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Vitamin D keratinocytes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231625/experimental-study-on-1-25-oh-2-d3-amelioration-of-oral-lichen-planus-through-regulating-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#1
Jie Du, Ran Li, Feiyan Yu, Fang Yang, Jinhua Wang, Qingyong Chen, Xiangyu Wang, Bin Zhao, Fang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the protective function of vitamin D (VD)/vitamin D receptor (VDR) on the development of oral lichen planus (OLP) and elaborate the underling mechanism of it. METHODS: H&E staining, myeloid Peroxidase (MPO) assays, quantitative PCR (qPCR), western blotting and Elisa were used to test the human biopsies and serum. QPCR, western blotting, Elisa and siRNA transfection were also performed in LPS-induced keratinocytes to observe the functions of vitamin D and VDR...
February 23, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195079/update-on-etiopathogenesis-and-treatment-of-acne
#2
REVIEW
Yasmeen Jabeen Bhat, Insha Latief, Iffat Hassan
Acne, the most common skin disease, is a disorder of pilosebaceous units that affects adolescents mainly and adults occasionally. The pathogenesis is multifactorial. Besides genetic predisposition, other major factors include the action of androgens, pro-inflammatory lipids acting as ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the sebocytes, toll-like receptor-2 acting on keratinocytes, recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, cytokines, chemokines, inflammasomes, neuroendocrine regulatory mechanisms, diet and other pro-inflammatory targets implicated in the activation of immune detection and response...
February 7, 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176237/vitamin-d-and-its-role-in-psoriasis-an-overview-of-the-dermatologist-and-nutritionist
#3
REVIEW
Luigi Barrea, Maria Cristina Savanelli, Carolina Di Somma, Maddalena Napolitano, Matteo Megna, Annamaria Colao, Silvia Savastano
Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease. Psoriasis lesions are characterized by hyper-proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes associated with inflammatory cellular infiltrate in both dermis and epidermis. The epidermis is the natural source of vitamin D synthesis by sunlight action. Recently, a role for vitamin D in the pathogenesis of different skin diseases, including psoriasis, has been reported. Indeed, significant associations between low vitamin D status and psoriasis have been systematically observed...
February 7, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130440/calcipotriol-inhibits-proliferation-of-human-keratinocytes-by-downregulating-stat1-and-stat3-signaling
#4
Wenli Liang, Zigang Lin, Li Zhang, Xuan Qin, Yuan Zhang, Ledong Sun
Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease, which is characterized by aberrantly high levels of inflammation, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are still not fully understood. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and STAT3, and the downstream proteins suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and SOCS3, have been implicated in psoriasis disease progression. Calcipotriol, a synthetic derivative of vitamin D, has been used clinically to treat psoriasis, but the mechanism of action that underlies the beneficial effects of calcipotriol is still being explored...
February 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115699/similarities-and-differences-in-the-transcriptional-control-of-expression-of-the-mouse-tslp-gene-in-skin-epidermis-and-intestinal-epithelium
#5
Krishna Priya Ganti, Atish Mukherji, Milan Surjit, Mei Li, Pierre Chambon
We previously reported that selective ablation of the nuclear receptors retinoid X receptor (RXR)-α and RXR-β in mouse epidermal keratinocytes (RXR-αβ(ep-/-)) or a topical application of active vitamin D3 (VD3) and/or all-trans retinoic acid (RA) on wild-type mouse skin induces a human atopic dermatitis-like phenotype that is triggered by an increased expression of the thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) proinflammatory cytokine. We demonstrate here that in epidermal keratinocytes, unliganded heterodimers of vitamin D receptor (VDR)/RXR-α and retinoic acid receptor-γ (RAR-γ)/RXR-β are bound as repressing complexes to their cognate DNA-binding sequence(s) (DBS) in the TSLP promoter regulatory region...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054069/challenge-and-perspective-the-relevance-of-ultraviolet-uv-radiation-and-the-vitamin-d-endocrine-system-vdes-for-psoriasis-and-other-inflammatory-skin-diseases
#6
Jörg Reichrath, Roman Saternus, Thomas Vogt
During evolution, the ability of many organisms to synthesize vitamin D photochemically represented, and still represents, a major driving factor for the development of life on earth. In humans because not more than 10-20% of the requirement of vitamin D can be satisfied by the diet (under most living conditions in the US and Europe), the remaining 80-90% need to be photochemically synthesized in the skin through the action of solar or artificial ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. The skin is a key organ of the human body's vitamin D endocrine system (VDES), representing both the site of vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for biologically active vitamin D metabolites...
January 5, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024137/-secrets-of-the-red-headed
#7
REVIEW
Zygmunt Zdrojewicz, Małgorzata Kowalik, Adam Jagodziński
Only 1-2% of people is red-headed but in the Russian Udmurt Republic or United Kingdom they can be met more often. A specific variant of MC1R gene (R allele) is responsible for the red hair. The gene encodes a receptor for melanocortins. These substances stimulate melanocytes to product melanin- a dye of the skin which is transported to keratinocytes. It protects a cellular nucleus from ultraviolet radiation. Melanin has two types: eumelanin which is dark brown or even black and red/orange pheomelanin. The second one is mostly observed in red-headed which is caused by R allele...
December 22, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932380/absence-of-vitamin-d-receptor-vdr-mediated-ppar%C3%AE-suppression-causes-alopecia-in-vdr-null-mice
#8
Vaibhav Saini, Hengguang Zhao, Elizabeth T Petit, Francesca Gori, Marie B Demay
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mutations in humans and mice cause alopecia. VDR-null (VDR(-/-)) mice exhibit lack of postmorphogenic hair cycles as a result of impaired keratinocyte stem cell (KSC) function. To identify the molecular basis for abnormal KSC function, RNA sequencing of wild-type (WT) and VDR(-/-) KSCs was performed. These studies demonstrated that >80% of differentially expressed genes are up-regulated in VDR(-/-) KSCs; thus, the VDR is a transcriptional suppressor in WT KSCs. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), PPARγ coactivator 1β (PGC1β), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were among the up-regulated genes identified...
March 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898044/dna-damage-inducible-transcript-4-is-an-innate-surveillant-of-hair-follicular-stress-in-vitamin-d-receptor-knockout-mice-and-a-regulator-of-wound-re-epithelialization
#9
Hengguang Zhao, Sandra Rieger, Koichiro Abe, Martin Hewison, Thomas S Lisse
Mice and human patients with impaired vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling have normal developmental hair growth but display aberrant post-morphogenic hair cycle progression associated with alopecia. In addition, VDR(-/-) mice exhibit impaired cutaneous wound healing. We undertook experiments to determine whether the stress-inducible regulator of energy homeostasis, DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 (Ddit4), is involved in these processes. By analyzing hair cycle activation in vivo, we show that VDR(-/-) mice at day 14 exhibit increased Ddit4 expression within follicular stress compartments...
November 26, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880999/current-knowledge-on-the-active-form-of-vitamin-d-synthesized-in-the-skin-and-its-effects-on-malignant-melanoma
#10
B Bolerazska, M Rabajdova, I Spakova, M Marekova
The link between sunlight and skin cancer is a frequently discussed topic. However, ultraviolet radiation also induces the production of Vitamin D in the body. Keratinocytes and their ability to synthesize the active form of Vitamin D, which is consumed at the place of its origin in the skin, have a unique place in this discussion. We observe a remarkable sunshine-related paradox when we monitor the relationship between the dose of solar radiation and one type of skin cancer - malignant melanoma. Recent knowledge of the non-calcemic effects of Vitamin D, which include growth regulation, DNA repair, differentiation, apoptosis, membrane transport, metabolism, cell adhesion and oxidative stress, could help to further clarify this relationship...
November 24, 2016: Neoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852823/phosphorylation-of-human-retinoid-x-receptor-%C3%AE-at-serine-260-impairs-its-subcellular-localization-receptor-interaction-nuclear-mobility-and-1%C3%AE-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-dependent-dna-binding-in-ras-transformed-keratinocytes
#11
Sylvester Jusu, John F Presley, Richard Kremer
Human retinoid X receptor α (hRXRα) plays a critical role in DNA binding and transcriptional activity through heterodimeric association with several members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, including the human vitamin D receptor (hVDR). We previously showed that hRXRα phosphorylation at serine 260 through the Ras-Raf-MAPK ERK1/2 activation is responsible for resistance to the growth inhibitory effects of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3), the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D3 To further investigate the mechanism of this resistance, we studied intranuclear dynamics of hVDR and hRXRα-tagged constructs in living cells together with endogenous and tagged protein in fixed cells...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663092/non-genetic-risk-factors-for-cutaneous-melanoma-and-keratinocyte-skin-cancers-an-umbrella-review-of-meta-analyses
#12
Lazaros Belbasis, Irene Stefanaki, Alexander J Stratigos, Evangelos Evangelou
BACKGROUND: Skin cancers have a complex disease mechanism, involving both genetic and non-genetic risk factors. Numerous meta-analyses have been published claiming statistically significant associations between non-genetic risk factors and skin cancers without applying a thorough methodological assessment. OBJECTIVE: The present study maps the literature on the non-genetic risk factors of skin cancers, assesses the presence of statistical biases and identifies the associations with robust evidence...
December 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573000/low-vitamin-d-modulated-calcium-regulating-proteins-in-psoriasis-vulgaris-plaques-s100a7-overexpression-depends-on-joint-involvement
#13
Susana Cubillos, Johannes Norgauer
Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease with or without joint involvement. In this disease, the thickened epidermis and impaired barrier are associated with altered calcium gradients. Calcium and vitamin D are known to play important roles in keratinocyte differentiation and bone metabolism. Intracellular calcium is regulated by calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), calcium release-activated calcium modulator (ORAI) and stromal interaction molecule (STIM). Other proteins modulated by vitamin D play important roles in calcium regulation e...
October 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524410/bioactive-forms-of-vitamin-d-selectively-stimulate-the-skin-analog-of-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-human-epidermal-keratinocytes
#14
Justyna M Wierzbicka, Michał A Żmijewski, Anna Piotrowska, Boguslaw Nedoszytko, Magdalena Lange, Robert C Tuckey, Andrzej T Slominski
Ultraviolet radiation B stimulates both the production of vitamin D3 in the skin and the activation of the skin analog of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) as well as the central HPA. Since the role of vitamin D3 in the regulation of the HPA is largely unknown, we investigated the impact of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its noncalcemic analogs, 20(OH)D3 and 21(OH)pD, on the expression of the local HPA in human epidermal keratinocytes. The noncalcemic analogs showed similar efficacy to 1,25(OH)2D3 in stimulating the expression of neuropeptides, CRF, urocortins and POMC, and their receptors, CRFR1, CRFR2, MC1R, MC2R, MC3R and MC4R...
December 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462278/disruption-of-vitamin-d-and-calcium-signaling-in-keratinocytes-predisposes-to-skin-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Daniel D Bikle, Yan Jiang, Thai Nguyen, Yuko Oda, Chia-Ling Tu
1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), the active metabolite of vitamin D, and calcium regulate epidermal differentiation. 1,25(OH)2D exerts its effects through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a transcription factor in the nuclear hormone receptor family, whereas calcium acts through the calcium sensing receptor (Casr), a membrane bound member of the G protein coupled receptor family. We have developed mouse models in which the Vdr and Casr have been deleted in the epidermis ((epid) Vdr (-∕-) and (epid) Casr (-∕-))...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447175/targeting-the-vitamin-d-endocrine-system-vdes-for-the-management-of-inflammatory-and-malignant-skin-diseases-an-historical-view-and-outlook
#16
REVIEW
Jörg Reichrath, Christos C Zouboulis, Thomas Vogt, Michael F Holick
Vitamin D represents one of the major driving factors for the development of life on earth and for human evolution. While up to 10-20 % of the human organism's requirements in vitamin D can be obtained by the diet (under most living conditions in the USA and Europe), approximately 90 % of all needed vitamin D has to be photosynthesized in the skin through the action of the sun (ultraviolet-B (UV-B)). The skin represents a key organ of the human body's vitamin D endocrine system (VDES), being both the site of vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for biologically active vitamin D metabolites...
September 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357804/vitamin-d-induced-up-regulation-of-human-keratinocyte-cathelicidin-anti-microbial-peptide-expression-involves-retinoid-x-receptor-%C3%AE
#17
Daniel Svensson, Daniel Nebel, Ulrikke Voss, Eva Ekblad, Bengt-Olof Nilsson
The biologically active form of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3), has been reported to positively regulate the human cathelicidin anti-microbial peptide (CAMP) gene coding for LL-37, but the mechanisms are not completely understood. We have determined the expression of CAMP, vitamin D receptor (VDR), and the retinoid X receptor (RXR) isoforms in human skin and gingival tissue biopsies and investigated the signaling pathways involved in 1,25D3-induced upregulation of CAMP. Human skin and gingival biopsies exhibited few VDR-immunoreactive cells within the stratum basale, whereas rat colon enterocytes (positive control) possessed abundant VDR immunoreactivity...
June 30, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27315464/light-emitting-diodes-downregulate-cathelicidin-kallikrein-and-toll-like-receptor-2-expressions-in-keratinocytes-and-rosacea-like-mouse-skin
#18
Jee-Bum Lee, Soo Hyeon Bae, Ki Rang Moon, Eui Young Na, Sook Jung Yun, Seung-Chul Lee
Cathelicidin (LL-37), Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) and kallikreins (KLKs) are key inflammatory mediators in rosacea. Laser or light-based devices have been successfully used for rosacea. We investigated the effects of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on LL-37, KLKs, TLR-2 and protease activity in cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) and rosacea-like mouse skin (RLMS). LL-37, KLK5, KLK7 and vitamin D receptor were induced by 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3 ) and TLR-2 by Ad-CMV transfection in cultured NHEKs...
June 17, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27195054/tnf-%C3%AE-increases-the-expression-and-activity-of-vitamin-d-receptor-in-keratinocytes-role-of-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase
#19
Ester Ziv, Ruth Koren, Muayad A Zahalka, Amiram Ravid
Several inflammatory mediators increase calcitriol production by epidermal keratinocytes. In turn calcitriol attenuates the keratinocyte inflammatory response. Since the effect of the in-situ generated calcitriol depends also on the sensitivity to the hormone we studied the effect of inflammatory cytokines on the response of HaCaT human keratinocytes to calcitriol by examining the expression and transcriptional activity of VDR. Treatment with TNF, but not with IL-1β or interferon γ, increased VDR protein level, while decreasing the level of its heterodimerization partner RXRα...
January 2016: Dermato-endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27151518/assessment-of-vitamin-d-receptors-in-alopecia-areata-and-androgenetic-alopecia
#20
Marwa M T Fawzi, Sara Bahaa Mahmoud, Shereen Fathi Ahmed, Olfat Gamil Shaker
BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata (AA) is a frequent autoimmune disease, the pathogenesis of which is still unknown. Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a noncicatricial type of patterned hair loss. Expression of vitamin D receptors (VDRs) on keratinocytes is essential for maintenance of normal hair cycle, especially anagen initiation. OBJECTIVE: To assess VDRs in the skin and blood of AA and AGA patients, in order to evaluate their possible role in these hair diseases. METHODS: This study recruited 20 patients with AA, 20 patients with AGA, and 20 healthy controls...
May 6, 2016: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
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