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Microglia and migration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791619/vimentin-promotes-astrocyte-activation-after-chronic-constriction-injury
#1
Pengfei Xue, Liming Chen, Xiongsong Lu, Jinlong Zhang, Guofeng Bao, Guanhua Xu, Yuyu Sun, Xiaofeng Guo, Jiawei Jiang, Haiyan Gu, Zhiming Cui
Vimentin, among the family of the intermediate filament, plays as the organizer of some critical proteins involved in migration, attachment, and cell signaling. In this study, the role of vimentin in chronic constriction injury (CCI) was investigated. Western blot revealed increased protein level of vimentin following CCI, peaking at 7 days. Double immunofluorescent staining showed that vimentin was mostly co-localized with astrocytes, not with neurons or microglia. In vitro, sensory neuronal injury stimulated astrocytes to produce more pro-inflammation cytokines, p-ERK (phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase), and vimentin...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782084/brain-perivascular-macrophages-characterization-and-functional-roles-in-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Giuseppe Faraco, Laibaik Park, Josef Anrather, Costantino Iadecola
Perivascular macrophages (PVM) are a distinct population of resident brain macrophages characterized by a close association with the cerebral vasculature. PVM migrate from the yolk sac into the brain early in development and, like microglia, are likely to be a self-renewing cell population that, in the normal state, is not replenished by circulating monocytes. Increasing evidence implicates PVM in several disease processes, ranging from brain infections and immune activation to regulation of the hypothalamic-adrenal axis and neurovascular-neurocognitive dysfunction in the setting of hypertension, Alzheimer disease pathology, or obesity...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782074/a-cell-culture-technique-for-human-epiretinal-membranes-to-describe-cell-behavior-and-membrane-contraction-in-vitro
#3
Christian Wertheimer, Kirsten H Eibl-Lindner, Denise Compera, Alexander Kueres, Armin Wolf, Denitsa Docheva, Siegfried G Priglinger, Claudia Priglinger, Ricarda G Schumann
PURPOSE: To introduce a human cell culture technique for investigating in-vitro behavior of primary epiretinal cells and membrane contraction of fibrocellular tissue surgically removed from eyes with idiopathic macular pucker. METHODS: Human epiretinal membranes were harvested from ten eyes with idiopathic macular pucker during standard vitrectomy. Specimens were fixed on cell culture plastic using small entomological pins to apply horizontal stress to the tissue, and then transferred to standard cell culture conditions...
August 7, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774571/activation-of-neonatal-microglia-can-be-influenced-by-other-neural-cells
#4
Alexandra Turano, Jennifer H Lawrence, Jaclyn M Schwarz
During development, microglial progenitor cells migrate into the brain from the periphery, a process critical to the maturation of the developing brain. Although they perform functions similar to mature, adult microglia, immature microglia are distinct from mature microglia. Activation of immature microglia, via an early-life immune challenge, can lead to persistent changes in microglial function, resulting in long-term neuronal and cognitive dysfunction. Early-life immune activation is associated with multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, ADHD, schizophrenia, and cerebral palsy - disorders with known or suspected immune etiologies, and strong sex biases for males...
July 31, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763502/onset-of-microglial-entry-into-developing-quail-retina-coincides-with-increased-expression-of-active-caspase-3-and-is-mediated-by-extracellular-atp-and-udp
#5
María Martín-Estebané, Julio Navascués, Ana Sierra-Martín, Sandra M Martín-Guerrero, Miguel A Cuadros, María-Carmen Carrasco, José L Marín-Teva
Microglial cell precursors located in the area of the base of the pecten and the optic nerve head (BP/ONH) start to enter the retina of quail embryos at the 7th day of incubation (E7), subsequently colonizing the entire retina by central-to-peripheral tangential migration, as previously shown by our group. The present study demonstrates a precise chronological coincidence of the onset of microglial cell entry into the retina with a striking increase in death of retinal cells, as revealed by their active caspase-3 expression and TUNEL staining, in regions dorsal to the BP/ONH area, suggesting that dying retinal cells would contribute to the microglial cell inflow into the retina...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745620/identification-of-erythromyeloid-progenitors-and-their-progeny-in-the-mouse-embryo-by-flow-cytometry
#6
Lorea Iturri, Javier Saenz Coronilla, Yvan Lallemand, Elisa Gomez Perdiguero
Macrophages are professional phagocytes from the innate arm of the immune system. In steady-state, sessile macrophages are found in adult tissues where they act as front line sentinels of infection and tissue damage. While other immune cells are continuously renewed from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) located in the bone marrow, a lineage of macrophages, known as resident macrophages, have been shown to be self-maintained in tissues without input from bone marrow HSPCs. This lineage is exemplified by microglia in the brain, Kupffer cells in the liver and Langerhans cells in the epidermis among others...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736137/nogo-presence-is-inversely-associated-with-shifts-in-cortical-microglial-morphology-following-experimental-diffuse-brain-injury
#7
Jenna M Ziebell, Helen Ray-Jones, Jonathan Lifshitz
Diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates secondary pathology, including inflammation and reduced myelination. Considering these injury-related pathologies, the many states of activated microglia as demonstrated by differing morphologies would form, migrate, and function in and through fields of growth-inhibitory myelin byproduct, specifically Nogo. Here we evaluate the relationship between inflammation and reduced myelin antigenicity in the wake of diffuse TBI and present the hypothesis that the Nogo-66 receptor antagonist peptide NEP(1-40) would reverse the injury-induced shift in distribution of microglia morphologies by limiting myelin-based inhibition...
July 20, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729832/the-role-of-microglia-in-retinal-neurodegeneration-alzheimer-s-disease-parkinson-and-glaucoma
#8
REVIEW
Ana I Ramirez, Rosa de Hoz, Elena Salobrar-Garcia, Juan J Salazar, Blanca Rojas, Daniel Ajoy, Inés López-Cuenca, Pilar Rojas, Alberto Triviño, José M Ramírez
Microglia, the immunocompetent cells of the central nervous system (CNS), act as neuropathology sensors and are neuroprotective under physiological conditions. Microglia react to injury and degeneration with immune-phenotypic and morphological changes, proliferation, migration, and inflammatory cytokine production. An uncontrolled microglial response secondary to sustained CNS damage can put neuronal survival at risk due to excessive inflammation. A neuroinflammatory response is considered among the etiological factors of the major aged-related neurodegenerative diseases of the CNS, and microglial cells are key players in these neurodegenerative lesions...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724755/trim33-tif1-%C3%AE-is-essential-for-macrophage-and-neutrophil-mobilisation-to-developmental-or-inflammatory-cues
#9
Doris Lou Demy, Muriel Tauzin, Mylène Lancino, Véronique le Cabec, Michael Redd, Emi Murayama, Isabelle Maridonneau-Parini, Nikolaus Trede, Philippe Herbomel
Macrophages infiltrate and establish in developing organs from an early stage, often before these have become vascularised. Similarly, leukocytes in general can quickly migrate through tissues to any site of wounding. This unique capacity is rooted in their characteristic amoeboid motility, the genetic basis of which is poorly known. Trim33 (Tif1-γ), a nuclear protein that associates with specific DNA binding transcription factors to modulate gene expression, has been found mainly involved in hematopoiesis and gene regulation by TGF-ß...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695619/m%C3%A3-ller-glia-and-phagocytosis-of-cell-debris-in-retinal-tissue
#10
REVIEW
Ruth Bejarano-Escobar, Hortensia Sánchez-Calderón, Josué Otero-Arenas, Gervasio Martín-Partido, Javier Francisco-Morcillo
Müller cells are the predominant glial cell type in the retina of vertebrates. They play a wide variety of roles in both the developing and the mature retina that have been widely reported in the literature. However, less attention has been paid to their role in phagocytosis of cell debris under physiological, pathological or experimental conditions. Müller glia have been shown to phagocytose apoptotic cell bodies originated during development of the visual system. They also engulf foreign molecules that are injected into the eye, cone outer segments and injured photoreceptors...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687308/deep-hypothermia-therapy-attenuates-lps-induced-microglia-neuroinflammation-via-the-stat3-pathway
#11
G Tong, A Krauss, J Mochner, S Wollersheim, P Soltani, F Berger, K R L Schmitt
Deep hypothermia therapy (HT) is a standard method for neuroprotection during complex pediatric cardiac surgery involving extracorporeal circulation and deep hypothermic cardiac arrest. The procedure, however, can provoke systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), one of the most severe side effects associated with pediatric cardiac surgery. To date, the cellular inflammatory mechanisms induced by deep HT remain to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the effects of deep HT (17°C) and rewarming on the inflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated BV-2 murine microglia...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677658/abscopal-activation-of-microglia-in-embryonic-fish-brain-following-targeted-irradiation-with-heavy-ion-microbeam
#12
Takako Yasuda, Miyuki Kamahori, Kento Nagata, Tomomi Watanabe-Asaka, Michiyo Suzuki, Tomoo Funayama, Hiroshi Mitani, Shoji Oda
Microglia remove apoptotic cells by phagocytosis when the central nervous system is injured in vertebrates. Ionizing irradiation (IR) induces apoptosis and microglial activation in embryonic midbrain of medaka (Oryzias latipes), where apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is upregulated in the later phase of activation of microglia In this study, we found that another microglial marker, l-plastin (lymphocyte cytosolic protein 1), was upregulated at the initial phase of the IR-induced phagocytosis when activated microglia changed their morphology and increased motility to migrate...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676742/complement-components-showed-a-time-dependent-local-expression-pattern-in-constant-and-acute-white-light-induced-photoreceptor-damage
#13
Nicole Schäfer, Antje Grosche, Sabrina I Schmitt, Barbara M Braunger, Diana Pauly
Background: Photoreceptor cell death due to extensive light exposure and induced oxidative-stress are associated with retinal degeneration. A correlated dysregulation of the complement system amplifies the damaging effects, but the local and time-dependent progression of this mechanism is not thoroughly understood. Methods: Light-induced photoreceptor damage (LD) was induced in Balb/c mice with white light illumination either for 24 h with 1000 lux (constant model) or 0.5 h with 5000 lux (acute model). Complement protein and mRNA expression levels were compared at 1 and 3 days post-LD for C1s, complement factor B (CFB), mannose binding lectin A, mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease 1 (MASP-1), C3, C4, C9, and complement factor P in retina and RPE/choroid...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676010/kca3-1-channel-modulators-as-potential-therapeutic-compounds-for-glioblastoma
#14
Brandon M Brown, Brandon Pressley, Heike Wulff
The intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel KCa3.1 is widely expressed in cells of the immune system such as T- and B-lymphocytes, mast cells, macrophages and microglia, but also found in dedifferentiated vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts and many cancer cells including pancreatic, prostate, leukemia and glioblastoma. In all these cell types KCa3.1 plays an important role in cellular activation, migration and proliferation by regulating membrane potential and Ca2+ signaling. KCa3.1 therefore constitutes an attractive therapeutic target for diseases involving excessive proliferation or activation of one more of these cell types and researchers both in academia and in the pharmaceutical industry have developed several potent and selective small molecule inhibitors of KCa3...
June 30, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661035/up-regulated-basigin-2-in-microglia-induced-by-hypoxia-promotes-retinal-angiogenesis
#15
Jie Yin, Wen-Qin Xu, Ming-Xiang Ye, Yong Zhang, Hai-Yan Wang, Jian Zhang, Yu Li, Yu-Sheng Wang
Retinal microglia cells contribute to vascular angiogenesis and vasculopathy induced by relative hypoxia. However, its concrete molecular mechanisms in shaping retinal angiogenesis have not been elucidated. Basigin, being involved in tumour neovasculogenesis, is explored to exert positive effects on retinal angiogenesis induced by microglia. Therefore, we set out to investigate the expression of basigin using a well-characterized mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy, which recapitulated hypoxia-induced aberrant neovessel growth...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656540/human-endogenous-retrovirus-w-env-increases-nitric-oxide-production-and-enhances-the-migration-ability-of-microglia-by-regulating-the-expression-of-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase
#16
Ran Xiao, Shan Li, Qian Cao, Xiuling Wang, Qiujin Yan, Xiaoning Tu, Ying Zhu, Fan Zhu
Human endogenous retrovirus W env (HERV-W env) plays a critical role in many neuropsychological diseases such as schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis (MS). These diseases are accompanied by immunological reactions in the central nervous system (CNS). Microglia are important immunocytes in brain inflammation that can produce a gasotransmitter-nitric oxide (NO). NO not only plays a role in the function of neuronal cells but also participates in the pathogenesis of various neuropsychological diseases. In this study, we reported increased NO production in CHME-5 microglia cells after they were transfected with HERV-W env...
June 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651603/a-systems-pharmacology-based-approach-to-identify-novel-kv1-3-channel-dependent-mechanisms-in-microglial-activation
#17
Srikant Rangaraju, Syed Ali Raza, Andrea Pennati, Qiudong Deng, Eric B Dammer, Duc Duong, Michael W Pennington, Malu G Tansey, James J Lah, Ranjita Betarbet, Nicholas T Seyfried, Allan I Levey
BACKGROUND: Kv1.3 potassium channels regulate microglial functions and are overexpressed in neuroinflammatory diseases. Kv1.3 blockade may selectively inhibit pro-inflammatory microglia in neurological diseases but the molecular and cellular mechanisms regulated by Kv1.3 channels are poorly defined. METHODS: We performed immunoblotting and flow cytometry to confirm Kv1.3 channel upregulation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV2 microglia and in brain mononuclear phagocytes freshly isolated from LPS-treated mice...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650574/injection-of-microporous-annealing-particle-map-hydrogels-in-the-stroke-cavity-reduces-gliosis-and-inflammation-and-promotes-npc-migration-to-the-lesion
#18
Lina R Nih, Elias Sideris, S Thomas Carmichael, Tatiana Segura
With the number of deaths due to stroke decreasing, more individuals are forced to live with crippling disability resulting from the stroke. To date, no therapeutics exist after the first 4.5 h after the stroke onset, aside from rest and physical therapy. Following stroke, a large influx of astrocytes and microglia releasing proinflammatory cytokines leads to dramatic inflammation and glial scar formation, affecting brain tissue's ability to repair itself. Pathological conditions, such as a stroke, trigger neural progenitor cells (NPCs) proliferation and migration toward the damaged site...
June 26, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646166/atp-release-during-cell-swelling-activates-a-ca-2-dependent-cl-current-by-autocrine-mechanism-in-mouse-hippocampal-microglia
#19
E Murana, F Pagani, B Basilico, M Sundukova, L Batti, S Di Angelantonio, B Cortese, A Grimaldi, A Francioso, P Heppenstall, P Bregestovski, C Limatola, D Ragozzino
Microglia cells, resident immune cells of the brain, survey brain parenchyma by dynamically extending and retracting their processes. Cl(-) channels, activated in the cellular response to stretch/swelling, take part in several functions deeply connected with microglia physiology, including cell shape changes, proliferation, differentiation and migration. However, the molecular identity and functional properties of these Cl(-) channels are largely unknown. We investigated the properties of swelling-activated currents in microglial from acute hippocampal slices of Cx3cr1 (+/GFP) mice by whole-cell patch-clamp and imaging techniques...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644252/antineuroinflammation-of-minocycline-in-stroke
#20
Yi Chen, Zhiyou Cai, Zunyu Ke
Accumulating research substantiates the statement that inflammation plays an important role in the development of stroke. Both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators are involved in the pathogenesis of stroke, an imbalance of which leads to inflammation. Anti-inflammation is a kind of hopeful strategy for the prevention and treatment of stroke. Substantial studies have demonstrated that minocycline, a second-generation semisynthetic antibiotic belonging to the tetracycline family, can inhibit neuroinflammation, inflammatory mediators and microglia activation, and improve neurological outcome...
July 2017: Neurologist
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