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Cathespin D

Georg Nübling, M Schuberth, K Feldmer, A Giese, L M Holdt, D Teupser, S Lorenzl
Limited cleavage promotes the aggregation propensity of protein tau in neurodegenerative tauopathies. Cathepsin S (CatS) is overexpressed in brains of patients suffering from tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, CatS serum levels correlate with survival in the elderly. The current study investigates whether limited cleavage by CatS promotes tau aggregation, and whether CatS serum levels may correlate with disease severity in tauopathies. Oligomer formation of fluorescently labeled protein tau was monitored by single particle fluorescence spectroscopy after coincubation with CatS...
August 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
A Ouali, N Garrel, A Obled, C Deval, C Valin, I F Penny
Specific action of cathespins D, B, H, L, and of a new high Mr (molecular weight relative to hydrogen) cysteine proteinase, on rabbit muscle myofibrils was studied at pH 5·7 by following changes affecting their ATPase activities, their calcium sensitivity, their effect on the ultrastructure, as well as the electrophoretic pattern of the contractile proteins in the presence of SDS. With regard to the MgCa-enhanced ATPase activity, all these proteinases had a very similar effect. A decrease in this activity was thus noted concomitantly with a shift of the straight-line graph obtained when plotting the present acto-myosin ATPase activity versus KCl concentrations...
1987: Meat Science
Krishna Kumar Veeravalli, Chandramu Chetty, Shivani Ponnala, Christopher S Gondi, Sajani S Lakka, Daniel Fassett, Jeffrey D Klopfenstein, Dzung H Dinh, Meena Gujrati, Jasti S Rao
BACKGROUND: Involvement of MMP-9, uPAR and cathepsin B in adhesion, migration, invasion, proliferation, metastasis and tumor growth has been well established. In the present study, MMP-9, uPAR and cathepsin B genes were downregulated in glioma xenograft cells using shRNA plasmid constructs and we evaluated the involvement of integrins and changes in their adhesion, migration and invasive potential. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MMP-9, uPAR and cathepsin B single shRNA plasmid constructs were used to downregulate these molecules in xenograft cells...
July 15, 2010: PloS One
Chong Zhang, Jia-bang Sun, Da-chuan Liu, Ye-qing Cui, Shuang Liu, Hai-chen Sun
BACKGROUND: Cathespin-B (cath-B) is an important proteolytic enzyme involved in the disease course of invasion in many types of cancer. Cath-B expression in subcutaneous heteroplastic pancreatic carcinoma in nude mice has not been studied. We investigated the role of cath-B in a model of heteroplastic pancreatic carcinoma in BALB/c nude mice. METHODS: Thirty-two six-week-old female BALB/c nude mice were equally divided into four groups. PANC-1 cells were inoculated subcutaneously in the left axillary region...
October 20, 2009: Chinese Medical Journal
D von Stechow, D Zurakowski, A R Pettit, R Müller, G Gronowicz, M Chorev, H Otu, T Libermann, Joseph M Alexander
The aim of this study was to compare transcriptional regulation in vivo during anabolic bone formation induced by either estradiol (E2) treatment or intermittent parathyroid hormone[1-34] (PTH) therapy. We utilized an ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model of osteoporosis and transcriptional profiling to identify genes upregulated by either high-dose E2 or PTH. Five weeks post-OVX, the mice were administered either E2 and/or PTH, or vehicle for 4 weeks. Femoral bones were analyzed by microCT and histomorphometry to confirm the anabolic effect of each treatment...
October 15, 2004: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Hao Ying, Hideyo Suzuki, Hiroko Furumoto, Robert Walker, Paul Meltzer, Mark C Willingham, Sheue-Yann Cheng
The molecular genetics underlying thyroid carcinogenesis is not well understood. We have recently created a mutant mouse by targeting a mutation (PV) into the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene (TRbetaPV mouse). TRbetaPV/PV mice spontaneously develop follicular thyroid carcinoma through pathological progression of hyperplasia, capsular and vascular invasion, anaplasia and eventually metastasis to distant organs. TRbetaPV/PV mice provide an unusual opportunity to study the alterations in gene regulation that occur during thyroid carcinogenesis...
September 2003: Carcinogenesis
T J Bhojak, S T DeKosky, M Ganguli, M I Kamboh
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex multi-factorial disease with the involvement of several possible genes. The apolipoprotein E*4 (APOE*4) allele of the known susceptibility gene, APOE, is neither necessary nor sufficient to cause AD. This has prompted the search for other candidate genes associated with the risk of AD. Cathepsin D (Cat D) is an intracellular aspartyl protease that has been reported to have in vitro beta and gamma-secretase activity. The presence of a C-->T (Ala-->Val) polymorphism in exon 2 of the Cat D gene has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of AD...
July 7, 2000: Neuroscience Letters
L Kozłowski, M Z Wojtukiewicz
Proteases are reported to play an essential role in the proliferative, invasive, and metastatic potential of malignant tumor cells. Metastasis is characterized by a complex series of interactions between tumor cells and their environment. Tumor expansion and invasion are associated with the destruction of normal tissues around the tumor by a variety of classes of tumor and host-derived extracelullar matrix-degrading proteinases. Increased levels of the major lysosomal proteinases cathespin B, D, L, metalloproteinases and plasminogen activators, are correlated with tumor cell invasion and metastasis in human melanoma and other skin tumors, breast and colorectal cancer...
1999: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
N Levy-Strumpf, A Kimchi
The process of apoptosis (programmed cell death) has become the subject of intensive and extensive research over the past few years. Various approaches are being used to identify and study genes which function as positive mediators of apoptosis. Here, we address a novel approach of gene cloning aimed at isolating intracellular death promoting genes by utilizing a functional screen. This method, called TKO, was based on transfection of cells with an anti-sense cDNA library, followed by the selection of transfectants which survived in the continuous presence of a killing cytokine-interferon-gamma...
December 24, 1998: Oncogene
P Li, R Barraclough, D G Fernig, J A Smith, P S Rudland
The rodent and human nonpregnant mammary glands contain epithelial, intermediate and myoepithelial cells which have all been isolated as cell lines in vitro. Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF alpha) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) are produced by myoepithelial cells and can stimulate the growth of intermediate stem cells in vitro. Epithelial and intermediate cells behave like stem cells in vitro, since they can differentiate into alveolar-like an myoepithelial cells. The myoepithelial differentiation pathway is associated with the early expression of a calcium-binding regulatory protein called p9Ka and the protease, Cathepsin D...
August 1998: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
A M Cataldo, D J Hamilton, J L Barnett, P A Paskevich, R A Nixon
Specific antibodies and cytochemical markers combined with several imaging and morphometric techniques were used to characterize the endosomal-lysosomal system in mature neurons of the normal human central nervous system and to quantitate changes in its function in Alzheimer's disease. Compartments containing cathespin D (Cat D) and other acid hydrolases included a major subpopulation of mature lysosomes lacking mannose-6-phosphate receptors (MPR) and smaller populations of late endosomes (MPR-positive) and lipofuscin granules (MPR-negative)...
January 1996: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
T Ohshita, H Kido
Brain lysosomes were isolated from rat cerebra by Percoll density gradient centrifugation. The lysosomes had little and no contamination by marker enzymes from mitochondria and other organellae, respectively, and the yield was approximately 14% of the postnuclear supernatant. The activities of cathespins B, L, and/or J were similar to those of liver or kidney lysosomes, but the levels of cathepsin H activity were much lower than those of liver or kidney lysosomes. The degradation of native L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and rat serum albumin by the isolated brain lysosomes in vitro was markedly suppressed by a low level of the cysteine proteinase inhibitor cystatin alpha, with slight inhibition of the activities of cathepsins B, L, and/or J...
September 1, 1995: Analytical Biochemistry
D W Hayden, D J Waters, B A Burke, J C Manivel
Diagnosis of malignant histiocytosis (MH), a disorder characterized by systemic proliferation of morphologically atypical histiocytes and their precursors, in an 8-year-old neutered female Golden Retriever was based on light and electron microscopic and immunohistochemical findings. Clinically, the dog presented with unilateral forelimb lameness. Eight days after surgical exploration of a swollen brachium, the dog developed sudden onset of posterior paresis, fecal and urinary incontinence, and a flaccid tail...
May 1993: Veterinary Pathology
M G Rosenfeld, G Kreibich, D Popov, K Kato, D D Sabatini
By in vitro translation of mRNA's isolated from free and membrane-bound polysomes, direct evidence was obtained for the synthesis of two lysosomal hydrolases, beta-glucuronidase of the rat preputial gland and cathespin D of mouse spleen, on polysomes bound to rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes. When the mRNA's for these two proteins were translated in the presence of microsomal membranes, the in vitro synthesized polypeptides were cotranslationally glycosylated and transferred into the microsomal lumen...
April 1982: Journal of Cell Biology
F Barceló, N Vives, J Bozal
A method for purifying the haemoglobinolitic activity to acid pH in chicken liver is described. The purified preparation contains cathespin D activity since it is inhibited by diazoacetyl-DL-norleucine methylester in the presence of cupric ions, while thiol-enzyme reagents do not affect it. The molecular weight of the enzyme is approximately 40,000--45,000 and the pH optimum against haemoglobin and bovine serum albumin is 3.5-3.7. The rate of degradation of albumin and casein is much less than that of haemoglobin...
March 1980: Revista Española de Fisiología
H Kido, N Fukusen, N Katunuma
The activity of chymase was markedly inhibited by fatty acids with carbon chain lengths of 14-22 at doses greater than 0.02 microM, irrespective of the number of double bonds. Cis acids with a carbon chain length of 18, such as stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid were potent inhibitors, whereas the trans isomer of oleic acid, elaidic acid, showed less inhibitory activity. The extent of inhibition by oleyl alcohol was almost the same as that by oleic acid, suggesting that the acid moiety itself was not necessary for the inhibition; but a fatty acid with a terminal functional amide, oleamide, showed little inhibitory activity...
May 1, 1984: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
T C Friedman, M Orlowski, S Wilk
The activities of a number of peptide-degrading enzymes were compared in homogenates of GH3 cells and rat anterior pituitaries. The enzymes studied were prolyl endopeptidase (EC, a soluble metalloendopeptidase, pyroglutamyl peptide hydrolase (EC, a multicatalytic protease complex, cathepsin B (EC, cathepsin D (EC, aminopeptidase (EC, and a membrane-bound neutral metalloendopeptidase (EC Specific substrates were used to measure the activities, and active-site-directed inhibitors were used to verify the identities of the enzymes studied...
April 1984: Endocrinology
T Manabe, M L Steer
Prostaglandins have been noted to have a "protective" effect against gastrointestinal mucosal injury induced by a wide variety of agents although possible protective effects of prostaglandins on injury to other tissues have not been reported. We have tested the effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on acute experimental pancreatitis induced by feeding young female mice a choline-deficient ethionine-supplemented (CDE) diet for 24 hr. Administration of 0.05--0.20 microgram PGE2/g body wt 1 hr before and 4 hr after institution of the CDE diet lowered the mortality rate of diet-induced pancreatitis from 56% to 31%...
April 1980: Gastroenterology
C Smith, D Assimos, C Lee, J T Grayhack
The mechanism of the observed synergistic effect of prolactin and androgen on the lateral lobe of the rat prostate is not established. The observation that prolactin alone delayed the rate of loss of weight, protein, and DNA of the lateral lobe in castrated rats has led us to question the assumption that the effect of prolactin is produced by a modification of recognized androgen-induced intracellular changes. The present study was conducted to explore whether or not the sites of prolactin action in the rat prostate coincided with those recognized as the androgen effect...
1985: Prostate
K Furuno, N Miwa, T Ishikawa, K Kato
Administration of Ep459-asialofetuin conjugate (Ep459-AF) and pepstatin-asialofetuin conjugate (Ps-AF) to rats effectively inhibited lysosomal BANA hydrolase and cathepsin D in the liver, respectively, at a very low dose. Ep459-AF treatment also led to an accumulation of autolysosomes in rat liver. There was a close correlation between the accumulation of autolysosomes and the inhibition of BANA hydrolase activity. However, as opposed to the inhibition of thiol proteases, the inhibition of cathespin D did not cause accumulation of autolysosomes in the rat liver...
January 1985: Experimental Cell Research
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