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Microglia and migration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771434/ptprj-as1-mediates-inflammatory-injury-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-by-activating-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#1
J Wen, C-Y Yang, J Lu, X-Y Wang
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at investigating the expression of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Ptprj-as1 and the role of lncRNAPtprj-as1 in inflammatory cells after intracerebral hemorrhage and its potential mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage was established. Expressions of Ptprj-as1 and inflammatory cytokines in inflammatory cells were detected by quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). After BV2 cells were transfected with lentivirus, cell proliferation, migrative ability and apoptosis were detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, transwell chamber and flow cytometry, respectively...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769580/kv1-3-activity-perturbs-the-homeostatic-properties-of-astrocytes-in-glioma
#2
Alfonso Grimaldi, Giuseppina D'Alessandro, Maria Amalia Di Castro, Clotilde Lauro, Vikrant Singh, Francesca Pagani, Luigi Sforna, Francesca Grassi, Silvia Di Angelantonio, Luigi Catacuzzeno, Heike Wulff, Cristina Limatola, Myriam Catalano
Glial cells actively maintain the homeostasis of brain parenchyma, regulating neuronal excitability and preserving the physiological composition of the extracellular milieu. Under pathological conditions, some functions of glial cells could be compromised, exacerbating the neurotoxic processes. We investigated if the homeostatic activities of astrocytes and microglia could be modulated by the voltage-gated K+ channel Kv1.3. To this end we used in vitro and in vivo systems to model cell-to-cell interactions in tumoral conditions, using a specific inhibitor of Kv1...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765306/microglial-activation-is-modulated-by-captopril-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#3
Keren Asraf, Nofar Torika, Ron N Apte, Sigal Fleisher-Berkovich
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important peripheral system involved in homeostasis modulation, with angiotensin II (Ang II) serving as the main effector hormone. The main enzyme involved in Ang II formation is angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) such as captopril (Cap) are predominantly used for the management of hypertension. All of the components of the RAS have also been identified in brain. Centrally located hormones such as Ang II can induce glial inflammation. Moreover, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) models, where glial inflammation occurs and is thought to contribute to the propagation of the disease, increased levels of Ang II and ACE have been detected...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764475/a-potential-gliovascular-mechanism-for-microglial-activation-differential-phenotypic-switching-of-microglia-by-endothelium-versus-astrocytes
#4
Changhong Xing, Wenlu Li, Wenjun Deng, MingMing Ning, Eng H Lo
BACKGROUND: Activation of microglia can result in phenotypic and functional diversity. However, the pathways that trigger different states of microglial activation remain to be fully understood. Here, we hypothesized that after injury, astrocytes and endothelium may contribute to a gliovascular switch for microglial activation. METHODS: Astrocytes or cerebral endothelial cells were subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation, then conditioned media were transferred to microglia...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759138/impact-of-imipramine-on-proteome-of-rat-primary-glial-cells
#5
Sylwia Kedracka-Krok, Bianka Swiderska, Anna M Bielecka-Wajdman, Gabriela Prus, Bozena Skupien-Rabian, Urszula Jankowska, Ewa Obuchowicz
Microglia and astrocytes, two types of glial cells are known to be important targets for antidepressant drugs. Here we used a comprehensive proteomic analysis to examine the effect of imipramine on rat primary mixed glial culture. The two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis method allowed us to identify 62 proteins that were altered by imipramine. Functional analysis revealed that imipramine influenced the level of proteins involved in oxidative stress; in particular, it elevated the level of glutathione transferases...
July 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750189/repopulating-retinal-microglia-restore-endogenous-organization-and-function-under-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-regulation
#6
Yikui Zhang, Lian Zhao, Xu Wang, Wenxin Ma, Adam Lazere, Hao-Hua Qian, Jun Zhang, Mones Abu-Asab, Robert N Fariss, Jerome E Roger, Wai T Wong
Microglia have been discovered to undergo repopulation following ablation. However, the functionality of repopulated microglia and the mechanisms regulating microglia repopulation are unknown. We examined microglial homeostasis in the adult mouse retina, a specialized neural compartment containing regular arrays of microglia in discrete synaptic laminae that can be directly visualized. Using in vivo imaging and cell-fate mapping techniques, we discovered that repopulation originated from residual microglia proliferating in the central inner retina that subsequently spread by centrifugal migration to fully recapitulate pre-existing microglial distributions and morphologies...
March 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749614/microrna-signature-of-central-nervous-system-infiltrating-dendritic-cells-in-an-animal-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Mariah L Hoye, Angela S Archambault, Taylor M Gordon, Landon K Oetjen, Matthew D Cain, Robyn S Klein, Seth D Crosby, Brian S Kim, Timothy M Miller, Gregory F Wu
Innate immune cells are integral to the pathogenesis of several diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including multiple sclerosis (MS). Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells that are critical regulators of adaptive immune responses, particularly in autoimmune diseases such as MS. The regulation of DC function in both the periphery and CNS compartment has not been fully elucidated. One limitation to studying the role of CD11c+ DCs in the CNS is that microglia can upregulate CD11c during inflammation, making it challenging to distinguish bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from microglia...
May 10, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723528/resveratrol-induces-dynamic-changes-to-the-microglia-transcriptome-inhibiting-inflammatory-pathways-and-protecting-against-microglia-mediated-photoreceptor-apoptosis
#8
Johanna Wiedemann, Khalid Rashid, Thomas Langmann
Microglia activation is central to the pathophysiology of retinal degenerative disorders. Resveratrol, a naturally occurring non-flavonoid phenolic compound present in red wine has potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. However, molecular mechanisms by which resveratrol influences microglial inflammatory pathways and housekeeping functions remain unclear. Here, we first studied the immuno-modulatory effects of resveratrol on BV-2 microglial cells at the transcriptome level using DNA-microarrays and selected qRT-PCR analyses...
April 30, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722320/the-rho-associated-kinase-inhibitors-y27632-and-fasudil-promote-microglial-migration-in-the-spinal-cord-via-the-erk-signaling-pathway
#9
Pei-Cai Fu, Rong-Hua Tang, Zhi-Yuan Yu, Min-Jie Xie, Wei Wang, Xiang Luo
Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) is a key regulatory protein involved in inflammatory secretion in microglia in the central nervous system. Our previous studies showed that ROCK inhibition enhances phagocytic activity in microglia through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway, but its effect on microglial migration was unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of the ROCK inhibitors Y27632 and fasudil on the migratory activity of primary cultured microglia isolated from the spinal cord, and we examined the underlying mechanisms...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722001/cystatin-c-takes-part-in-melanoma-microglia-cross-talk-possible-implications-for-brain-metastasis
#10
Adi Moshe, Sivan Izraely, Orit Sagi-Assif, Roshini Prakash, Alona Telerman, Tsipi Meshel, Thomas Carmichael, Isaac P Witz
The development of melanoma brain metastasis is largely dependent on mutual interactions between the melanoma cells and cells in the brain microenvironment. Here, we report that the extracellular cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C (CysC) is involved in these interactions. Microglia-derived factors upregulated CysC secretion by melanoma. Similarly, melanoma-derived factors upregulated CysC secretion by microglia. Whereas CysC enhanced melanoma cell migration through a layer of brain endothelial cells, it inhibited the migration of microglia cells toward melanoma cells...
May 2, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704604/functional-importance-of-the-tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad3-signaling-pathway-in-oxygen-glucose-deprived-ogd-microglia-and-rats-with-cerebral-ischemia
#11
Yunhu Yu, Jindie Li, Hang Zhou, Yanquan Xiong, Yuanchao Wen, Hang Li
We investigated the transforming growth factor-b1 (TGF-β1)/Smad3 signaling pathway in rats with cerebral ischemia and oxygen-glucose-deprived (OGD) microglia. Cerebral ischemia is a clinical condition that occurs when insufficient blood flows to the brain to maintain metabolic activity. TGF-β1 is a well-known functional peptide that regulates cell differentiation, migration, proliferation, and apoptosis. In the current study, we determined the infarct size and TGF-β1/Smad3 protein expression in stroke-induced rats...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673913/epothilone-d-inhibits-microglia-mediated-spread-of-alpha-synuclein-aggregates
#12
Dario Valdinocci, Gary D Grant, Tracey C Dickson, Dean L Pountney
Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by chronic neuroinflammation and widespread α-synuclein (α-syn) cytoplasmic inclusions. Neuroinflammation associated with microglial cells is typically located in brain regions with α-syn deposits. The potential link between microglial cell migration and the transport of pathological α-syn protein in MSA was investigated. Qualitative analysis via immunofluorescence of MSA cases (n = 4) revealed microglial cells bearing α-syn inclusions distal from oligodendrocytes bearing α-syn cytoplasmic inclusions, as well as close interactions between microglia and oligodendrocytes bearing α-syn, suggestive of a potential transfer mechanism between microglia and α-syn bearing cells in MSA and the possibility of microglia acting as a mobile vehicle to spread α-syn between anatomically connected brain regions...
April 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651005/differential-effect-of-morphine-on-gastrointestinal-transit-colonic-contractions-and-nerve-evoked-relaxations-in-toll-like-receptor-deficient-mice
#13
Elizabeth A H Beckett, Vasiliki Staikopoulos, Mark R Hutchinson
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed in enteric neurons, glia, gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle and mucosa, yet their functional roles in the GI tract are not fully understood. TLRs have been linked to many of the undesirable central effects of chronic opioid administration including hyperalgesia and dependence via activation of central microglia. Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD) remains a primary reason for the reduction or withdrawal of opioid analgesics. Morphine-induced inhibition of colonic motility was assessed in vivo by GI transit studies and in vitro using isolated colons from wildtype (WT) and TLR deficient mice...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599291/trem2-activating-antibodies-abrogate-the-negative-pleiotropic-effects-of-the-alzheimer-s-disease-variant-trem2-r47h-on-murine-myeloid-cell-function
#14
Qingwen Cheng, Jean Danao, Santosh Talreja, Paul Wen, Jun Yin, Ning Sun, Chi-Ming Li, Danny Chui, David Tran, Samir Koirala, Hang Chen, Ian N Foltz, Songli Wang, Shilpa Sambashivan
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is an orphan immune receptor expressed on cells of myeloid lineage such as macrophages and microglia. The rare-variant R47H TREM2 is associated with an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), supporting the hypothesis that TREM2 loss of function may exacerbate disease progression. However, a complete knockout of the TREM2 gene in different genetic models of neurodegenerative diseases has been reported to result in both protective and deleterious effects on disease-related endpoints and myeloid cell function...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587871/amyloid-beta-modulates-microglial-responses-by-binding-to-the-triggering-receptor-expressed-on-myeloid-cells-2-trem2
#15
Li Zhong, Zongqi Wang, Daxin Wang, Zhe Wang, Yuka A Martens, Linbei Wu, Ying Xu, Kai Wang, Jianguo Li, Ruizhi Huang, Dan Can, Huaxi Xu, Guojun Bu, Xiao-Fen Chen
BACKGROUND: TREM2 is an innate immune receptor specifically expressed in microglia. Coding variations in TREM2 have been reported to increase the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. While multiple studies support a role for TREM2 in microglial recruitment to amyloid plaques, the chemoattractant factor modulating TREM2-dependent microglial responses has not been defined. METHODS: Potential binding of oligomeric amyloid-β 1-42 (oAβ1-42 ) to TREM2 was tested by complementary approaches including solid phase binding, surface plasmon resonance and immunoprecipitation assays...
March 27, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575325/neural-stem-cell-grafts-promote-astroglia-driven-neurorestoration-in-the-aged-parkinsonian-brain-via-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signalling
#16
Francesca L'Episcopo, Cataldo Tirolo, Luca Peruzzotti-Jametti, Maria F Serapide, Nunzio Testa, Salvatore Caniglia, Beatrice Balzarotti, Stefano Pluchino, Bianca Marchetti
During aging - one the most potent risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD) - both astrocytes and microglia undergo functional changes that ultimately hamper homoeostasis, defence and repair of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons. We tested the possibility of rejuvenating the host microenvironment and boosting SNpc DA neuronal plasticity via the unilateral transplantation of syngeneic neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) in the SNpc of aged mice with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced experimental PD...
March 25, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564787/microglia-analysis-in-retinal-degeneration-mouse-models
#17
Katharina Dannhausen, Khalid Rashid, Thomas Langmann
Microgliosis is a hallmark of degenerative processes in the retina. Reactive microglia migrate to the photoreceptor layer and the subretinal space during outer retinal degeneration. This process creates a toxic milieu where reactive microglia and dying photoreceptors recruit additional reactive phagocytes. This results in the release of a multitude of proinflammatory factors which accelerate photoreceptor demise. In this chapter, we outline in detail how to monitor microgliosis in the Fam161a-deficient mouse model of Retinitis Pigmentosa by performing immunohistochemical stainings of retinal cryosections and flat mounts using the marker Iba1...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560431/cd4-t-cells-react-to-local-increase-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-a-pathology-associated-variant-dependent-manner-and-modify-brain-microglia-in-absence-of-brain-pathology
#18
Mads N Olesen, Josefine R Christiansen, Steen Vang Petersen, Poul Henning Jensen, Wojciech Paslawski, Marina Romero-Ramos, Vanesa Sanchez-Guajardo
We have previously shown that immunological processes in the brain during α-synuclein-induced neurodegeneration vary depending on the presence or absence of cell death. This suggests that the immune system is able to react differently to the different stages of α-synuclein pathology. However, it was unclear whether these immune changes were governed by brain processes or by a direct immune response to α-synuclein modifications. We have herein locally increased the peripheral concentration of α-synuclein or its pathology-associated variants, nitrated or fibrillar, to characterize the modulation of the CD4 T cell pool by α-synuclein and brain microglia in the absence of any α-synuclein brain pathology...
January 2018: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527116/obesity-induced-metabolic-disturbance-drives-oxidative-stress-and-complement-activation-in-the-retinal-environment
#19
Riccardo Natoli, Nilisha Fernando, Tess Dahlenburg, Haihan Jiao, Riemke Aggio-Bruce, Nigel L Barnett, Juan Manuel Chao de la Barca, Guillaume Tcherkez, Pascal Reynier, Johnny Fang, Joshua A Chu-Tan, Krisztina Valter, Jan Provis, Matt Rutar
Purpose: Systemic increases in reactive oxygen species, and their association with inflammation, have been proposed as an underlying mechanism linking obesity and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Studies have found increased levels of oxidative stress biomarkers and inflammatory cytokines in obese individuals; however, the correlation between obesity and retinal inflammation has yet to be assessed. We used the leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mouse to further our understanding of the contribution of obesity to retinal oxidative stress and inflammation...
2018: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526796/bilateral-early-activation-of-retinal-microglial-cells-in-a-mouse-model-of-unilateral-laser-induced-experimental-ocular-hypertension
#20
Rosa de Hoz, Ana I Ramírez, Rosa González-Martín, Daniel Ajoy, Blanca Rojas, Elena Salobrar-Garcia, Francisco J Valiente-Soriano, Marcelino Avilés-Trigueros, Maria P Villegas-Pérez, Manuel Vidal-Sanz, Alberto Triviño, José M Ramírez, Juan J Salazar
The immune system plays an important role in glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Retinal microglial reactivation associated with ganglion cell loss could reportedly contribute to the glaucoma progression. Recently we have described signs of microglia activation both in contralateral and ocular hypertension (OHT) eyes involving all retinal layers 15 days after OHT laser induction in mice. However, no works available have analyzed the microglial activation at earliest time points after OHT induction (24 h) in this experimental model...
March 9, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
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