-microbe and plant-plant interactions. While each of these binary systems involves complex chemical and biochemical processes between two organisms, the progression of increasing complexity of a ternary system (i.e., plant-insect-microbe), and the study of a ternary system requires non-trivial planning. This planning can include: an experimental design that factors in potential overarching ecological interactions regarding the binary or ternary system; correctly identifying and understanding unexpected observations that may occur during the experiment; and, thorough interpretation of the resultant data...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
F Peter Guengerich
In honor of the 100th birthday of Dr. Herbert Tabor, JBC's Editor-in-Chief for 40 years, here I review JBC's extensive coverage of the field of cytochrome P450 (P450) research. Research on the reactions catalyzed by these enzymes was published in JBC before it was even realized that they were P450s, that is, that they have a "pigment" with an absorption maximum at 450 nm. After the P450 pigment discovery, reported in JBC in 1962, the journal proceeded to publish the methods for measuring P450 activities and many seminal findings...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Chun-Li Zheng, James B Cotner, Chikashi Sato, Gang Li, Yao-Yang Xu
Antibiotics are used to fight diseases in humans and farm animals. Their residues, however, can enter aquatic environments and affect the resistance of non-target microbial strains, and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) potentially poses negative impacts on human health. In order to better understand how the studies of antibiotics have been conducted, we analyzed the publications on antibiotics in aquatic systems for the period of 1945-2017. We applied a bibliometric analysis method by coupling cluster analysis and network analysis...
May 25, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Tilman Schneider-Poetsch, Minoru Yoshida
The central dogma of molecular biology, that DNA is transcribed into RNA and RNA translated into protein, was coined in the early days of modern biology. Back in the 1950s and 1960s, bacterial genetics first opened the way toward understanding life as the genetically encoded interaction of macromolecules. As molecular biology progressed and our knowledge of gene control deepened, it became increasingly clear that expression relied on many more levels of regulation. In the process of dissecting mechanisms of gene expression, specific small-molecule inhibitors played an important role and became valuable tools of investigation...
June 20, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Enrico Cappellini, Ana Prohaska, Fernando Racimo, Frido Welker, Mikkel Winther Pedersen, Morten E Allentoft, Peter de Barros Damgaard, Petra Gutenbrunner, Julie Dunne, Simon Hammann, Mélanie Roffet-Salque, Melissa Ilardo, J Víctor Moreno-Mayar, Yucheng Wang, Martin Sikora, Lasse Vinner, Jürgen Cox, Richard P Evershed, Eske Willerslev
Over the last decade, studies of ancient biomolecules-particularly ancient DNA, proteins, and lipids-have revolutionized our understanding of evolutionary history. Though initially fraught with many challenges, the field now stands on firm foundations. Researchers now successfully retrieve nucleotide and amino acid sequences, as well as lipid signatures, from progressively older samples, originating from geographic areas and depositional environments that, until recently, were regarded as hostile to long-term preservation of biomolecules...
April 25, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Aleem Syed, John A Tainer
Genomic instability in disease and its fidelity in health depend on the DNA damage response (DDR), regulated in part from the complex of meiotic recombination 11 homolog 1 (MRE11), ATP-binding cassette-ATPase (RAD50), and phosphopeptide-binding Nijmegen breakage syndrome protein 1 (NBS1). The MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex forms a multifunctional DDR machine. Within its network assemblies, MRN is the core conductor for the initial and sustained responses to DNA double-strand breaks, stalled replication forks, dysfunctional telomeres, and viral DNA infection...
April 25, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Antonio Santisteban-Espejo, Fernando Campos, Laura Martin-Piedra, Daniel Durand-Herrera, Jose Antonio Moral-Munoz, Antonio Campos, Miguel Angel Martin-Piedra
Tissue engineering (TE) is defined as a multidisciplinary scientific discipline with the main objective to develop artificial bioengineered living tissues to regenerate damaged or lost tissues. Since its appearance in 1988, TE has globally spread to improve current therapeutic approaches, entailing a revolution in clinical practice. The aim of this study is to analyze global research trends on TE publications to realize the scenario of TE research from 1991 to 2016 by using document retrieval from Web of Science database and bibliometric analysis...
May 24, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Maria Samata, Asifa Akhtar
X chromosome regulation represents a prime example of an epigenetic phenomenon where coordinated regulation of a whole chromosome is required. In flies, this is achieved by transcriptional upregulation of X chromosomal genes in males to equalize the gene dosage differences in females. Chromatin-bound proteins and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) constituting a ribonucleoprotein complex known as the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex or the dosage compensation complex mediate this process. MSL complex members decorate the male X chromosome, and their absence leads to male lethality...
April 18, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Grace E Kenney, Amy C Rosenzweig
Copper-binding metallophores, or chalkophores, play a role in microbial copper homeostasis that is analogous to that of siderophores in iron homeostasis. The best-studied chalkophores are members of the methanobactin (Mbn) family-ribosomally produced, posttranslationally modified natural products first identified as copper chelators responsible for copper uptake in methane-oxidizing bacteria. To date, Mbns have been characterized exclusively in those species, but there is genomic evidence for their production in a much wider range of bacteria...
April 18, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Marcel Mettlen, Ping-Hung Chen, Saipraveen Srinivasan, Gaudenz Danuser, Sandra L Schmid
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the major endocytic pathway in mammalian cells. It is responsible for the uptake of transmembrane receptors and transporters, for remodeling plasma membrane composition in response to environmental changes, and for regulating cell surface signaling. CME occurs via the assembly and maturation of clathrin-coated pits that concentrate cargo as they invaginate and pinch off to form clathrin-coated vesicles. In addition to the major coat proteins, clathrin triskelia and adaptor protein complexes, CME requires a myriad of endocytic accessory proteins and phosphatidylinositol lipids...
April 16, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Jared A M Bard, Ellen A Goodall, Eric R Greene, Erik Jonsson, Ken C Dong, Andreas Martin
As the endpoint for the ubiquitin-proteasome system, the 26S proteasome is the principal proteolytic machine responsible for regulated protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. The proteasome's cellular functions range from general protein homeostasis and stress response to the control of vital processes such as cell division and signal transduction. To reliably process all the proteins presented to it in the complex cellular environment, the proteasome must combine high promiscuity with exceptional substrate selectivity...
April 13, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Samar A Mahmoud, Peter Chien
Regulated proteolysis is a vital process that affects all living things. Bacteria use energy-dependent AAA+ proteases to power degradation of misfolded and native regulatory proteins. Given that proteolysis is an irreversible event, specificity and selectivity in degrading substrates are key. Specificity is often augmented through the use of adaptors that modify the inherent specificity of the proteolytic machinery. Regulated protein degradation is intricately linked to quality control, cell-cycle progression, and physiological transitions...
April 12, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Senthil K Vasan, Ambuj Roy, Viji Thomson Samuel, Belavendra Antonisamy, Santosh K Bhargava, Anoop George Alex, Bhaskar Singh, Clive Osmond, Finney S Geethanjali, Fredrik Karpe, Harshpal Sachdev, Kanhaiya Agrawal, Lakshmy Ramakrishnan, Nikhil Tandon, Nihal Thomas, Prasanna S Premkumar, Prrathepa Asaithambi, Sneha F X Princy, Sikha Sinha, Thomas Vizhalil Paul, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Caroline H D Fall
INTRODUCTION: South Asians have high rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and central obesity). Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dysfunction are features of these disorders and important predictors of CVD mortality. Lower birth and infant weight and greater childhood weight gain are associated with increased adult CVD mortality, but there are few data on their relationship to LV function. The IndEcho study will examine associations of birth size, growth during infancy, childhood and adolescence and CVD risk factors in young adulthood with midlife cardiac structure and function in South Asian Indians...
April 10, 2018: BMJ Open
Bruno Antonny, Joëlle Bigay, Bruno Mesmin
To maintain an asymmetric distribution of ions across membranes, protein pumps displace ions against their concentration gradient by using chemical energy. Here, we describe a functionally analogous but topologically opposite process that applies to the lipid transfer protein (LTP) oxysterolbinding protein (OSBP). This multidomain protein exchanges cholesterol for the phosphoinositide phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P] between two apposed membranes. Because of the subsequent hydrolysis of PI(4)P, this counterexchange is irreversible and contributes to the establishment of a cholesterol gradient along organelles of the secretory pathway...
March 29, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Atanas D Radkov, Yen-Pang Hsu, Garrett Booher, Michael S VanNieuwenhze
Peptidoglycan is an essential component of the cell wall that protects bacteria from environmental stress. A carefully coordinated biosynthesis of peptidoglycan during cell elongation and division is required for cell viability. This biosynthesis involves sophisticated enzyme machineries that dynamically synthesize, remodel, and degrade peptidoglycan. However, when and where bacteria build peptidoglycan, and how this is coordinated with cell growth, have been long-standing questions in the field. The improvement of microscopy techniques has provided powerful approaches to study peptidoglycan biosynthesis with high spatiotemporal resolution...
March 29, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Mary C Andorfer, Jared C Lewis
Flavin-dependent halogenases (FDHs) catalyze the halogenation of organic substrates by coordinating reactions of reduced flavin, molecular oxygen, and chloride. Targeted and random mutagenesis of these enzymes have been used to both understand and alter their reactivity. These studies have led to insights into residues essential for catalysis and FDH variants with improved stability, expanded substrate scope, and altered site selectivity. Mutations throughout FDH structures have contributed to all of these advances...
March 28, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Samim Sharifi, Holger Bierhoff
Ribosome biogenesis is a complex and highly energy-demanding process that requires the concerted action of all three nuclear RNA polymerases (Pol I-III) in eukaryotes. The three largest ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) originate from a precursor transcript (pre-rRNA) that is encoded by multicopy genes located in the nucleolus. Transcription of these rRNA genes (rDNA) by Pol I is the key regulation step in ribosome production and is tightly controlled by an intricate network of signaling pathways and epigenetic mechanisms...
March 28, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Jinzhong Lin, Dejian Zhou, Thomas A Steitz, Yury S Polikanov, Matthieu G Gagnon
Genetic information is translated into proteins by the ribosome. Structural studies of the ribosome and of its complexes with factors and inhibitors have provided invaluable information on the mechanism of protein synthesis. Ribosome inhibitors are among the most successful antimicrobial drugs and constitute more than half of all medicines used to treat infections. However, bacterial infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat because the microbes have developed resistance to the most effective antibiotics, creating a major public health care threat...
March 23, 2018: Annual Review of Biochemistry
Caleb J Bashor, James J Collins
Engineering synthetic gene regulatory circuits proceeds through iterative cycles of design, building, and testing. Initial circuit designs must rely on often-incomplete models of regulation established by fields of reductive inquiry-biochemistry and molecular and systems biology. As differences in designed and experimentally observed circuit behavior are inevitably encountered, investigated, and resolved, each turn of the engineering cycle can force a resynthesis in understanding of natural network function...
March 16, 2018: Annual Review of Biophysics
Jeffrey A Lawton, Noelle A Prescott, Ping X Lawton
We have developed an integrated, project-oriented curriculum for undergraduate molecular biology and biochemistry laboratory courses spanning two semesters that is organized around the ldhA gene from the yogurt-fermenting bacterium Lactobacillus bulgaricus, which encodes the enzyme d-lactate dehydrogenase. The molecular biology module, which consists of nine experiments carried out over eleven sessions, begins with the isolation of genomic DNA from L. bulgaricus in yogurt and guides students through the process of cloning the ldhA gene into a prokaryotic expression vector, followed by mRNA isolation and characterization of recombinant gene expression levels using RT-PCR...
March 7, 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
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