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paediatric acute gastroenteritis

Sae Satish Pol, Ashwini Kacharu Dedwal, Sujata Sudhir Ranshing, Shobha Dattatray Chitambar, Sushma Narayan Pednekar, Renu Satish Bharadwaj
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea remains the second most common cause of death among children below 5 years globally. Among various enteric pathogens, rotavirus appears to be the most important aetiological agent of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. Increased understanding of epidemiology of rotavirus infections is needed to improve the vaccine efficacy. AIM: This study aims to determine prevalence rotavirus infection and prevalent circulating strains of rotavirus in and around Pune...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
T N Hoa-Tran, O Nakagomi, A T H Dao, A T Nguyen, C A Agbemabiese, H M Vu, T Nakagomi, N T H Thanh
Noroviruses, an important cause of diarrhoea in humans, are genetically diverse. The recent norovirus seasons recorded the emergence of new recombinants of the capsid and polymerase genotypes, with a global dominance of GII.Pe_GII.4 Sydney 2012 and GII.P17_GII.17 in Asian countries. However, the number of papers reporting the distribution of both polymerase and capsid genotypes circulating among children is scarce, with none from Vietnam. This study described both the polymerase and capsid genotypes of noroviruses circulating in Vietnamese children using stool specimens obtained under the World Health Organization rotavirus surveillance programme from 2012 to 2015...
January 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Daniel Cromb, Chris Carter, Claire Lemer, C Ronny Cheung
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to review whether implementation of increased duration of consultant presence is associated with reduction in length of hospital stay (LoS) in children with an unplanned admission to hospital. METHOD DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/INTERVENTIONS/OUTCOME MEASURES: An observational before-and-after study of all unplanned general paediatric admissions to a UK hospital between 1 September 2012 and 31 August 2015, comparing LoS and readmission rates before and after implementation of a policy mandating consultant review within 12 hours of unplanned hospital admission...
December 16, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
M S Tan, E J Teoh, C P Hor, A A C Yeoh
INTRODUCTION: Children who develop any hypersensitivity reaction to eggs are routinely referred to hospital for Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccination as inpatients to prevent anaphylaxis. We aimed to study the association between hypersensitivity reactions after egg exposure and similar reactions after MMR immunisation; and examine the necessity of hospital admission for vaccination. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in Paediatric Department in Bukit Mertajam Hospital, Penang, between March and December 2014...
August 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
J Arístegui, J Ferrer, I Salamanca, E Garrote, A Partidas, M San-Martin, B San-Jose
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is acknowledged as an important cause of paediatric gastroenteritis worldwide. In Spain, comprehensive data on the burden of rotavirus disease was lacking. METHODS: A prospective, multicenter, observational study was carried out, during the winter season, from October to April 2014 in selected areas of Spain (Catalonia, Basque Country, Andalusia) to estimate the frequency and characteristics of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in children ≤3 years of age seeking medical care in primary care and emergency department centres...
October 10, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sheetal Gupta, Ghanshyam Singh Sengar, Praveen K Meti, Anil Lahoti, Mukesh Beniwal, Murlidhar Kumawat
OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence, risk factors, and outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI) in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective, observational study conducted in PICU of Department of Paediatrics, S.P. Medical College, Bikaner, from October 2013 to May 2014. In this study, 536 patients of aged 29 days to 16 years were screened for AKI according to the Pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage Renal Disease (pRIFLE) criteria...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
César García Vera, María García Ventura, Guadalupe Del Castillo Aguas, Begoña Domínguez Aurrecoechea, María Jesús Esparza Olcina, Ana Martínez Rubio, José María Mengual Gil
OBJECTIVE: To determine the main clinical and epidemiological features of bacterial gastroenteritis in our environment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An observational study of a Spanish population in 17 Autonomous Communities. Questionnaires of children with a stool positive culture to bacteria were collected over a one year period. A bivariate analysis was performed on the variables involved, as well as two multivariate models (for antibiotic treatment variables, and comparison Campylobacter/Salmonella)...
September 26, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Shaza O H Kanan, Mohammed Osman Swar
This is a retrospective observational hospital-based study aimed to determine the prevalence and outcome of severe acute malnutrition in children less than five years admitted to Omdurman Paediatric Hospital during the period January 2014 to December 2014. Data was collected from patient's hospital records during the study period. Ethical approval and permission to access patients' record were obtained. A total of 593 children with severe malnutrition were identified; 305 of cases were male (51.4%) with a male: female ratio of 1:0...
2016: Sudanese Journal of Paediatrics
A Nor Azizah, M N Fadzilah, M Mariam, Z A Anis Siham, A Ariza, M N Noor Shafina, A Anita Kaur
INTRODUCTION: bacteremia continues to be one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality despite the existence of numerous antimicrobial agents. this study aimed to provide a Malaysian perspective on paediatric community-acquired bacteraemia based on the documentation of epidemiology and antimicrobial profile of the isolated pathogens. METHOD: A retrospective study was conducted by analysing clinical details, blood cultures and antimicrobial susceptibility testing results in children between the ages of 0 to 13 years old, who were admitted to selayang Hospital over an 11-year period from 2001 until 2011...
June 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
S K Gupta, B K Sarmah, D Tiwari, S Thapa
INTRODUCTION: An understanding of the epidemiological trend in hospital admissions, including morbidity and mortality patterns and the economic impact, is critical for healthcare planning and appropriate resource allocation. As we find very few literature on the pattern of paediatric admissions outside Kathmandu Valley, it is essential to conduct studies in the various parts of the country to determine the paediatric inpatient burden as well resource allocations. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out at Department of Pediatrics, College of Medical Sciences-Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal over a period of one year...
April 2015: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
Fidele Ngabo, Jacqueline E Tate, Maurice Gatera, Celse Rugambwa, Philippe Donnen, Philippe Lepage, Jason M Mwenda, Agnes Binagwaho, Umesh D Parashar
BACKGROUND: In May, 2012, Rwanda became the first low-income African country to introduce pentavalent rotavirus vaccine into its routine national immunisation programme. Although the potential health benefits of rotavirus vaccination are huge in low-income African countries that account for more than half the global deaths from rotavirus, concerns remain about the performance of oral rotavirus vaccines in these challenging settings. METHODS: We conducted a time-series analysis to examine trends in admissions to hospital for non-bloody diarrhoea in children younger than 5 years in Rwanda between Jan 1, 2009, and Dec 31, 2014, using monthly discharge data from the Health Management Information System...
February 2016: Lancet Global Health
Jacek Karas, Shai Ashkenazi, Alfredo Guarino, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Raanan Shamir, Yvan Vandenplas, Hania Szajewska
AIM: The Working Group on Acute Diarrhoea, part of The Consensus Group on Outcome Measures Made in Paediatric Enteral Nutrition Clinical Trials, previously developed a core outcome set for clinical trials on acute diarrhoea. This study aimed to create a core outcome measurement set to complement it. METHODS: The study had three phases. The first identified how the literature defined core outcome measures in clinical trials on acute diarrhoea and measured outcomes...
April 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Naila Azam, Uzma Hassan, Ayesha Farooq
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of intervention by education of doctors in improving the referral rate and quality in a public-sector healthcare setting. METHODS: The quasi-experimental study was conducted from March to September 2012 at PNS Rahat Hospital in naval sailors' residential estate, Karsaz, Karachi. Two awareness sessions were held three months apart by a gynaecologist and a paediatrician. The sessions were aimed at communicating the consultant practice to female general practitioners employed at the two family welfare centres...
February 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Heinrich Vinz, Markward von Bülow, Johann Neu
From 2000 to 2012, 447 panel proceedings concerning acute appendicitis were evaluated. 271 cases (57 %) were related to alleged diagnostic malpractice. This was confirmed in 176 cases (67 %). The following medical specialities were involved (m = quote of malpractice): general surgery 33 %, m = 51 %; paediatric surgery 3 %, m = 44 %; general practitioner and prehospital emergency services 24 %, m = 62 %; internal medicine 19 %, m = 70 %; paediatrics 13 %, m = 57 %; gynaecology 3 %, m = 91 %; urology 2 %, m = 17 %...
2015: Zeitschrift Für Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualität Im Gesundheitswesen
Juan Diego Toledo, Carlos Morell, Maximo Vento
AIM: Using hypotonic intravenous solutions for baseline fluid needs in paediatric patients on a nil by mouth diet may cause serious complications, including hyponatraemia, cerebral oedema and even death. We analysed the evolution of natraemia and explored any adverse effects on children treated with intravenous isotonic fluids. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 50 patients consecutively admitted to a general paediatric ward who were treated with isotonic intravenous fluids and on a nil by mouth diet...
June 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Joana Ribeiro, Delfim Ferreira, Célia Arrabalde, Sandra Almeida, Inês Baldaque, Hugo Sousa
AIM: To characterize the prevalence of rotavirus (RV) and adenovirus (AdV) infections in immunocompromised patients with acute gastroenteritis. METHODS: The presence of RV and AdV (serotypes 40 and 41) was evaluated in 509 stool samples obtained between January 2009 and December 2010 from 200 immunocompromised patients (83 females and 117 males; median age 21 years old, range 0-72. The diagnosis of infection was performed as a routine procedure and the presence of RV and AdV (serotypes 40 and 41) was determined by immunochromatography using the RIDA(®) Quick Rota-Adeno-Kombi kit (r-Biopharm, Darmstadt, Germany)...
November 12, 2015: World Journal of Virology
M S Soltani, A Ben Salah, I Bouanene, A Trabelsi, M T Sfar, A Harbi, M N Gueddiche, E Ben Farhat
Data on the economic burden of rotavirus infection in Tunisia are needed to inform the decision to include rotavirus in routine childhood immunizations. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological profile of rotavirus disease in central-east Tunisia and to estimate its hospital cost. In the first stage - the prospective collection of epidemiological data - we enrolled all patients < 5 years old who were hospitalized for acute diarrhoea at 5 university paediatric departments in central-east Tunisia during the period 2009-2011...
September 28, 2015: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
G La Rosa, S Della Libera, S Petricca, M Iaconelli, D Donia, P Saccucci, F Cenko, G Xhelilaj, M Divizia
The objectives of the present study were to assess the occurrence of human adenoviruses (HAdVs) in paediatric patients with gastroenteritis in Albania and to characterize HAdV strains. Faecal specimens from children admitted with acute gastroenteritis to the Paediatric Hospital in Tirana were screened for HAdV, using broad-range primers targeting the hexon gene, in combination with species-specific primers targeting the fiber gene. Phylogenetic analysis was then performed to assess the genetic relationships among the different sequences and between the sequences of the samples and those of the prototype strains...
2015: BioMed Research International
Ashvini Shekhar, Rasika Hendahewa, Gamini Premaratne
INTRODUCTION: Intestinal malrotation is a congenital rotational anomaly that occurs as a result of an arrest of normal rotation of the embryonic gut, said to occur in 1 in 6000 live births. Due to the abnormal caecal and appendix position, diagnosis of acute appendicitis becomes more challenging, thus leading to diagnostic and operative intervention delays. Our aim is to highlight the diagnostic challenges in this clinical scenario. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We present a case of a 10 year old boy with previously undiagnosed intestinal malrotation with a left sided acute appendicitis...
2015: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Robin Marlow, Adam Finn, Caroline Trotter
AIMS: Rotavirus vaccines (RV) are safe and effective but demand significant investment of healthcare resource. In countries with low mortality due to rotavirus, a key component to assessing cost-effectiveness is quantifying the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) lost due to rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (RVAGE). METHODS: Families with children less than six years old with gastroenteritis were recruited from attendees to Bristol Children's Hospital Emergency Department...
September 22, 2015: Vaccine
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