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Schizophrenia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728095/lifetime-use-of-psychiatric-medications-and-cognition-at-43years-of-age-in-schizophrenia-in-the-northern-finland-birth-cohort-1966
#1
A P Hulkko, G K Murray, J Moilanen, M Haapea, I Rannikko, P B Jones, J H Barnett, S Huhtaniska, M K Isohanni, H Koponen, E Jääskeläinen, J Miettunen
BACKGROUND: Higher lifetime antipsychotic exposure has been associated with poorer cognition in schizophrenia. The cognitive effects of adjunctive psychiatric medications and lifetime trends of antipsychotic use remain largely unclear. We aimed to study how lifetime and current benzodiazepine and antidepressant medications, lifetime trends of antipsychotic use and antipsychotic polypharmacy are associated with cognitive performance in midlife schizophrenia. METHODS: Sixty participants with DSM-IV schizophrenia from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 were examined at 43years of age with an extensive cognitive test battery...
June 27, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728092/checking-the-predictive-accuracy-of-basic-symptoms-against-ultra-high-risk-criteria-and-testing-of-a-multivariable-prediction-model-evidence-from-a-prospective-three-year-observational-study-of-persons-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#2
M P Hengartner, K Heekeren, D Dvorsky, S Walitza, W Rössler, A Theodoridou
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to critically examine the prognostic validity of various clinical high-risk (CHR) criteria alone and in combination with additional clinical characteristics. METHODS: A total of 188 CHR positive persons from the region of Zurich, Switzerland (mean age 20.5 years; 60.2% male), meeting ultra high-risk (UHR) and/or basic symptoms (BS) criteria, were followed over three years. The test battery included the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS), verbal IQ and many other screening tools...
June 3, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728089/volumetric-and-morphological-characteristics-of-the-hippocampus-are-associated-with-progression-to-schizophrenia-in-patients-with-first-episode-psychosis
#3
R Sauras, A Keymer, A Alonso-Solis, A Díaz, C Molins, F Nuñez, M Rabella, A Roldán, E Grasa, E Alvarez, M J Portella, I Corripio
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in the hippocampus have been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychosis. However, it is still unclear whether certain abnormalities are a pre-existing vulnerability factor, a sign of disease progression or a consequence of environmental factors. We hypothesized that first-episode psychosis patients who progress to schizophrenia after one year of follow up will display greater volumetric and morphological changes from the very beginning of the disorder. METHODS: We studied the hippocampus of 41 patients with a first-episode psychosis and 41 matched healthy controls...
July 5, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727686/fbxw7-regulates-disc1-stability-via-the-ubiquitin-proteosome-system
#4
K Yalla, C Elliott, J P Day, J Findlay, S Barratt, Z A Hughes, L Wilson, E Whiteley, M Popiolek, Y Li, J Dunlop, R Killick, D R Adams, N J Brandon, M D Houslay, B Hao, G S Baillie
Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a multi-functional scaffolding protein that has been associated with neuropsychiatric disease. The role of DISC1 is to assemble protein complexes that promote neural development and signaling, hence tight control of the concentration of cellular DISC1 in neurons is vital to brain function. Using structural and biochemical techniques, we show for we believe the first time that not only is DISC1 turnover elicited by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) but that it is orchestrated by the F-Box protein, FBXW7...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727685/erbb4-signaling-in-dopaminergic-axonal-projections-increases-extracellular-dopamine-levels-and-regulates-spatial-working-memory-behaviors
#5
M Skirzewski, I Karavanova, A Shamir, L Erben, J Garcia-Olivares, J H Shin, D Vullhorst, V A Alvarez, S G Amara, A Buonanno
Genetic variants of Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its neuronal tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB4 are associated with risk for schizophrenia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by excitatory/inhibitory imbalance and dopamine (DA) dysfunction. To date, most ErbB4 studies have focused on GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus and neocortex, particularly fast-spiking parvalbumin-positive (PV+) basket cells. However, NRG has also been shown to modulate DA levels, suggesting a role for ErbB4 signaling in dopaminergic neuron function...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727644/cariprazine-specificity-profile-in-the-treatment-of-acute-schizophrenia-a-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#6
Filippo Corponi, Alessandro Serretti, Stuart Montgomery, Chiara Fabbri
Cariprazine is a new dopamine D2 and D3 receptor partial agonist antipsychotic. Meta-analytic evidence of efficacy in acute schizophrenia and specific groups of patients is lacking. We carried out a meta-analysis in patients with acute schizophrenia to evaluate the efficacy of cariprazine over placebo and active comparators in overall symptoms, positive and negative symptoms and quality of life. Low and high (≥6 mg/day) doses were tested separately. The possible effect of clinical-demographic modulators was also tested...
July 19, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726159/diagnosis-and-treatment-delays-among-elderly-breast-cancer-patients-with-pre-existing-mental-illness
#7
Kristy Iglay, Melissa L Santorelli, Kim M Hirshfield, Jill M Williams, George G Rhoads, Yong Lin, Kitaw Demissie
PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare diagnosis and treatment delays in elderly breast cancer patients with and without pre-existing mental illness. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare data including 16,636 women 68+ years, who were diagnosed with stage I-IIIa breast cancer in the United States from 2005 to 2007. Mental illness was identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes recorded on inpatient and outpatient claims during the 3 years prior to breast cancer diagnosis...
July 19, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726075/effectiveness-adverse-effects-and-drug-compliance-of-long-acting-injectable-risperidone-in-children-and-adolescents
#8
Mehmet Fatih Ceylan, Betül Erdogan, Selma Tural Hesapcioglu, Esra Cop
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although the use of oral risperidone in children and adolescents has been well studied, there is little information on the intramuscular use of long-acting injectable risperidone (LAIR). The aims of this study were to investigate the effectiveness and adverse effects of LAIR in children and adolescents with conduct disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. METHODS: In total, 42 patients (age range 12-17 years) who were non-adherent to oral antipsychotic drugs, received 25 mg/day of LAIR intramuscularly every 2 weeks...
July 19, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725312/two-cases-of-pneumatosis-cystoides-intestinalis-with-intraperitoneal-free-air
#9
Kensuke Wada, Nobuhiro Takeuchi, Masakazu Emori, Masanori Takada, Yusuke Nomura, Akihito Otsuka
Intraperitoneal free air (IFA) is sometimes accompanied by pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI); therefore, proper diagnosis is essential for PCI management. We report two cases of PCI with IFA. A 70-year-old female taking anti-psychotic medication for schizophrenia presented with repeated vomiting and high-grade fever. Computed tomography revealed small, linear gaseous cysts in the intestinal wall along with IFA. Although there was no sign of peritoneal irritation, intestinal perforation was not excluded...
June 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725222/neuronal-surface-autoantibodies-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders-are-there-implications-for-depression
#10
REVIEW
Shenghua Zong, Carolin Hoffmann, Marina Mané-Damas, Peter Molenaar, Mario Losen, Pilar Martinez-Martinez
Autoimmune diseases are affecting around 7.6-9.4% of the general population. A number of central nervous system disorders, including encephalitis and severe psychiatric disorders, have been demonstrated to associate with specific neuronal surface autoantibodies (NSAbs). It has become clear that specific autoantibodies targeting neuronal surface antigens and ion channels could cause severe mental disturbances. A number of studies have focused or are currently investigating the presence of autoantibodies in specific mental conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725167/genetic-risk-between-the-cacna1i-gene-and-schizophrenia-in-chinese-uygur-population
#11
Wei Xu, Yahui Liu, Jianhua Chen, Qingli Guo, Ke Liu, Zujia Wen, Zhaowei Zhou, Zhijian Song, Juan Zhou, Lin He, Qizhong Yi, Yongyong Shi
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a common mental disorder with high heritability, and genetic factors play a major role in the pathogenesis. Recent researches indicated that the CACNA1I involved in calcium channels probably affect the potential pathogenesis of SCZ. RESULTS: In this study, we attempted to investigate whether the CACNA1I gene contributes the risk to SCZ in the Uighur Chinese population, and performed a case-control study involving 985 patient samples and 1218 normal controls to analyze nine SNPs within the CACNA1I gene...
2018: Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724162/-psychosis-intoxication-or-serotonin-syndrome-a-20-year-old-male-with-ziprasidone-und-sertraline
#12
Sven Speerforck, Deborah Janowitz, Georg Schomerus, Hans J Grabe
A young male with schizophrenia, dependence syndrome (multiple drug use) and a severe depressive episode develops a serotonin syndrome with Sertraline and Ziprasidone. Making the correct diagnosis, although potentially challenging, remains vital.
July 19, 2017: Psychiatrische Praxis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724123/assessment-of-insulin-resistance-among-drug-naive-patients-with-first-episode-schizophrenia-in-the-context-of-hormonal-stress-axis-activation
#13
Johann Steiner, Maximus Berger, Paul C Guest, Henrik Dobrowolny, Sabine Westphal, Kolja Schiltz, Zoltán Sarnyai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723415/pharmacology-of-human-trace-amine-associated-receptors-therapeutic-opportunities-and-challenges
#14
REVIEW
Mark D Berry, Raul R Gainetdinov, Marius C Hoener, Mohammed Shahid
The discovery in 2001 of a G protein-coupled receptor family, subsequently termed trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR), triggered a resurgence of interest in so-called trace amines. Initial optimism quickly faded, however, as the TAAR family presented a series of challenges preventing the use of standard medicinal chemistry and pharmacology technologies. Consequently the development of basic tools for probing TAAR and translating findings from model systems to humans has been problematic. Despite these challenges the last 5 years have seen considerable advances, in particular with respect to TAAR1, which appears to function as an endogenous rheostat, maintaining central neurotransmission within defined physiological limits, in part through receptor heterodimerization yielding biased signaling outputs...
July 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723388/region-specific-impairments-in-parvalbumin-interneurons-in-social-isolation-reared-mice
#15
Hiroshi Ueno, Shunsuke Suemitsu, Shinji Murakami, Naoya Kitamura, Kenta Wani, Motoi Okamoto, Yosuke Matsumoto, Takeshi Ishihara
Many neuropsychiatric disorders show localized dysfunction in specific cortical regions. The mechanisms underlying such region-specific vulnerabilities are unknown. Post-mortem analyses have demonstrated a selective reduction in the expression of parvalbumin (PV) in GABAergic interneurons in the frontal rather than the sensory cortex of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders, and bipolar disorders. PV neurons are surrounded by perineuronal nets (PNNs), and are protected from oxidative stress...
July 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723299/support-for-disease-only-genotypes-and-excess-of-homozygosity-at-the-cyth4-primate-specific-gttt-repeat-in-schizophrenia
#16
Ehteram Khademi, Elham Alehabib, Ehsan Esmaili Shandiz, Azadeh Ahmadifard, Monavvar Andarva, Javad Jamshidi, Simin Rahimi-Aliabadi, Ramin Pouriran, Farhad Ramezani Nejad, Nader Mansoori, Neda Shahmohammadibeni, Shaghyegh Taghavi, Parasto Shokraeian, Haleh Akhavan-Niaki, Coro Paisán-Ruiz, Hossein Darvish, Mina Ohadi
OBJECTIVE: The role of short tandem repeats (STRs) in the control of gene expression among species is being increasingly understood following the identification of several instances in which certain STRs occur identically, or expand differentially, in primates versus nonprimates. These STRs may regulate genes that participate in characteristics that have diverged primates from other species (e.g., brain higher order functions). The CYTH4 gene contains the longest tetranucleotide STR in its core promoter, at 7-repeats, and links to the evolution of human and nonhuman primates...
July 19, 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721740/clinical-features-and-subjective-physiological-responses-to-emotional-stimuli-in-the-presence-of-emotion-dysregulation-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#17
Candan Taskiran, Serkan Karaismailoglu, Halime Tuna Cak Esen, Zeynep Tuzun, Aysen Erdem, Zeynep Dicle Balkanci, Anil Barak Dolgun, Sadriye Ebru Cengel Kultur
INTRODUCTION: Emotion dysregulation (ED) has long been recognized in clinical descriptions of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but a renewed interest in ED has advanced research on the overlap between the two entities. Autonomic reactivity (AR) is a neurobiological correlate of emotion regulation; however, the association between ADHD and AR remains unclear. Our aim was to explore the clinical differences, AR, and subjective emotional responses to visual emotional stimuli in ADHD children with and without ED...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721051/effectiveness-of-amisulpride-in-chinese-patients-with-predominantly-negative-symptoms-of-schizophrenia-a-subanalysis-of-the-escape-study
#18
Ying Liang, Xin Yu
BACKGROUND: Effective management strategies for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia remain an unmet need, and data on the use of antipsychotics in this population are scarce, particularly in Chinese patients. Therefore, we investigated amisulpride for the treatment of Chinese patients with predominantly negative symptoms of schizophrenia. METHODS: This post hoc subanalysis of the prospective Effectiveness and Safety of Amisulpride in Chinese Patients with Schizophrenia (ESCAPE) study included adult Chinese patients with an International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia and predominantly negative symptoms, who received amisulpride for 8 weeks...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721020/access-to-credible-information-on-schizophrenia-patients-medication-adherence-by-prescribers-can-change-their-treatment-strategies-evidence-from-an-online-survey-of-providers
#19
Jason Shafrin, Suepattra G May, Anshu Shrestha, Charles Ruetsch, Nicole Gerlanc, Felicia Forma, Ainslie Hatch, Darius N Lakdawalla, Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer
OBJECTIVE: Overestimating patients' medication adherence diminishes the ability of psychiatric care providers to prescribe the most effective treatment and to identify the root causes of treatment resistance in schizophrenia. This study was conducted to determine how credible patient drug adherence information (PDAI) might change prescribers' treatment decisions. METHODS: In an online survey containing 8 clinical case vignettes describing patients with schizophrenia, health care practitioners who prescribe antipsychotics to patients with schizophrenia were instructed to choose a preferred treatment recommendation from a set of predefined pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic options...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720891/whole-exome-sequencing-reveals-inherited-and-de-novo-variants-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-trio-study-from-saudi-families
#20
Bashayer Al-Mubarak, Mohamed Abouelhoda, Aisha Omar, Hesham AlDhalaan, Mohammed Aldosari, Michael Nester, Hussain A Alshamrani, Mohamed El-Kalioby, Ewa Goljan, Renad Albar, Shazia Subhani, Asma Tahir, Sultana Asfahani, Alaa Eskandrani, Ahmed Almusaiab, Amna Magrashi, Jameela Shinwari, Dorota Monies, Nada Al Tassan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with genetic and clinical heterogeneity. The interplay of de novo and inherited rare variants has been suspected in the development of ASD. Here, we applied whole exome sequencing (WES) on 19 trios from singleton Saudi families with ASD. We developed an analysis pipeline that allows capturing both de novo and inherited rare variants predicted to be deleterious. A total of 47 unique rare variants were detected in 17 trios including 38 which are newly discovered...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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