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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644368/vitamin-d-deficiency-is-not-associated-with-growth-or-the-incidence-of-common-morbidities-among-tanzanian-infants
#1
Christopher R Sudfeld, Karim P Manji, Emily R Smith, Said Aboud, Rodrick Kisenge, Wafaie W Fawzi, Christopher P Duggan
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and determine the association of vitamin D status with child growth and incidence of common morbidities among Tanzanian infants. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 581 Tanzanian infants born to HIV-uninfected mothers had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) assessed at 6 weeks and 6 months of age. Infants were seen at monthly clinic visits for growth monitoring until 18 months of age...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641682/health-effects-of-airline-cabin-environments-in-simulated-8-hour-flights
#2
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Commercial air travel is usually without health incidents. However, there is a view that cabin environments may be detrimental to health, especially flights of 8 h or more. Concerns have been raised about deep vein thrombosis, upper respiratory tract infections, altitude sickness, and toxins from the engines. METHODS: Passenger cabin simulators were used to achieve a comparative observational study with 8-h flights at pressures equivalent to terrestrial altitudes of ground, 4000, 6000, and 8000 ft...
July 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639011/guselkumab-for-the-treatment-of-psoriasis-a-review-of-phase-iii-trials
#3
REVIEW
Mio Nakamura, Katherine Lee, Caleb Jeon, Sahil Sekhon, Ladan Afifi, Di Yan, Kristina Lee, Tina Bhutani
INTRODUCTION: Interleukin (IL)-23 inhibitors are a new class of biologics currently undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Phase III studies of guselkumab, an IL-23 receptor monoclonal antibody, are currently underway. METHODS: We summarize the available phase III results to date, establishing the efficacy and safety of guselkumab in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. RESULTS: Currently, there are available data of up to 48 weeks from two Phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and comparator-controlled clinical trials, VOYAGE 1 and VOYAGE 2...
June 21, 2017: Dermatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636184/pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-of-bococizumab-a-monoclonal-antibody-to-pcsk9-after-single-subcutaneous-injection-at-3-sites-nct-02043301
#4
Ellen Q Wang, Anna Plotka, Joanne Salageanu, Catherine Sattler, Carla Yunis
AIM: To characterize the single-dose pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of bococizumab, a monoclonal antibody inhibiting proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), administered subcutaneously (s.c.) to the abdomen, thigh, or upper arm (NCT02043301). METHODS: Seventy-five adults with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥130 mg/dL and not on background lipid-lowering therapy were randomized (1:1:1) to a single 150-mg s.c. dose of bococizumab administered to the abdomen, thigh, or upper arm...
June 21, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634909/categorical-risk-perception-drives-variability-in-antibiotic-prescribing-in-the-emergency-department-a-mixed-methods-observational-study
#5
Eili Y Klein, Elena M Martinez, Larissa May, Mustapha Saheed, Valerie Reyna, David A Broniatowski
BACKGROUND: Adherence to evidence-based antibiotic therapy guidelines for treatment of upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) varies widely among clinicians. Understanding this variability is key for reducing inappropriate prescribing. OBJECTIVE: To measure how emergency department (ED) clinicians' perceptions of antibiotic prescribing risks affect their decision-making. DESIGN: Clinician survey based on fuzzy-trace theory, a theory of medical decision-making, combined with retrospective data on prescribing outcomes for URI/pneumonia visits in two EDs...
June 20, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629670/trends-in-prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-allergic-rhinitis-symptoms-in-primary-schoolchildren-six-years-apart-in-budapest
#6
M Sultész, I Balogh, G Katona, G Mezei, A Hirschberg, G Gálffy
BACKGROUND: Few data are available concerning the time trends and risk factors associated with allergic rhinitis (AR) in schoolchildren in Hungary. METHODS: At an interval of six years, parents of 6-12-year-old children completed identical ISAAC-based and additional questionnaires related to possible risk factors. RESULTS: Response rate was 62.8% with 6335 questionnaires distributed in 2007, and 52.9% with 6441 questionnaires in 2013. The prevalence of current AR symptoms (subjects presenting clinical symptoms of AR in the past 12 months, but had yet to be diagnosed by physician) increased significantly from 14...
June 16, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626902/haemophilus-influenzae-oral-vaccination-for-preventing-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-bronchitis-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#7
REVIEW
Edward Teo, Kathleen Lockhart, Sai Navya Purchuri, Jennifer Pushparajah, Allan W Cripps, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are serious conditions in which patients are predisposed to viral and bacterial infections resulting in potentially fatal acute exacerbations. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is defined as a lung disease characterised by obstruction to lung airflow that interferes with normal breathing. Antibiotic therapy has not been particularly useful in eradicating bacteria such as non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) because they are naturally occurring flora of the upper respiratory tract in many people...
June 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625542/analysis-of-the-codon-usage-of-the-orf2-gene-of-feline-calicivirus
#8
Minghui Zang, Wanting He, Fanshu Du, Gongjian Wu, Bohao Wu, Zhenlei Zhou
Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a highly prevalent pathogen of the domestic cat that causes acute infections of the oral and upper respiratory tract. The E region of the ORF2 protein is responsible for the induction of virus-neutralizing antibodies, thus it is important to understand the codon usage of this gene. Here, analysed 90 coding sequences of ORF2 and show that it undergoes a low codon usage bias. In addition, although mutational bias is one of the factors shaping the codon usage bias of this gene, natural selection plays a more significant role...
June 16, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616436/initiatives-to-reduce-nonprescription-sales-and-dispensing-of-antibiotics-findings-and-implications
#9
Vanda Marković-Peković, Nataša Grubiša, Johanita Burger, Ljubica Bojanić, Brian Godman
OBJECTIVE: Irrational use of antimicrobials is a major driver of antimicrobial resistance, exacerbated by dispensing antibiotics without a prescription. Our previous study suggested this was a problem in the Republic of Srpska despite legislation. Since then, a number of activities have been initiated. Consequently, the study aimed to ascertain whether these multiple initiatives had reduced this. METHODS: Patients visiting all community pharmacies in the Republic from October 2014 to July 2015 presenting with symptoms typical of an acute, viral, and mostly uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection, with results compared to the previous study...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614102/intracranial-complications-of-pediatric-sinusitis
#10
Alexandria J Wiersma, Tien Vu
"Headache and fever" is a common presentation to the urgent care and emergency department setting and can have many etiologies. We present a case of a 10-year-old girl who presented with headache and fever and was found to have intracranial extension of sinusitis despite lack of typical sinus or chronic upper respiratory tract infection symptoms. This case illustrates the need in the emergency department or urgent care to keep a broad differential diagnosis for pediatric headache, especially when initial interventions are unsuccessful...
June 13, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610489/ruling-out-antibiotics
#11
Matt Griffiths
Most upper respiratory tract infections are viral. As antibiotics are only effective if the infection is caused by bacteria, they are not recommended in most cases. However, prescribing for respiratory tract infections in primary care is not an exact science, and deciding whether an infection is viral or bacterial is often down to individual clinicians.
June 14, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606567/yeast-derived-%C3%AE-1-3-1-6-glucan-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-and-innate-immunity-in-older-adults
#12
Richard Fuller, Michael V Moore, George Lewith, Beth L Stuart, Rory V Ormiston, Helena L Fisk, Paul S Noakes, Philip C Calder
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to test whether yeast-derived β-1,3/1,6 glucan can prevent the occurrence or reduce the severity of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and modulate innate immune responses during winter months in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: This was a double-blind placebo-controlled trial of community-dwelling adults ages 50 to 70 y randomized to once-daily β-1,3/1,6 glucan (Wellmune 250 mg/d; n = 50) or identical placebo capsule (n = 50) over 90 d during winter...
July 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606190/performance-associated-effect-variations-of-public-reporting-in-promoting-antibiotic-prescribing-practice-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial-in-primary-healthcare-settings
#13
Yuqing Tang, Chenxi Liu, Xinping Zhang
Aim To evaluate the variations in effect of public reporting in antibiotic prescribing practice among physicians with different performance in primary healthcare settings. BACKGROUND: Overprovision of antibiotics is a major public health concern. Public reporting has been adopted to encourage good antibiotic prescribing practices. However, which group, for instance, high, average or low antibiotic prescribers, accounted for antibiotic prescription reduction has not been fully understood...
June 13, 2017: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604336/characteristics-of-dysphagia-in-infants-with-microcephaly-caused-by-congenital-zika-virus-infection-brazil-2015
#14
Mariana C Leal, Vanessa van der Linden, Thiago P Bezerra, Luciana de Valois, Adriana C G Borges, Margarida M C Antunes, Kátia G Brandt, Catharina X Moura, Laura C Rodrigues, Coeli R Ximenes
We summarize the characteristics of dysphagia in 9 infants in Brazil with microcephaly caused by congenital Zika virus infection. The Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, and the videofluoroscopic swallowing study were used as noninstrumental and instrumental assessments. All infants had a degree of neurologic damage and showed abnormalities in the oral phase. Of the 9 infants, 8 lacked oral and upper respiratory tract sensitivity, leading to delays in initiation of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing...
August 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602616/salivary-anti-pgl-1-igm-may-indicate-active-transmission-of-mycobacterium-leprae-among-young-people-under-16-years-of-age
#15
Alexandre Casimiro de Macedo, José Evandro Cunha, Juliana Navarro Ueda Yaochite, Clodis Maria Tavares, Aparecida Tiemi Nagao-Dias
Considering that the main route of Mycobacterium leprae transmission is the upper respiratory tract, detection of salivary antibodies can be a useful tool for diagnosing early infection. The study aimed to analyze salivary anti-PGL-1 IgA and IgM antibodies in 169 children aged 4-16 years old, who lived nearby or inside the house of multibacillary or paucibacillary leprosy patients in two endemic cities in Alagoas State - Brazil. Salivary anti-PGL-1 antibodies were quantified by modified ELISA method. The frequency of contact and clinical form of the index case were significantly associated with salivary antibodies levels...
June 8, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601492/new-agents-in-multiple-myeloma-an%C3%A2-examination-of-safety-profiles
#16
REVIEW
Sara Bringhen, Edwin De Wit, Meletios-Athanassios Dimopoulos
Numerous treatments are available for relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma (MM), with safety profiles varying across drug classes and across agents within the same class. Thus, it is important to understand the toxicities of each antimyeloma agent when making treatment decisions. Neutropenia is commonly associated with lenalidomide and pomalidomide, and may be common with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, but is relatively unusual with thalidomide, bortezomib, and carfilzomib. Infection was common in trials of lenalidomide and pomalidomide, and upper respiratory tract infection and pneumonia have been seen with carfilzomib...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591230/frequency-of-respiratory-virus-infections-and-next-generation-analysis-of-influenza-a-h1n1pdm09-dynamics-in-the-lower-respiratory-tract-of-patients-admitted-to-the-icu
#17
Antonio Piralla, Francesca Rovida, Alessia Girello, Marta Premoli, Francesco Mojoli, Mirko Belliato, Antonio Braschi, Giorgio Iotti, Elena Pariani, Laura Bubba, Alessandro R Zanetti, Fausto Baldanti
Recent molecular diagnostic methods have significantly improved the diagnosis of viral pneumonia in intensive care units (ICUs). It has been observed that 222G/N changes in the HA gene of H1N1pdm09 are associated with increased lower respiratory tract (LRT) replication and worse clinical outcome. In the present study, the frequency of respiratory viruses was assessed in respiratory samples from 88 patients admitted to 16 ICUs during the 2014-2015 winter-spring season in Lombardy. Sixty-nine out of 88 (78.4%) patients were positive for a respiratory viral infection at admission...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580865/the-association-between-environmental-tobacco-smoke-exposure-and-childhood-respiratory-disease-a-review
#18
A Vanker, R P Gie, H J Zar
Childhood respiratory illness is a major cause of morbidity and mortality particularly in low and middle-income countries. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is a recognised risk factor for both acute and chronic respiratory illness. Areas covered: The aim of this paper was to review the epidemiology of ETS exposure and impact on respiratory health in children. We conducted a search of 3 electronic databases of publications on ETS and childhood respiratory illness from 1990-2015. Key findings were that up to 70% of children are exposed to ETS globally, but under-reporting may mask the true prevalence...
June 14, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578751/25-hydroxyvitamin-d-supplementation-and-health-service-utilization-for-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-in-young-children
#19
Jessica A Omand, Teresa To, Deborah L O'Connor, Patricia C Parkin, Catherine S Birken, Kevin E Thorpe, Jonathon L Maguire
OBJECTIVE: Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) are the most common and costly condition of childhood. Low vitamin D levels have been hypothesized as a risk factor for URTI. The primary objective was to determine if serum vitamin D levels were associated with health-service utilization (HSU) for URTI including hospital admission, emergency department visits and outpatient sick visits. The secondary objectives were to determine whether oral vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy or childhood was associated with HSU for URTI...
June 5, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575372/addressing-the-analytic-challenges-of-cross-sectional-pediatric-pneumonia-etiology-data
#20
Laura L Hammitt, Daniel R Feikin, J Anthony G Scott, Scott L Zeger, David R Murdoch, Katherine L O'Brien, Maria Deloria Knoll
Despite tremendous advances in diagnostic laboratory technology, identifying the pathogen(s) causing pneumonia remains challenging because the infected lung tissue cannot usually be sampled for testing. Consequently, to obtain information about pneumonia etiology, clinicians and researchers test specimens distant to the site of infection. These tests may lack sensitivity (eg, blood culture, which is only positive in a small proportion of children with pneumonia) and/or specificity (eg, detection of pathogens in upper respiratory tract specimens, which may indicate asymptomatic carriage or a less severe syndrome, such as upper respiratory infection)...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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