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Microglia and migration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871670/convergence-of-sex-differences-and-the-neuroimmune-system-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
REVIEW
Margaret M McCarthy, Christopher L Wright
The male bias in autism spectrum disorder incidence is among the most extreme of all neuropsychiatric disorders, yet the origins of the sex difference remain obscure. Developmentally, males are exposed to high levels of testosterone and its byproduct, estradiol. Together these steroids modify the course of brain development by altering neurogenesis, cell death, migration, differentiation, dendritic and axonal growth, synaptogenesis, and synaptic pruning, all of which can be deleteriously impacted during the course of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders...
October 11, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865851/pathological-%C3%AE-synuclein-exacerbates-the-progression-of-parkinson-s-disease-through-microglial-activation
#2
Qiu-Shuang Zhang, Yang Heng, Yu-He Yuan, Nai-Hong Chen
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by α-synuclein accumulation, dopaminergic neuron loss and inflammation. α-Synuclein can be secreted by neurons and activate microglia to different degrees. Excessive microglial activation can increase the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1-β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon-γ (INF-γ), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), and can also enhance microglial phagocytosis and migration as well as lymphocyte infiltration...
November 16, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859601/the-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-dep-1-promotes-migration-and-phagocytic-activity-of-microglial-cells-in-part-through-negative-regulation-of-fyn-tyrosine-kinase
#3
Nadine Schneble, Julia Müller, Stefanie Kliche, Reinhard Bauer, Reinhard Wetzker, Frank-D Böhmer, Zhao-Qi Wang, Jörg P Müller
Microglia cells are brain macrophages whose proper functioning is essential for maintenance and repair processes of the central nervous system (CNS). Migration and phagocytosis are critical aspects of microglial activity. By using genetically modified cell lines and knockout mice we demonstrate here that the receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) DEP-1 (also known as PTPRJ or CD148) acts as a positive regulator of both processes in vitro and in vivo. Notably, reduced microglial migration was detectable in brains of Ptprj(-/-) mice using a wounding assay...
November 17, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842570/nitric-oxide-and-cytokine-production-by-glial-cells-exposed-in-vitro-to-neuropathogenic-schistosome-trichobilharzia-regenti
#4
Tomáš Macháček, Lucie Panská, Hana Dvořáková, Petr Horák
BACKGROUND: Helminth neuroinfections represent a serious health problem, but host immune mechanisms in the nervous tissue often remain undiscovered. This study aims at in vitro characterization of the response of murine astrocytes and microglia exposed to Trichobilharzia regenti which is a neuropathogenic schistosome migrating through the central nervous system of vertebrate hosts. Trichobilharzia regenti infects birds and mammals in which it may cause severe neuromotor impairment. This study was focused on astrocytes and microglia as these are immunocompetent cells of the nervous tissue and their activation was recently observed in T...
November 14, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832087/subarachnoid-hemorrhage-promotes-proliferation-differentiation-and-migration-of-neural-stem-cells-via-bdnf-upregulation
#5
Wen-Di Lee, Kuo-Chuan Wang, Yi-Fen Tsai, Pin-Chun Chou, Li-Kai Tsai, Chung-Liang Chien
Patients who suffer from subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) usually have long-term neurological impairments. Endogenous neurogenesis might play a potential role in functional recovery after SAH; however, the underlying neurogenesis mechanism is still unclear. We assessed the extent of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) to better understand the neurogenesis mechanism after SAH. We performed a rat model of SAH to examine the extent of neurogenesis in the SVZ and assessed functional effects of the neurotrophic factors in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on neural stem cells (NSCs) after SAH...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825984/phosphoinositide-3-kinase-%C3%AE-ties-chemoattractant-and-adrenergic-control-of-microglial-motility
#6
Nadine Schneble, Caroline Schmidt, Reinhard Bauer, Jörg P Müller, Shamci Monajembashi, Reinhard Wetzker
Microglial motility is tightly controlled by multitude of agonistic and antagonistic factors. Chemoattractants, released after infection or damage of the brain, provoke directed migration of microglia to the pathogenic incident. In contrast, noradrenaline and other stress hormones have been shown to suppress microglial movement. Here we asked for the signaling reactions involved in the positive and negative control of microglial motility. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches we identified the lipid kinase activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase species γ (PI3Kγ) as an essential mediator of microglial migration provoked by the complement component C5a and other chemoattractants...
November 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814376/progesterone-attenuates-microglial-driven-retinal-degeneration-and-stimulates-protective-fractalkine-cx3cr1-signaling
#7
Sarah L Roche, Alice C Wyse-Jackson, Violeta Gómez-Vicente, Pedro Lax, Ana M Ruiz-Lopez, Ashleigh M Byrne, Nicolás Cuenca, Thomas G Cotter
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a degenerative disease leading to photoreceptor cell loss. Mouse models of RP, such as the rd10 mouse (B6.CXBl-Pde6brd10/J), have enhanced our understanding of the disease, allowing for development of potential therapeutics. In 2011, our group first demonstrated that the synthetic progesterone analogue 'Norgestrel' is neuroprotective in two mouse models of retinal degeneration, including the rd10 mouse. We have since elucidated several mechanisms by which Norgestrel protects stressed photoreceptors, such as upregulating growth factors...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782092/annexin-1-mediates-microglial-activation-and-migration-via-the-ck2-pathway-during-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reperfusion
#8
Shuangxi Liu, Yan Gao, Xiaoli Yu, Baoming Zhao, Lu Liu, Yin Zhao, Zhenzhao Luo, Jing Shi
Annexin-1 (ANXA1) has shown neuroprotective effects and microglia play significant roles during central nervous system injury, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study sought to determine whether ANXA1 regulates microglial response to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) treatment and to clarify the downstream molecular mechanism. In rat hippocampal slices, OGD/R treatment enhanced the ANXA1 expression in neuron, the formyl peptide receptor (FPRs) expression in microglia, and the microglial activation in the CA1 region (cornu ammonis 1)...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753092/neuroprotection-and-blood-brain-barrier-restoration-by-salubrinal-after-a-cortical-stab-injury
#9
M Asunción Barreda-Manso, Natalia Yanguas-Casás, Manuel Nieto-Sampedro, Lorenzo Romero-Ramírez
Following a central nervous system (CNS) injury, restoration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity is essential for recovering homeostasis. When this process is delayed or impeded, blood substances and cells enter the CNS parenchyma, initiating an additional inflammatory process that extends the initial injury and causes so-called secondary neuronal loss. Astrocytes and profibrotic mesenchymal cells react to the injury and migrate to the lesion site, creating a new glia limitans that restores the BBB. This process is beneficial for the resolution of the inflammation, neuronal survival, and the initiation of the healing process...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725421/impact-of-maternal-stress-in-pregnancy-on-brain-function-of-the-offspring
#10
Jun Udagawa, Kodai Hino
Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to prenatal stressors, including malnutrition, maternal immune activation (MIA), and adverse life events, is associated with increased risks of schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. The first trimester of pregnancy is particularly a vulnerable period. During this period, the self-renewal of neural stem cells and neurogenesis vigorously occur, and synaptic connections are partially formed in the telencephalon...
2016: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724914/neurogenic-inflammation-after-traumatic-brain-injury-and-its-potentiation-of-classical-inflammation
#11
Frances Corrigan, Kimberley A Mander, Anna V Leonard, Robert Vink
BACKGROUND: The neuroinflammatory response following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is known to be a key secondary injury factor that can drive ongoing neuronal injury. Despite this, treatments that have targeted aspects of the inflammatory pathway have not shown significant efficacy in clinical trials. MAIN BODY: We suggest that this may be because classical inflammation only represents part of the story, with activation of neurogenic inflammation potentially one of the key initiating inflammatory events following TBI...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714837/extracellular-atp-induces-graded-reactive-response-of-astrocytes-and-strengthens-their-antioxidative-defense-in-vitro
#12
Marija Adzic, Ivana Stevanovic, Natasa Josipovic, Danijela Laketa, Irena Lavrnja, Ivana M Bjelobaba, Iva Bozic, Marija Jovanovic, Milena Milosevic, Nadezda Nedeljkovic
It is widely accepted that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) acts as a universal danger-associated molecular pattern with several known mechanisms for immune cell activation. In the central nervous system, ATP activates microglia and astrocytes and induces a neuroinflammatory response. The aim of the present study was to describe responses of isolated astrocytes to increasing concentrations of ATP (5 µM to 1 mM), which were intended to mimic graded intensity of the extracellular stimulus. The results show that ATP induces graded activation response of astrocytes in terms of the cell proliferation, stellation, shape remodeling, and underlying actin and GFAP filament rearrangement, although the changes occurred without an apparent increase in GFAP and actin protein expression...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714688/purine-signaling-and-microglial-wrapping
#13
Bernardo Castellano, Mar Bosch-Queralt, Beatriz Almolda, Nàdia Villacampa, Berta González
Microglial cells are highly dynamic cells with processes continuously moving to survey the surrounding territory. Microglia possess a broad variety of surface receptors and subtle changes in their microenvironment cause microglial cell processes to extend, retract, and interact with neuronal synaptic contacts. When the nervous system is disturbed, microglia activate, proliferate, and migrate to sites of injury in response to alert signals. Released nucleotides like ATP and UTP are among the wide range of molecules promoting microglial activation and guiding their migration and phagocytic function...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678303/erianin-inhibits-high-glucose-induced-retinal-angiogenesis-via-blocking-erk1-2-regulated-hif-1%C3%AE-vegf-vegfr2-signaling-pathway
#14
Zengyang Yu, Tianyu Zhang, Chenyuan Gong, Yuchen Sheng, Bin Lu, Lingyu Zhou, Lili Ji, Zhengtao Wang
Erianin is a natural compound found in Dendrobium chrysotoxum Lindl. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a serious and common microvascular complication of diabetes. This study aims to investigate the inhibitory mechanism of erianin on retinal neoangiogenesis and its contribution to the amelioration of DR. Erianin blocked high glucose (HG)-induced tube formation and migration in choroid-retinal endothelial RF/6A cells. Erianin inhibited HG-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) translocation into nucleus and ERK1/2 activation in RF/6A and microglia BV-2 cells...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663389/immunovirotherapy-with-measles-virus-strains-in-combination-with-anti-pd-1-antibody-blockade-enhances-antitumor-activity-in-glioblastoma-treatment
#15
Jayson Hardcastle, Lisa Mills, Courtney S Malo, Fang Jin, Cheyne Kurokawa, Hirosha Geekiyanage, Mark Schroeder, Jann Sarkaria, Aaron J Johnson, Evanthia Galanis
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor and has a dismal prognosis. Measles virus (MV) therapy of GBM is a promising strategy due to preclinical efficacy, excellent clinical safety, and its ability to evoke antitumor pro-inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that combining anti- programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) blockade and MV therapy can overcome immunosuppression and enhance immune effector cell responses against GBM, thus improving therapeutic outcome...
September 23, 2016: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659107/regulation-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-on-inflammatory-cytokines-microglia-polarization-migration-and-functional-recovery-after-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#16
Jin Hwan Lee, Zheng Z Wei, Wenyuan Cao, Soonmi Won, Xiaohuan Gu, Megan Winter, Thomas A Dix, Ling Wei, Shan Ping Yu
Stroke is a leading threat to human life and health in the US and around the globe, while very few effective treatments are available for stroke patients. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is a potential treatment for stroke. Using novel neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) agonists, we have demonstrated pharmacologically induced hypothermia and protective effects against brain damages after ischemic stroke, hemorrhage stroke, and traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rodent models...
December 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651188/-advances-of-immunological-pathogenesis-research-in-hiv-related-neurocognitive-disorder
#17
J I Yongjia, L U Hongzhou
With extended life of HIV-infected patients due to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), the rate of HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remains high and attracts much attention. The evidence is clear that cytokines are elevated in the blood of patients with HIV infection, which contribute to elevating the permeability of blood-brain barrier. Benefiting from that, cells in the brain are infected with HIV that has accelerated through the blood-brain barrier both as cell-free virus and infected immune cells including monocytes and T cells...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589088/enhanced-migration-of-neural-stem-cells-by-microglia-grown-on-a-three-dimensional-graphene-scaffold
#18
Ziyun Jiang, Qin Song, Mingliang Tang, Lingyan Yang, Yilin Cheng, Min Zhang, Dongsheng Xu, Guosheng Cheng
One of the key challenges in engineering neural tissues for cell-based therapies is to develop a biocompatible scaffold material to direct neural stem cell (NSC) behaviors. One great advantage for a scaffold would be to induce NSC migration toward pathological sites during regeneration and repair. In particular, the inflammatory responses in the pathological zone, which are mainly mediated by microglia in the central nervous system, affect the repair capacity of NSCs through NSC migration. Recently, graphene was used as a neural interface and scaffold material, but few studies have addressed the relationship between microglia and NSCs in a graphene culture system...
September 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581930/indomethacin-treatment-reduces-microglia-activation-and-increases-numbers-of-neuroblasts-in-the-subventricular-zone-and-ischaemic-striatum-after-focal-ischaemia
#19
Rosana S Lopes, Marcelo M Cardoso, Arthur O Sampaio, Mario Santos Barbosa, Celice C Souza, Michelle C DA Silva, Elane Magno N Ferreira, Marco Aurelio M Freire, Rafael Rodrigues Lima, Walace Gomes-Leal
Neuroblasts from the subventricular zone (SVZ) migrate to striatum following stroke, but most of them die in the ischaemic milieu and this can be related to exacerbated microglial activation. Here, we explored the effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory indomethacin on microglial activation, neuronal preservation and neuroblast migration following experimental striatal stroke in adult rats. Animals were submitted to endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced focal striatal ischaemia and were treated with indomethacin or sterile saline (i...
September 2016: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27554518/tlr2-controls-random-motility-while-tlr7-regulates-chemotaxis-of-microglial-cells-via-distinct-pathways
#20
Masataka Ifuku, Alice Buonfiglioli, Philipp Jordan, Seija Lehnardt, Helmut Kettenmann
Microglial cells are the pathologic sensor of the brain, and any pathologic event triggers microglial activation, which involves migration of these cells to a lesion site. Employing different migration assays, we show that ligands for toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 stimulate random motility, while TLR7 ligands are chemoattractants. The subtype specificity of the TLR ligands was verified by using different TLR-deficient (TLRKO) mouse lines. PI3K and Rac inhibition impairs both TLR2- and TLR7-stimulated microglial migration...
November 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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