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Bruno Romeo, Marine Brunet-Lecomte, Catherine Martelli, Amine Benyamina
Background: Immune system dysfunction is a hypothesis in the psychopathology of schizophrenia but the impact of antipsychotic treatment within this system is not clear. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the impact of antipsychotic treatment on cytokine levels in in vivo studies on schizophrenia. Methods: After a systematic database search, original data were extracted with the help of certain authors. Means and standard deviations were extracted to calculate standardized mean differences (SMD)...
July 17, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Megan Hastings Hagenauer, Anton Schulmann, Jun Z Li, Marquis P Vawter, David M Walsh, Robert C Thompson, Cortney A Turner, William E Bunney, Richard M Myers, Jack D Barchas, Alan F Schatzberg, Stanley J Watson, Huda Akil
Psychiatric illness is unlikely to arise from pathology occurring uniformly across all cell types in affected brain regions. Despite this, transcriptomic analyses of the human brain have typically been conducted using macro-dissected tissue due to the difficulty of performing single-cell type analyses with donated post-mortem brains. To address this issue statistically, we compiled a database of several thousand transcripts that were specifically-enriched in one of 10 primary cortical cell types in previous publications...
2018: PloS One
Misuzu Tajiri, Yutaro Suzuki, Takuro Sugai, Nobuto Tsuneyama, Toshiyuki Someya
It has long been known that antipsychotic drugs (ATP) causes tachycardia, however details such as the differences between ATP are not well known. In recent years, the relationship between the rise in resting heart rate (RHR) and the increased risk of death in the general population has been garnering attention. In this study, we examined the difference in action on RHR between olanzapine (OLZ) and aripiprazole (ARP). The changes in the RHR on switching from OLZ to ARP and on increasing from the starting OLZ dose to the final one were evaluated in 19 outpatients (Study 1) and in 29 outpatients with schizophrenia (Study 2), respectively...
2018: PloS One
Brendan D Kelly, Emmanuel Umama-Agada, Aoife Curley, Richard M Duffy, Muhammad Asghar, Jane Gilhooley
BACKGROUND: While involuntary psychiatric admission and treatment are common, little is known about what impact different diagnoses have on specific features of involuntary admission and on how involuntary status is terminated (eg, by psychiatrists or tribunals, which are independent, court-like bodies reviewing involuntary admissions). METHODS: We studied 2940 admissions, 423 (14.4%) of which were involuntary, at 3 psychiatry units covering a population of 552,019 individuals in Dublin, Ireland...
May 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
David A Kahn
In this issue of the journal, 2 case reports are presented that illustrate explicit influences of structural brain lesions on psychiatric symptoms. In both cases, the patients had preexisting, classically diagnosed psychiatric disorders-schizophrenia in the first case and bipolar I disorder in the second case. In the first case, a 61-year-old woman with chronic paranoid schizophrenia experienced a marked reduction in psychotic symptoms after bilateral frontal strokes. In the second case, a 60-year-old man who had experienced manic and depressive episodes since his 20s developed partial complex seizures after having repeated head trauma in his 40s, with subsequent onset of chronic personality changes associated with temporal lobe epilepsy that made his psychiatric treatment a greater challenge...
May 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Michael B Centorino, Glenn Catalano, Laura C Grimsich, Roula M Antoun
Strokes have been shown to result in psychiatric phenomena that can range from mood disorders to psychosis. Ablative neurosurgeries have been performed with the goal of reducing the burden of psychiatric symptoms following such cerebrovascular accidents. In this report, we review poststroke psychiatric manifestations, and then present the case of a woman with schizophrenia whose thought disorder improved following a hemorrhagic stroke. Not only did she require less medication, but her remaining symptoms were significantly less impairing than they had previously been...
May 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Zachary D Zuschlag, Jeffrey E Korte, Mark Hamner
BACKGROUND: A strong association has been shown to exist between schizophrenia and suicide; however, research examining suicidality in the prodromal phase of psychotic disorders is limited. This study aimed to meet this need by examining potential risk factors for lifetime suicide attempts in a population of individuals with attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS), as defined in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders as a condition for further study...
May 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Amy T Peters, Sally M Weinstein, Ashley Isaia, Anna VAN Meter, Courtney A Zulauf, Amy E West
BACKGROUND: Accurate assessment of pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) is important for allocating appropriate treatment, but it is complicated by significant heterogeneity in symptom presentation and high rates of comorbidity. Investigating clinical subtypes of the disorder may help to clarify diagnostic boundaries and inform targeted treatment. This study used a full diagnostic instrument to examine symptom patterns among youth with BD. METHOD: Trained interviewers completed the Washington University Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (WASH-U-KSADS) with 71 children (7 to 13 y of age) and families as part of the baseline assessment for a randomized clinical trial of Child- and Family-focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CFF-CBT) compared with treatment as usual (TAU) for pediatric BD...
May 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Marjie L Hard, Angela Y Wehr, Yangchun Du, Peter J Weiden, David Walling, Lisa von Moltke
BACKGROUND: Aripiprazole lauroxil (AL), a long-acting injectable antipsychotic for the treatment of schizophrenia, requires 21 days of oral aripiprazole supplementation upon initiation. We report findings from a phase 1 study investigating a nanocrystalline milled dispersion of AL (ALNCD) as a potential 1-day initiation regimen. The 1-day initiation regimen is designed to enable rapid achievement of plasma aripiprazole concentrations that are comparable with the 21-day oral initiation regimen...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
S Kristensen, J Mainz, L Baandrup, M Bonde, P Videbech, J Holmskov, P Bech
BACKGROUND: Denmark has national clinical indicator programs for adult patients diagnosed with depression and schizophrenia, respectively. Within each program, the responsible steering group (SG) decided to add some indicators based upon patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). AIMS: The primary aim was to describe the process of selecting PROMs and defining a national measurement concept for use in clinical practice and for indicator monitoring and the secondary aim s to collect patient recommendations for implementation...
July 17, 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Afaf H Khalil, Gihan ELNahas, Hisham Ramy, Karim Abdel Aziz, Hussien Elkholy, Reem El-Ghamry
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of a culturally adapted, structured family intervention on symptom severity, medication attitudes and knowledge, social functioning and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Thirty subjects with schizophrenia were selected to receive 14 sessions of a culturally adapted behavioural family psychoeducational programme (BFPEP). Another 30 subjects received standard treatment as usual (STU) for 6 months. Pre- and post-intervention outcomes were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Drug Attitude Inventory 10-item scale (DAI-10), Quality of Life Scale (QLS) and Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ)...
July 17, 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
Philip Gorwood, Jasmina Mallet, Sylvie Lancrenon
Functional remission concerns only one third of schizophrenia patients who achieved symptomatic remission. We previously developed a scale devoted to functional remission, named the FROGS (Functional Remission Of General Schizophrenia). This instrument encompasses three clinically relevant dimensions. The aim of this study is to provide a threshold for functional remission relying on these three dimensions, and to compare its psychometric properties with other scales devoted to functional remission. We tested the characteristics of functional remission according to the FROGS...
July 3, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Chao Zhou, Jiu Chen, Xiaowei Tang, Xiaotang Feng, Miao Yu, Weiwei Sha, Xiang Wang, Xiaobin Zhang, Hongwei Yi, Xiangrong Zhang
This study detected the differences in gene expression and DNA methylation of CpG sites in CXCL1 gene and further investigated their associations with clinical symptoms in deficit schizophrenia (DS) and non-deficit schizophrenia (NDS). Pyrosequencing and RT-qPCR were separately used to determine DNA methylation and mRNA expression of CXCL1 gene. Both DNA methylation and expression were significantly different among DS, NDS and healthy control (HC) groups. Correlation analysis revealed that CXCL1 gene expression was associated with the negative syndrome in NDS patients, while no association in DS patients was observed...
July 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Parita Shah, Yusuke Iwata, Eric Plitman, Eric E Brown, Fernando Caravaggio, Julia Kim, Shinichiro Nakajima, Margaret Hahn, Gary Remington, Philip Gerretsen, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
Approximately one-third of patients with schizophrenia have treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TR-SCZ), which is a condition characterized by suboptimal response to antipsychotics other than clozapine. Importantly, treatment with clozapine-the only antipsychotic with an indication for TR-SCZ-is often delayed, which could contribute to negative outcomes. Given that the specific impact of delay in clozapine initiation is not well understood, we aimed to conduct a systematic search of the Ovid Medline® database to identify English language publications exploring the impact of delay in clozapine initiation on treatment outcomes in patients with TR-SCZ...
July 9, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Peng Huang, Long-Biao Cui, Xiangrui Li, Zhong-Lin Lu, Xia Zhu, Yibin Xi, Huaning Wang, Baojuan Li, Fang Hou, Danmin Miao, Hong Yin
Many studies have focused on patients with schizophrenia with or without auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), but due to the complexity of schizophrenia, biologically based diagnosis of patients with schizophrenia remains unsolved. The objectives of this study are to classify between first-episode drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and to classify between patients with and without AVHs. Resting state fMRI data from 41 patients with schizophrenia (22 with and 19 without AVHs) and 23 normal controls (NC) were included to compute functional connectivity between brain regions...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Hussam Hindi, James L Lawrence
The patient was a 60-year-old male who initially presented to the emergency room with extreme agitation aggravated by internal stimuli as well as visual hallucinations, paranoia, and grandiose delusions. He was diagnosed with nonspecific schizophrenia and treated with risperidone, trazodone, and lithium. Approximately 16 months later, he was readmitted to the hospital trying to enter a stranger's car that he thought was his. He was confused and was unable to give an accurate history. His psychomotor retardation and confusion were thought to be due to risperidone...
May 10, 2018: Curēus
Justine Renard, Walter J Rushlow, Steven R Laviolette
Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse among adolescents. Considerable clinical evidence supports the hypothesis that adolescent neurodevelopmental exposure to high levels of the principal psychoactive component in marijuana, -delta-9-tetrahydrocanabinol (THC), is associated with a high risk of developing psychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia later in life. This marijuana-associated risk is believed to be related to increasing levels of THC found within commonly used marijuana strains. Adolescence is a highly vulnerable period for the development of the brain, where the inhibitory GABAergic system plays a pivotal role in the maturation of regulatory control mechanisms in the central nervous system (CNS)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Keiko Akahoshi, Toshiyuki Yamamoto
We report the case of a Japanese woman with an interstitial deletion within the 7q31.1q31.3 region, she presented with mild intellectual disability since infancy, and later developed characteristic psychiatric manifestations, including abnormal behavior, delusions, and hallucinations. She was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia (F20.0, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision). Array comparative genomic hybridization examination revealed the deletion involving several important genes for neurodevelopment...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Rigil K Yeung, Zheng-Hua Xiang, Shui-Ying Tsang, Rui Li, Timothy Y C Ho, Qi Li, Chok-King Hui, Pak-Chung Sham, Ming-Qi Qiao, Hong Xue
Intronic polymorphisms of the GABAA receptor β2 subunit gene (GABRB2) under adaptive evolution were associated with schizophrenia and reduced expression, especially of the long isoform which differs in electrophysiological properties from the short isoform. The present study was directed to examining the gene dosage effects of Gabrb2 in knockout mice of both heterozygous (HT) and homozygous (KO) genotypes with respect to possible schizophrenia-like and comorbid phenotypes. The KO mice, and HT mice to a lesser extent, were found to display prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficit, locomotor hyperactivity, stereotypy, sociability impairments, spatial-working and spatial-reference memory deficits, reduced depression and anxiety, and accelerated pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure...
July 17, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Anna Alonso-Solís, Katya Rubinstein, Iluminada Corripio, Erika Jaaskelainen, Annika Seppälä, Vincenzo Alberto Vella, Johanna Caro-Mendivelso, Asaf Caspi, Matti Isohanni, Zsolt Unoka, Shenja Van der Graff, Kinga Farkas, Elena Huerta-Ramos, Silvia Marcó-García, Matthias Stevens, Tanguy Coenen, Margarita Hospedales, Jesús Berdún, Eva M Grasa
INTRODUCTION: Treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) is a severe form of schizophrenia. In the European Union, approximately 40% of people with schizophrenia have TRS. Factors such as the persistence of positive symptoms or higher risk of comorbidities leave clinicians with a complex scenario when treating these patients. Intervention strategies based on mHealth have demonstrated their ability to support and promote self-management-based strategies. Mobile therapeutic attention for treatment-resistant schizophrenia ( m-RESIST), an innovative mHealth solution based on novel technology and offering high modular and flexible functioning, has been developed specifically for patients with TRS and their caregivers...
July 16, 2018: BMJ Open
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