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Microglia and migration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153608/cofilin-signaling-in-hemin-induced-microglial-activation-and-inflammation
#1
Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed, Qasim Alhadidi, Zahoor A Shah
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most severe form of stroke and is further exacerbated by the secondary injury involving inflammatory response due to the activation of microglia. This secondary injury is partly due to the toxic effects of hemin, an endogenous breakdown product of hemoglobin. Cofilin, an actin depolymerizing factor, controls actin dynamics and has been previously shown to be involved in mediating neuronal cell death in ischemic conditions and during bacterial lipopolysaccharide induced microglial activation...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146180/chlorogenic-acid-attenuates-diabetic-retinopathy-by-reducing-vegf-expression-and-inhibiting-vegf-mediated-retinal-neoangiogenesis
#2
Xiyu Mei, Lingyu Zhou, Tianyu Zhang, Bin Lu, Yuchen Sheng, Lili Ji
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common and serious complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aims to investigate the amelioration of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on proliferative DR (PDR) via focusing on inhibiting retinal neoangiogenesis. CGA reduced the increased cell proliferation, migration and tube formation induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human retinal endothelial cells (HREC) and choroid-retinal endothelial RF/6A cells. CGA abrogated VEGF-induced the phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream mitogen-activated extracellular regulated kinase (MEK1/2), extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) and p38 kinase...
November 13, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142497/expression-of-ccl2-and-its-receptor-in-activation-and-migration-of-microglia-and-monocytes-induced-by-photoreceptor-apoptosis
#3
ChaoYi Feng, Xin Wang, TianJin Liu, Meng Zhang, GeZhi Xu, YingQin Ni
Purpose: To explore the effect of the CCL2 and CCR2 system on the activation and migration of microglia and monocytes in light-induced photoreceptor apoptosis. Methods: At 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, and 14 days after light exposure, OX42 and ED1 immunostaining were used to label the activation and migration of microglia and monocytes. Double immunostaining of CCL2 with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), OX42, or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was applied to explore the relationships among CCL2, apoptotic photoreceptors, activated microglia and monocytes, and macroglial cells (Müller cells and astrocytes)...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139169/sex-differences-in-the-phagocytic-and-migratory-activity-of-microglia-and-their-impairment-by-palmitic-acid
#4
Natalia Yanguas-Casás, Andrea Crespo-Castrillo, Maria L de Ceballos, Julie A Chowen, Iñigo Azcoitia, Maria Angeles Arevalo, Luis M Garcia-Segura
Sex differences in the incidence, clinical manifestation, disease course, and prognosis of neurological diseases, such as autism spectrum disorders or Alzheimer's disease, have been reported. Obesity has been postulated as a risk factor for cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease and, during pregnancy, increases the risk of autism spectrum disorders in the offspring. Obesity is associated with increased serum and brain levels of free fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, which activate microglial cells triggering a potent inflammatory cascade...
November 15, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133191/galectin-3-mediator-of-microglia-responses-in-injured-brain
#5
REVIEW
Reza Rahimian, Louis-Charles Béland, Jasna Kriz
Galectin-3 is a pleiotropic protein involved in cell activation, proliferation and migration and plays a pivotal part as an inflammatory mediator in neurodegeneration. Galectin-3 is associated with microglial activation and proliferation after ischemia. Given its putative role as a dynamic fine-tuner of microglia, activation of Galectin-3 provides molecular cues in design of new immunomodulatory strategies for stroke management. This review summarizes recent evidence on the role of Galectin-3 as a mediator of immune responses in damaged brain and mechanisms employed by Galectin-3 to affect microglial function...
November 10, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119451/pristimerin-inhibits-lps-triggered-neurotoxicity-in-bv-2-microglia-cells-through-modulating-irak1-traf6-tak1-mediated-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-ap-1-signaling-pathways-in-vitro
#6
Bin Hui, Liping Zhang, Qinhua Zhou, Ling Hui
Microglia plays a prominent role in the brain's inflammatory response to injury or infection by migrating to affected locations and secreting inflammatory molecules. However, hyperactivated microglial is neurotoxic and plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Pristimerin, a naturally occurring triterpenoid, possesses antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effect and the molecular mechanism of pristimerin against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neurotoxicity in microglia remain to be revealed...
November 8, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117112/in-vivo-imaging-of-microglial-calcium-signaling-in-brain-inflammation-and-injury
#7
REVIEW
Petr Tvrdik, M Yashar S Kalani
Microglia, the innate immune sentinels of the central nervous system, are the most dynamic cells in the brain parenchyma. They are the first responders to insult and mediate neuroinflammation. Following cellular damage, microglia extend their processes towards the lesion, modify their morphology, release cytokines and other mediators, and eventually migrate towards the damaged area and remove cellular debris by phagocytosis. Intracellular Ca(2+) signaling plays important roles in many of these functions. However, Ca(2+) in microglia has not been systematically studied in vivo...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101080/the-secretome-of-microglia-regulate-neural-stem-cell-function
#8
Ahmed M Osman, Johanna Rodhe, Xianli Shen, Cecilia A Dominguez, Bertrand Joseph, Klas Blomgren
Brain injury is associated with neuroinflammation, and microglia are key players in this process. Microglia can acquire pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory properties, but how this affects neural stem cells (NSCs) remains controversial. Here, NSCs were grown in conditioned media collected from either non-stimulated microglia, or microglia stimulated with pro- or anti-inflammatory agents. NSC survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation were investigated thereafter. We found that NSCs kept in conditioned medium from the anti-inflammatory microglial subtype had better survival, increased migration, and lower astrocytic differentiation compared to NSCs grown in conditioned medium collected from the pro-inflammatory subtype...
November 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070819/minocycline-modulates-microglia-polarization-in-ischemia-reperfusion-model-of-retinal-degeneration-and-induces-neuroprotection
#9
Amel Ahmed, Lei-Lei Wang, Safaa Abdelmaksoud, Amal Aboelgheit, Safaa Saeed, Chun-Li Zhang
Retinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury causes irreversible loss of neurons and ultimately leads to permanent visual impairment and blindness. The cellular response under this pathological retinal condition is less clear. Using genetically modified mice, we systematically examined the behavior of microglia/macrophages after injury. We show that IR leads to activation of microglia/macrophages indicated by migration and proliferation of resident microglia and recruitment of circulating monocytes. IR-induced microglia/macrophages associate with apoptotic retinal neurons...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037246/effectors-of-th1-and-th17-cells-act-on-astrocytes-and-augment-their-neuroinflammatory-properties
#10
Chittappen K Prajeeth, Julius Kronisch, Reza Khorooshi, Benjamin Knier, Henrik Toft-Hansen, Viktoria Gudi, Stefan Floess, Jochen Huehn, Trevor Owens, Thomas Korn, Martin Stangel
BACKGROUND: Autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cells are believed to mediate the pathology of multiple sclerosis in the central nervous system (CNS). Their interaction with microglia and astrocytes in the CNS is crucial for the regulation of the neuroinflammation. Previously, we have shown that only Th1 but not Th17 effectors activate microglia. However, it is not clear which cells are targets of Th17 effectors in the CNS. METHODS: To understand the effects driven by Th17 cells in the CNS, we induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in wild-type mice and CD4(+) T cell-specific integrin α4-deficient mice where trafficking of Th1 cells into the CNS was affected...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027964/microglia-and-monocytes-macrophages-polarization-reveal-novel-therapeutic-mechanism-against-stroke
#11
REVIEW
Masato Kanazawa, Itaru Ninomiya, Masahiro Hatakeyama, Tetsuya Takahashi, Takayoshi Shimohata
Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and consists of two types, ischemic and hemorrhagic. Currently, there is no effective treatment to increase the survival rate or improve the quality of life after ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in the subacute to chronic phases. Therefore, it is necessary to establish therapeutic strategies to facilitate functional recovery in patients with stroke during both phases. Cell-based therapies, using microglia and monocytes/macrophages preconditioned by optimal stimuli and/or any therapies targeting these cells, might be an ideal therapeutic strategy for managing stroke...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024033/impact-of-x-irradiation-on-microglia
#12
Franziska Menzel, Nicole Kaiser, Susann Haehnel, Felicitas Rapp, Ina Patties, Nina Schöneberg, Zhana Haimon, Kerstin Immig, Ingo Bechmann
Irradiation is widely used to treat brain tumors, and also to create bone marrow (BM) chimeras. BM chimeras are widely used to dissect functions and origin of microglia and blood-derived mononuclear cells under homeostatic or pathological conditions. This is facilitated by the fact that microglia survive irradiation and are thus regarded radio-resistant. In this study, we tested whether microglia are indeed radio-resistant and looked for potential mechanisms that might explain this phenomenon. We analyzed the radio-resistance of microglia independently of their physiological brain environment compared to other mononuclear cells from spleen and brain after X-irradiation with 7 Gy or 30 Gy...
January 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963396/a-novel-microglial-subset-plays-a-key-role-in-myelinogenesis-in-developing-brain
#13
Agnieszka Wlodarczyk, Inge R Holtman, Martin Krueger, Nir Yogev, Julia Bruttger, Reza Khorooshi, Anouk Benmamar-Badel, Jelkje J de Boer-Bergsma, Nellie A Martin, Khalad Karram, Isabella Kramer, Erik Wgm Boddeke, Ari Waisman, Bart Jl Eggen, Trevor Owens
Microglia are resident macrophages of the central nervous system that contribute to homeostasis and neuroinflammation. Although known to play an important role in brain development, their exact function has not been fully described. Here, we show that in contrast to healthy adult and inflammation-activated cells, neonatal microglia show a unique myelinogenic and neurogenic phenotype. A CD11c(+) microglial subset that predominates in primary myelinating areas of the developing brain expresses genes for neuronal and glial survival, migration, and differentiation...
November 15, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948650/vegf-as-a-modulator-of-the-innate-immune-response-in-glioblastoma
#14
Kati Turkowski, Susan Brandenburg, Annett Mueller, Irina Kremenetskaia, Alexander D Bungert, Anne Blank, Matthäus Felsenstein, Peter Vajkoczy
VEGF is an important factor in tumor vascularization and used as target for anti-angiogenic treatment strategies in glioma. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that VEGF is a modulator of the innate immune response with suppressive effects on the immunologic and pro-angiogenic function of microglia/macrophages in a glioblastoma rodent model. High level of VEGF led to threefold enlarged tumor volumes and a pronounced remodeling of the vascular structure along with a reduced infiltration of microglia/macrophages by approximately 50%...
January 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943285/ethanol-differentially-modulates-p2x4-and-p2x7-receptor-activity-and-function-in-bv2-microglial-cells
#15
Liana Asatryan, Olga Ostrovskaya, Dustin Lieu, Daryl L Davies
Neuroinflammation is one of the mechanisms leading to neurodegenerative brain damage induced by chronic alcohol (ethanol) exposure. Microglia play a major role in the development of innate immune responses to environmental injuries including ethanol. Adenosine 5″-triphosphate (ATP)-activated purinergic P2X receptor (P2XR) subtypes, P2X4Rs and P2X7Rs, are endogenously expressed in microglia and can modulate their activity. These 2 P2XR subtypes differ pharmacologically and functionally: 1) P2X4Rs are activated at lower (≤0...
September 22, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943249/effects-of-crenolanib-a-nonselective-inhibitor-of-pdgfr-in-a-mouse-model-of-transient-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion
#16
Jianping Wang, Xiaojie Fu, Di Zhang, Lie Yu, Zhengfang Lu, Yufeng Gao, Xianliang Liu, Jiang Man, Sijia Li, Nan Li, Menghan Wang, Xi Liu, Xuemei Chen, Weidong Zang, Qingwu Yang, Jian Wang
Neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) plays a vital role in neurologic recovery after stroke. However, only a small fraction of newly generated neuroblasts from the SVZ will survive long-term. Successful migration and survival of neuroblasts requires angiogenesis, lesion-derived chemo-attractants, and appropriate local microenvironments, which are partly regulated by the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling pathway. In this study, we investigated the effects of PDGFR inhibition in a mouse model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
November 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928639/microglia-polarization-with-m1-m2-phenotype-changes-in-rd1-mouse-model-of-retinal-degeneration
#17
Tian Zhou, Zijing Huang, Xiaowei Sun, Xiaowei Zhu, Lingli Zhou, Mei Li, Bing Cheng, Xialin Liu, Chang He
Microglia activation is recognized as the hallmark of neuroinflammation. However, the activation profile and phenotype changes of microglia during the process of retinal degeneration are poorly understood. This study aimed to elucidate the time-spatial pattern of microglia distribution and characterize the polarized phenotype of activated microglia during retinal neuroinflammation and degeneration in rd1 (Pde6β(rd1/rd1)) mice, the classic model of inherited retinal degeneration. Retinae of rd1 mice at different postnatal days (P7, P14, P21, P28, P56, and P180) were prepared for further analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924232/infection-of-microglia-with-porphyromonas-gingivalis-promotes-cell-migration-and-an-inflammatory-response-through-the-gingipain-mediated-activation-of-protease-activated-receptor-2-in-mice
#18
Yicong Liu, Zhou Wu, Yurika Nakanishi, Junjun Ni, Yoshinori Hayashi, Fumiko Takayama, Yanmin Zhou, Tomoko Kadawaki, Hiroshi Nakanishi
Despite a clear correlation between periodontitis and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease, the precise mechanism underlying the relationship remains unclear. The periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis produces a unique class of cysteine proteinases termed gingipains that comprises Arg-gingipain (Rgp) and Lys-gingipain (Kgp). Rgp and Kgp are important in the bacterial mediated host cell responses and the subsequent intracellular signaling in infected cells. In the present study, we attempted to clarify the potential effects of Rgp and Kgp on the cellular activation of brain-resident microglia...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923916/critical-role-of-caveolin-1-in-ocular-neovascularization-and-multitargeted-antiangiogenic-effects-of-cavtratin-via-jnk
#19
Yida Jiang, Xianchai Lin, Zhongshu Tang, Chunsik Lee, Geng Tian, Yuxiang Du, Xiangke Yin, Xiangrong Ren, Lijuan Huang, Zhimin Ye, Wei Chen, Fan Zhang, Jia Mi, Zhiqin Gao, Shasha Wang, Qishan Chen, Liying Xing, Bin Wang, Yihai Cao, William C Sessa, Rong Ju, Yizhi Liu, Xuri Li
Ocular neovascularization is a devastating pathology of numerous ocular diseases and is a major cause of blindness. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) plays important roles in the vascular system. However, little is known regarding its function and mechanisms in ocular neovascularization. Here, using comprehensive model systems and a cell permeable peptide of Cav-1, cavtratin, we show that Cav-1 is a critical player in ocular neovascularization. The genetic deletion of Cav-1 exacerbated and cavtratin administration inhibited choroidal and retinal neovascularization...
October 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914133/age-of-donor-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-affects-structural-and-functional-recovery-after-cell-therapy-following-ischaemic-stroke
#20
Susumu Yamaguchi, Nobutaka Horie, Katsuya Satoh, Takeshi Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi Mori, Hajime Maeda, Yuhtaka Fukuda, Shunsuke Ishizaka, Takeshi Hiu, Yoichi Morofuji, Tsuyoshi Izumo, Noriyuki Nishida, Takayuki Matsuo
Cell transplantation therapy offers great potential to improve impairments after stroke. However, the importance of donor age on therapeutic efficacy is unclear. We investigated the regenerative capacity of transplanted cells focusing on donor age (young vs. old) for ischaemic stroke. The quantities of human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) secreted brain-derived neurotrophic factor in vitro and of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 at day 7 in vivo were both significantly higher for young hMSC compared with old hMSC...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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